S??? nh???m t?????ng v??? c??c nh?? k??? tr??? Trung Qu???c

Chủ nhật - 07/07/2019 05:36
Nhi???u ngh??? vi???n ph????ng T??y c?? s??? ????ng th??nh vi??n l?? nh???ng ng?????i c?? b???ng lu???t, nh??ng h???u h???t c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c l???i th?????ng ???????c ????o t???o l??m k??? s?? v?? nh?? khoa h???c, hay c??c ng??nh t????ng t???. Nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ph????ng ph??p ???????c cho l?? ?????c tr??ng n??y c???a Trung Qu???c, ch???ng h???n nh?? doanh nh??n Elon Musk
S??? nh???m t?????ng v??? c??c nh?? k??? tr??? Trung Qu???c


S??? nh???m t?????ng v??? c??c nh?? k??? tr??? Trung Qu???c

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Ngu???n: James Palmer, ???China???s Overrated Technocrats???, Foreign Policy, 04/07/2019.

Bi??n d???ch: Phan Nguy??n

B???c Kinh n???i ti???ng v???i vi???c ????a c??c k??? s?? v?? nh?? khoa h???c l??n l??m l??nh ?????o. Nh??ng ??i???u ???? kh??ng t???o ra c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o t???t h??n.

Nhi???u ngh??? vi???n ph????ng T??y c?? s??? ????ng th??nh vi??n l?? nh???ng ng?????i c?? b???ng lu???t, nh??ng h???u h???t c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c l???i th?????ng ???????c ????o t???o l??m k??? s?? v?? nh?? khoa h???c, hay c??c ng??nh t????ng t???. Nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ph????ng ph??p ???????c cho l?? ?????c tr??ng n??y c???a Trung Qu???c, ch???ng h???n nh?? doanh nh??n Elon Musk, cho r???ng n?? t???o ra c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o bi???t ??p d???ng m???t c??ch ti???p c???n th???c d???ng v?? thi??n v??? k??? thu???t ????? gi???i quy???t c??c v???n ?????. V?? theo l?? thuy???t tr??n, c??c khoa h???c-ch??nh tr??? gia n??y c?? nhi???u kh??? n??ng s??? cai tr??? hi???u qu???, m???t ph???n v?? h??? kh??ng ch???u g??nh n???ng ?? th???c h???.

Nh??ng nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? c??ch  ti???p c???n ???????c cho l?? k??? tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c kh??ng ch??? sai v??? l?? l???ch c???a gi???i l??nh ?????o hi???n t???i c???a B???c Kinh. H??? c??n b??? nh???m l???n c?? b???n v??? c??ch n???n t???ng ????o t???o, h???c v???n h??nh th??nh ch??nh s??ch. C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c ng??y nay, bao g???m c??? Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh, ???? ???????c ?????nh h??nh ch??? y???u kh??ng ph???i b???i n???n t???ng gi??o d???c c???a h??? v?? ph???n l???n l?? b???i nhu c???u c???ng c??? quy???n ki???m so??t v?? gi??nh ??u th??? trong c??c cu???c ?????u tranh quy???n l???c n???i b??? t??n b???o c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c.

????ng l?? m???t th??? h??? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c?? g???c k??? s?? ???? t???ng th???ng tr??? ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c. Nh??ng gi??? ????y h??? ???? ngh??? h??u, ???? ch???t ho???c ??ang ng???i t??. D??n l??nh ?????o hi???n nay ??ang ?????c bi???t thi???u c??c k??? s??; ??ng T???p l?? th??nh vi??n duy nh???t c???a Th?????ng v??? B??? Ch??nh tr??? g???m b???y ng?????i c?? b???ng k??? s?? ho???c khoa h???c t??? nhi??n. ??i???u ???? ph?? h???p v???i xu h?????ng chung: Trong s??? c??c quan ch???c c???p cao sinh tr?????c n??m 1948, t???c nh??m chi???m ??a s??? trong d??n l??nh ?????o tr?????c th??? h??? hi???n t???i, c?? kho???ng m???t ph???n ba l?? c?? b???ng k??? s??. Nh??ng ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i sinh sau n??m 1948, bao g???m c??? nh???ng ng?????i ???????c g???i l?? ???th??? h??? l??nh ?????o th??? n??m???, th?? c??? 7 ng?????i m???i c?? 1 ng?????i ???????c ????o t???o l??m k??? s??. T??? l??? n??y ti???p t???c gi???m; nh???ng ng?????i c?? g???c lu???t ho???c kinh t??? ???? tr??? n??n ph??? bi???n h??n nhi???u.

Chuy??n ng??nh h???c v???n ??t quan tr???ng h??n h???u h???t nh???ng g?? c??c nh?? quan s??t ngh??. Trung Qu???c kh??ng gi???ng nh?? ph????ng T??y, n??i c?? b???ng gi???i v??? lu???t ho???c kinh t??? th?????ng d???n ?????n m???t s??? nghi???p th??nh c??ng, qua ???? m??? ???????ng cho h??? b?????c v??o ch??nh tr???, ch???ng h???n nh?? c???u T???ng th???ng Hoa K??? Bill Clinton t???ng d???y lu???t, ho???c Th??? tr?????ng London Sadiq Khan t???ng l??m trong l??nh v???c nh??n quy???n. ?????i v???i m???t s??? quan ch???c Trung Qu???c, vi???c ??i h???c c???a h??? th?????ng l?? v???i v??ng cho c??, v?? r???t hi???m khi ???????c chuy???n th??nh kinh nghi???m l??m vi???c th???c t???. Nh?? gi??o s?? ?????i h???c Carnegie Mellon Vivek Wadhwa v?? nh???ng ng?????i kh??c ???? ch???ng minh, ch???t l?????ng gi??o d???c c??c ng??nh k??? thu???t ??? Trung Qu???c, ?????c bi???t l?? tr?????c n??m 2010, th???p h??n ti??u chu???n qu???c t??? r???t nhi???u. Nhi???u b???ng k??? s?? s??? h???u nh?? kh??ng ????? ti??u chu???n ????? so s??nh v???i c??c ch???ng ch??? k??? thu???t t???i Hoa K???.

M???c d?? ??ng T???p t???t nghi???p ?????i h???c chuy??n ng??nh k??? s?? h??a t???i ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa n??m 1979, nh??ng ch????ng tr??nh h???c t???p c???a ??ng ch???a m???t l?????ng l???n c??c kh??a h???c v??? ch??? ngh??a M??c h??n l?? c??c kh??a h???c v??? k??? thu???t, nh?? th?????ng th???y ??? giai ??o???n cu???i C??ch m???ng V??n h??a. V?? ??ng T???p kh??ng bao gi??? l??m vi???c nh?? m???t k??? s??. L?? con trai c???a T???p Tr???ng Hu??n, m???t trong nh???ng ng?????i s??ng l???p n?????c C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa, c??ng vi???c ?????u ti??n c???a ??ng khi ra tr?????ng l?? l??m th?? k?? ri??ng cho m???t quan ch???c ch??nh ph??? c???p cao, l?? b???n c???a cha c???a ??ng, C???nh Bi???u (Geng Biao). Gi???ng nh?? nhi???u ng?????i ???????c g???i l?? ???th??i t??? ?????ng??? kh??c, T???p nhanh ch??ng ???????c th??ng ti???n tr??n n???c thang quy???n l???c, v?? s??? nghi???p c???a ??ng ta ho??n to??n n???m trong ng???ch c??ng ch???c.

M???t qu??? ?????o t????ng t??? c??ng ???????c ??p d???ng v???i b???n th??nh vi??n kh??c c???a th?????ng v??? B??? Ch??nh tr???, m???i ng?????i trong s??? h??? ?????u l??m c??ng ch???c ho???c l??nh ?????o ?????ng ngay t??? khi m???i t???t nghi???p ?????i h???c ng??nh ch??nh tr??? ho???c kinh t???. Hai tr?????ng h???p ngo???i l??? l?? L?? Kh???c C?????ng (Li Keqiang), m???t nh?? kinh t??? h???c n???i ti???ng v?? v??? m???t l?? thuy???t l?? nh??n v???t th??? hai c???a Trung Qu???c, v?? chi???n l?????c gia v??? t?? t?????ng v?? gi??o s?? lu???t h???c V????ng H??? Ninh (Wang Huning).

?? t?????ng cho r???ng Trung Qu???c ???????c cai tr??? b???i m???t t???ng l???p quan l???i c?? h???c th???c g???i l???i th???i k??? vinh quang h???i th??? k??? 18 c???a Trung Qu???c d?????i tri???u nh?? Thanh. Nh???ng ??i???m ??u vi???t c???a h??? th???ng thi c???, ???????c cho l?? gi??p ????? b???t nh???ng ng?????i gi???i giang v?? c?? h???c, ???? ???????c ???ng h??? b???i nh???ng nh??n v???t nh?? Voltaire v???n ??ang t??m ki???m m???t ph????ng th???c ????? ????nh b???i x?? h???i c???a ch??nh m??nh. Trong khi m?? h??nh khoa b???ng ch???c ch???n c?? gi?? tr??? c???a n??, ph???n l???n vi???c b??? nhi???m v??o c??c v??? tr?? quan l???i th???i ????, nh?? c??c nghi??n c???u g???n ????y ???? ch??? ra, l?? k???t qu??? c???a ?? d?? quan h??? ho???c n???n h???i l???.

Vi???c nh???ng ng?????i b??n ngo??i c??? kh??ng kh??ng coi n???n k??? tr??? d???a tr??n n??ng l???c v?? phi ch??nh tr??? trong gi???i l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c, d???a tr??n c??c b???ng c???p h??? c?? t??? m???y th???p ni??n tr?????c, ti???t l??? v??? nh???ng t?????ng t?????ng c???a ph????ng T??y v??? Trung Qu???c nhi???u h??n l?? v??? ch??nh n???n ch??nh tr??? ??? B???c Kinh. Tr??n th???c t???, cu???c ?????u tranh gi??nh quy???n l???c trong ?????ng C???ng s???n r???t kh???c li???t v?? d??? d???i, nh?? s??? v??? t??? t??? v?? c??c b???n ??n chung th??n ???????c tuy??n trong cu???c thanh tr???ng c???a T???p c??ng nh?? t??nh tr???ng tham nh??ng tr??n lan c???a c??c nh??n v???t nh?? nh?? l??nh ?????o ng?? ng???a B???c Hi Lai (Bo Xilai) ???? cho th???y. V?? ???? m???i ch??? l?? m???t ph???n nh??? m?? ng?????i ngo??i c?? th??? nh??n th???y: Ch??? c???n m??? c???a s??? ra th??m ch??t n???a th??i m??u c??ng ???? ch???y tr??n ra.

C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c v???n l??m m???i th??? c?? th??? ????? th??c ?????y b??? m???t ch??? ????? nh??n t??i. Tr??n gi???y t???, h??? v???n l?? m???t nh??m c?? tr??nh ????? h???c v???n cao: T???p c?? b???ng ti???n s?? lu???t t??? ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa n??m 2002, trong khi Tr???n To??n Qu???c (Chen Quanguo), ki???n ??????tr??c s?? c???a ch????ng tr??nh tr???i c???i t???o T??n C????ng, nh???n b???ng ti???n s?? qu???n l?? t??? ?????i h???c C??ng ngh??? V?? H??n n??m 2004. Nh??ng b???ng c???p cao l???i ??t g??y ???n t?????ng trong th???c t???. Ngo??i L?? v?? V????ng, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o h??ng ?????u ?????u ch??? y???u c?? ???????c b???ng c???p th??ng qua c??c kh??a h???c t???i ch???c v?? c??c quan ch???c ?????u l??m vi???c to??n th???i gian, g???n nh?? kh??ng th??? ????? th???i gian ????? h???c h??nh ????ng ho??ng, ??i???u ?????t ra c??u h???i l?? ai ???? th???c s??? gi??p h??? l??m c??ng vi???c h???c h??nh.

Trong nh???ng tr?????ng h???p hi???m hoi khi c??c ph??ng vi??n c?? th??? t???n m???t ???????c ?????c lu???n v??n c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o, h??? ???? ph??t hi???n t??nh tr???ng ?????o v??n tr??n lan. Trong m???t s??? tr?????ng h???p, vi???c vi???t c??c lu???n v??n n??y ???? ???????c g???i g???m cho c??c sinh vi??n t???i c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c h??ng ?????u B???c Kinh v???i m???t kho???n ph??. C?? v??? k??? l??? l?? nh???ng b???ng c???p n??y l?? ???gi?????? ch??? kh??ng ph???i ???????c trao d?????i d???ng b???ng danh d???, nh??ng c?? m???t ?????ng l???c ?? th???c h??? ?????ng sau s??? gi??? v??? tin r???ng c??c l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c l?? c??c h???c gi??? ????ng ho??ng. Quan ni???m cho r???ng khoa h???c c?? vai tr?? quan tr???ng c?? s???c n???ng ?????c bi???t trong v??n h??a Trung Qu???c, m???t ph???n nh??? v??o ni???m tin c???a nh???ng nh?? canh t??n ?????u th??? k??? 20 cho r???ng khoa h???c l?? l???i tho??t cho s??? l???c h???u c???a ?????t n?????c. Tr??? n??n khoa h???c (kexue) trong nh???ng n??m 1920 ch??nh l?? tr??? n??n hi???n ?????i, ti??n ti???n v?? ch??nh x??c.

?????a v??? c???a khoa h???c (t??? nhi??n) ng??y c??ng ???????c n??ng cao v???i vi???c th??nh l???p n?????c C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa. Ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n khoa h???c ??? ni???m tin r???ng ch??? ngh??a M??c l?? m???t m??n h???c ch??nh x??c v?? kh??ch quan nh?? to??n h???c ??? l?? m???t trong nh???ng n???n t???ng c???a h??? t?? t?????ng ?????ng.

M???c d?? th??? h??? l??nh ?????o tr?????c T???p c?? kinh nghi???m k??? thu???t th???c t??? h??n nhi???u v?? th?????ng l??m c??c c??ng vi???c trong vai tr?? k??? s?? tr?????c khi tr??? th??nh quan ch???c, nh??ng nh???ng b???ng c???p ???? kh??ng ?????m b???o m???t s??? l??nh ?????o li??m ch??nh, k??? tr??? nh?? ng?????i ph????ng T??y v???n ngh??. Chu V??nh Khang, m???t trong nh???ng n???n nh??n cao c???p nh???t trong cu???c thanh tr???ng c???a T???p, kh??ng ch??? l??m vi???c nh?? m???t nh?? ?????a ch???t m?? v???n gi??? m???t ch??n trong l??nh v???c n??y trong su???t th???i gian ??ng l??m quan ch???c, v???n l??nh ?????o c??c ??o??n nghi??n c???u th???c ?????a v??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1990. Nh??ng thay v?? l?? m???t nh?? k??? tr??? trung l???p, ??ng l???i l?? m???t trong nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o t?? t?????ng quy???t li???t nh???t nh???ng n??m 2000 v?? ?????u nh???ng n??m 2010, th???t ch???t s??? ki???m so??t x?? h???i th??ng qua vai tr?? nh?? l?? m???t ??ng tr??m an ninh n???i ?????a, ?????ng th???i s??? d???ng quy???n l???c ????? t??ch l??y kh???i l?????ng t??i s???n kh???ng l??? v?? v??i ch???c t??nh nh??n.

Ngay c??? ?????i v???i nh???ng th??nh vi??n th???t th?? h??n trong ban l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c, m???t n???n t???ng k??? thu???t c??ng kh??ng nh???t thi???t ph???i ??i k??m s??? th???c d???ng. Nh?? c??c nh?? x?? h???i h???c Diego Gambetta v?? Steffen Hertog ???? l???p lu???n trong nghi??n c???u c???a h??? v??? l?? l???ch c???a nh???ng k??? ????nh bom t??? s??t, c??c k??? s?? l???n l??n v???i m???t ?? th???c h??? m???nh m???, cho d?? ???? l?? ch??? ngh??a H???i gi??o hay ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n, c?? th??? n???m trong s??? nh???ng nh?? t?? t?????ng c???ng nh???c nh???t. N???n t???ng k??? thu???t l?? ???h???p d???n h??n ?????i v???i c??c c?? nh??n t??m ki???m s??? kh???ng ?????nh ki???n th???c v?? c??c c??u tr??? l???i r?? r??ng, kh??c v???i c??c ng??nh khoa h???c theo h?????ng m??? h??n???, Gambetta v?? Hertog vi???t. V?? n???n t???ng ????o t???o ???? d?????ng nh?? khuy???n kh??ch ?? t?????ng v??? m???t ???h???p c??ng c?????? c?? th??? ??p d???ng cho b???t k??? v???n ????? n??o, ch???ng h???n nh?? vi???c ??p d???ng c??c ?? t?????ng M??c x??t v??o x?? h???i, t???o ra s??? t??n b???o c???ng nh???c th???i k??? Mao-??t, v?? nghi???n n??t nh???ng ng?????i b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n ??????d?????i th???i c???a T???p nh???ng n??m 2010.

Th??? h??? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c hi???n nay c??ng tin t?????ng v??o kh??? n??ng ???ng d???ng r???ng r??i c???a k??? thu???t; c??c d??? ??n x??y ?????p v?? ???????ng s???t kh???ng l??? c???a B???c Kinh minh ch???ng cho ??i???u n??y theo ngh??a ??en. Nh??ng gi???i l??nh ?????o c??ng l?? nh???ng ???k??? s?? x?? h???i???, k???t h???p s??? s??? h??i v???i tuy??n truy???n nh???m th???t ch???t ki???m so??t x?? h???i.

Di s???n th???c s??? c???a s??? s??ng b??i khoa h???c c???a Trung Qu???c ch??nh l?? V???n l?? H???a th??nh (Great Firewall), m???t d??? ??n k??? thu???t kh???ng l??? nh???m ng??n ch???n truy c???p internet t??? do v?? ???????c thi???t k??? ????? si???t ch???t ki???m so??t x?? h???i v?? ch??nh tr??? ?????i v???i c??ng ch??ng. N???u T???p l?? m???t k??? s??, ??ng ta ch??nh l?? d???ng k??? s?? m?? Joseph Stalin t???ng khuy??n c??c nh?? th?? n??n l??m: ???k??? s?? t??m h???n???.

James Palmer l?? bi??n t???p vi??n cao c???p c???a t???p ch?? Foreign Policy.
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