Quan h??? M??ng C??? ??? Nh???t B???n v?? vai tr?? c???a Li??n X??

Thứ bảy - 06/07/2019 21:19
N??m 1968, v???i kh???u hi???u ???s??? ch???m d???t chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam???, Richard Nixon tr??? th??nh T???ng th???ng Hoa K???. Nh??ng s??? l??y lan c???a cu???c chi???n ???? tr??? n??n tr???m tr???ng v?? ??i???u tr??? n?? gi???ng nh?? ph???i ??i???u tr??? c??n b???nh ung th??. Ti???n s??? Henry Kissinger ???????c m???i l??m C??? v???n An ninh qu???c gia
Quan h??? M??ng C??? ??? Nh???t B???n v?? vai tr?? c???a Li??n X??

Quan h??? M??ng C??? ??? Nh???t B???n v?? vai tr?? c???a Li??n X??

Bi??n d???ch: Ho??ng Tu???n Th???nh
N??m 1968, v???i kh???u hi???u ???s??? ch???m d???t chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam???, Richard Nixon tr??? th??nh T???ng th???ng Hoa K???. Nh??ng s??? l??y lan c???a cu???c chi???n ???? tr??? n??n tr???m tr???ng v?? ??i???u tr??? n?? gi???ng nh?? ph???i ??i???u tr??? c??n b???nh ung th??. Ti???n s??? Henry Kissinger ???????c m???i l??m C??? v???n An ninh qu???c gia. Hai ch??nh tr??? gia n??y tr??? th??nh nh???ng ng?????i ??i???u ch???nh l???n trong b???i c???nh quan h??? qu???c t??? ph???c t???p v?? nh???y c???m. ????? ch???m d???t chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam, h??? ???? s??? d???ng chi???n thu???t th??ch h???p v???i hai c?????ng qu???c c???ng s???n (Li??n X?? v?? Trung Qu???c), ch??? d???a c???a cu???c chi???n. ??i???u kh?? th?? v??? l?? hai c?????ng qu???c n??y l???i bi???n Hoa K??? tr??? th??nh ?????ng minh c???a m??nh ????? ch???ng l???i nhau.
N??m 1971, s??? ki???n ch???n ?????ng kh??ng ai ngh?? t???i ???? x???y ra, Nixon b???t ng??? th??m Trung Qu???c v?? g???p g??? Mao. N??m sau, Nixon ?????n th??m Moskva, ti???n h??nh ????m ph??n v???n ????? h???n ch??? v?? kh?? chi???n l?????c v???i Li??n X??, hai b??n ???? k?? t???t SALT -1. N??m 1973 th???c s??? l?? Nixon ???? ch???m d???t chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam b???ng Hi???p ?????nh H??a b??nh Paris.
T???i ????ng ??, Th??? t?????ng Nh???t B???n Tanaka Kakuei l?? ng?????i ch??i c??ng phe v???i Nixon. Sau Nixon, Th??? t?????ng Tanaka c??ng sang th??m Trung Qu???c, g???p Mao v?? Chu ??n Lai, ti???n h??nh b?????c ??i quan tr???ng trong vi???c b??nh th?????ng h??a quan h??? hai n?????c. ??ng ???? th???c hi???n nhi???m v??? to l???n ?????i v???i vi???c kh??i ph???c danh d??? cho Nh???t B???n, qu???c gia b??? t???n th????ng n???ng n??? v?? l?? k??? b???i tr???n trong Th??? chi???n II. Sau chi???n tranh, Nh???t B???n c?? quan h??? l???nh nh???t v???i c??c qu???c gia l??ng gi???ng c???a m??nh v?? tr??? n??n ????n ?????c trong khu v???c. Theo ch??n Nixon, Th??? th?????ng Tanaka c??ng sang th??m Li??n X??; th??m c??c qu???c gia ????ng Nam ?? v?? th??n thi???n v???i Indonesia; thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i ????ng ?????c v?? M??ng C??? trong n??m 1972 v?? v???i Vi???t Nam trong n??m 1973.
N???u chi???m ???????c M??ng C??? s??? chi???m ???????c th??? gi???i
???B???n ghi nh??? Tanaka??? l?? v??n b???n gi??? m???o nh??ng l???i tr??? n??n n???i ti???ng nh???t v?? c?? s???c s???ng b???n v???ng nhi???u n??m trong l???ch s???; tr??? th??nh v?? kh?? h??ng h???n tr??n m???t tr???n t?? t?????ng gi???a c??c n?????c. Ng?????i ta loan tin ng?????i Nh???t B???n ???? t??m th???y k??? ho???ch tuy???t m???t nh???m th???ng tr??? th??? gi???i do Th??? t?????ng Nh???t B???n th??? 16 Tanaka Giichi so???n th???o n??m 1927 v?? ???? ???????c ????? tr??nh l??n Nh???t ho??ng Hirohito. M???t t??? b??o c???a Qu???c d??n ?????ng t???i Nam Kinh l???n ?????u ti??n ???? ti???t l??? c??i g???i l?? k??? ho???ch m???t n??y. N???i dung ch??nh c???a k??? ho???ch n??y bao g???m:
??? ????? chi???m Trung Qu???c, tr?????c ti??n ng?????i Nh???t ph???i chi???m M??n Ch??u v?? M??ng C???;
??? ????? chi???m th??? gi???i, tr?????c ti??n ph???i chi???m Trung Qu???c;
??? N???u nh?? chi???m ???????c Trung Qu???c th?? c??c n?????c Nam ??, ???n ?????, ch??u ??- Th??i B??nh D????ng s??? s??? h??i Nh???t B???n v?? d???n d???n ph???i quy ph???c;
??? ????ng ?? c??? nh?? th??? r??i v??o tay Nh???t B???n, c??? th??? gi???i nh???n th???c ???????c ??i???u n??y v?? s??? c?? kh??ng c?? b???t k??? s??? ph???n ?????i n??o.
Ng?????i Nh???t B???n ???? ph???n b??c k??? ho???ch m???t n??y, cho r???ng ????y l?? v??n b???n gi??? m???o, nh??ng sau n??y m???i m???t s??? ki???n x???y ra l???i cho th???y B???n ghi nh??? Tanaka ???? tr??? th??nh hi???n th???c. C??c s??? ki???n nh??: cu???c xung ?????t ??? Mukden (s??? ki???n Ph???ng Thi??n) n??m 1931, Nh???t B???n chi???m M??n Ch??u n??m 1934, chi???n tranh Nh???t ??? Trung t??? n??m 1937, tr???n ????nh ??? s??ng Khalkh n??m 1939 (nay thu???c th??? tr???n Choibalsan, t???nh Dornod, M??ng C???), cu???c t???n c??ng b???t ng??? t???i Tr??n Ch??u C???ng n??m 1941??? ???? kh???ng ?????nh B???n ghi nh??? Tanaka.
Sau chi???n tranh, ng?????i ta ???? r??o ri???t t??m ki???m B???n ghi nh??? Tanaka ????? bu???c t???i Nh???t B???n t???i T??a ??n qu???c t??? nh??ng v???n kh??ng t??m th???y. Sau nhi???u n??m, ng?????i ta ???? bi???t ai ???? so???n ra v??n b???n gi??? m???o n??y. N??m 1995, m???i vi???c ???? r?? r??ng, ch??nh B??? D??n ???y N???i v??? Li??n X??[1] ???? ph??t t??n B???n ghi nh??? gi??? m???o n??y ????? t???o t??m l?? ch???ng Nh???t B???n ??? M??? v?? ch??u ??u c??ng nh?? t???o s??? th?? gh??t qu???c gia n??y t???i ch??u ??. R?? r??ng, trong su???t nhi???u n??m tr?????c khi bi???t ai l?? ch??? nh??n so???n th???o v??n b???n gi??? m???o n??y, th?? t??? sau chi???n tranh B???n ghi nh??? Tanaka v???n ???????c s??? d???ng nh?? m???t th??? v?? kh?? t?? t?????ng ch???ng l???i Nh???t B???n. Nhi???u n?????c ch??u ??, trong ???? c?? CHND Trung Hoa v?? M??ng C??? c??n ????a ???t??i li???u??? n??y v??o s??ch gi??o khoa c???a tr?????ng h???c, th???m ch?? c??n ???????c m???c ?????nh nh?? m???t kh??i ni???m ch???c ch???n trong m???t s??? s??ch l???ch s???. T???i M??ng C???, ???t??i li???u??? n??y v???n c?? gi?? tr??? cho t???i n??m 1990.
?????n s??ng Khalkh l?? chi???n th???ng
Th??? h??? m???i c???a M??ng C??? l???n l??n b???ng s??? gi??o d???c v??? long h???n th?? ?????i v???i Nh???t B???n. Nh??n chung, b???t k??? m???t x?? h???i ?????c ??o??n n??o c??ng c?? s??? l???a ch???n k??? th?? cho ri??ng m??nh v?? lu??n c?? m???t bi???n ph??p v???ng ch???c trong vi???c ?????nh ra thi???t ch??? c???a m??nh th??ng qua vi???c kh??ng ng???ng tuy??n truy???n m???nh m??? ch???ng l???i k??? th??.
Nhi???u quan ch???c ?????ng v?? nh?? n?????c M??ng C??? b??? li??n ?????i t???i s??? ki???n c?? quan h??? v???i Nh???t B???n, c??? th??? l?? v???i ?????c v??? Nh???t B???n khi???n m???y ngh??n ng?????i b??? ch???t oan. Th???c v???y, M??ng C??? kh??ng ng???ng ti???n h??nh m???nh m??? t?? t?????ng ch???ng Nh???t ????? kh???ng ?????nh c??i g???i l?? nguy c?? Nh???t B???n ??e d???a ?????n n???n ?????c l???p c???a ?????t n?????c.
Sau chi???n tranh, ???m??n qu?? t???ng??? 12 ngh??n t?? binh Nh???t c???a Stalin ???? g??p ph???n ????ng k??? trong c??ng cu???c ki???n thi???t M??ng C???. ?????c bi???t, t?? binh Nh???t tr??? th??nh l???c l?????ng lao ?????ng ch??? ch???t, tham gia v??o c??c c??ng tr??nh x??y d???ng ??? Ulan Bato. Ng?????i M??ng C??? coi t?? binh Nh???t nh?? nh???ng n?? l???, do h??? kh??ng c?? kinh nghi???m trong x??y d???ng c??ng tr??nh nh?? ???; cho r???ng t?? binh Nh???t ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m th??ch ????ng tr?????c nh???ng t???i l???i do h??? g??y ra. Ng?????i M??ng C??? c??n th?????ng xuy??n t??? ch???c nh???y m??a t???p th??? t???i gian ph??ng l???n c???a r???p chi???u phim ???????c x??y d???ng t???i qu???ng tr?????ng trung t??m Ulan Bato v?? ??i???u ????ng ch?? ?? l?? qu???c k??? c???a Nh???t B???n l???i ???????c v??? tr??n s??n nh???y c???a gian ph??ng l???n n??y.
H??ng n??m, vi???c t??? ch???c r???m r??? chi???n th???ng tr???n ????nh ??? s??ng Khalkh c??ng l?? m???t s??? ph?? di???n l???n ch???ng l???i Nh???t B???n. M???t m???t, ????y l?? b???n sao l??? k??? ni???m chi???n th???ng ph??t x??t ?????c ??? Li??n X??; m???t kh??c, l?? c?? s??? ????? t??ng th??m uy t??n cho Tsedenbal, ng?????i t???ng tham gia ch??? huy tr???n ????nh ??? s??ng Khalkh. Tuy nhi??n, qua ghi ch??p, h???i k?? v?? chuy???n tr?? v???i nh???ng ng?????i th??n c???a Tsedenbal cho th???y, nh???n th???c c???a Tsedenbal v??? nguy??n nh??n, s??? th???t l???ch s???, ?????a ch??nh tr??? c???a c??c c?????ng qu???c th???i b???y gi???, l???i ??ch c???a Nh???t B???n, Li??n X?? v?? Trung Qu???c ?????ng sau tr???n ????nh ??? s??ng Khalkh l???i r???t m??? nh???t. S??? th???c l?? Li??n X?? v?? Nh???t B???n kh??ng b??n n??o gi??nh ???????c chi???n th???ng ??? s??ng Khalkh, th??? nh??ng Tsedenbal v???n lu??n t??? tin v?? l??m sai l???ch s??? th???t, th??ng qua ph??t bi???u, tr??? l???i ph???ng v???n ch??nh th???c v?? b??i vi???t v???i m???c ????ch tuy??n truy???n. N??i ng???n g???n, Tsedenbal lu??n th??? hi???n s??? t??? tin ch???c ch???n v?? kh??ng h??? n??i d???i. Ni???m vui l???n nh???t trong cu???c ?????i c???a Tsedenbal l?? g???p g??? c??c t?????ng l??nh, s??? quan Li??n X??, n??i chuy???n v???i h??? r???t h??ng ph???n, trao t???ng hu??n, huy ch????ng cho h???, ?????c v?? tr??ch d???n c??c quy???n s??ch n??i v??? tr???n chi???n ??? s??ng Khalkh. Tsedenbal l?? m???t trong nh???ng nh?? tuy??n truy???n ???B???n ghi nh??? Tanaka??? v?? ?????i nh???t.
??ng anh Li??n X?? kh??ng th??ch ???nh?? m??y G??-bi???
N??m 1972, M??ng C??? v?? Nh???t B???n thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao, m??? ?????u cho s??? hi???u bi???t l???n nhau. Sau chi???n tranh, kh???p m???i n??i, kh??ng ai c?? th??? l???y b??n tay ????? che l???p ???????c s??? ph??t tri???n, th??nh t???u k??? thu???t v?? c??ng ngh??? c???a Nh???t B???n, c??i kim trong b???c l??u ng??y c??ng l??? ra.
Ban l??nh ?????o M??ng C??? ???? quan t??m vi???c ?????u ti??n l?? thi???t l???p quan h??? kinh t??? v???i Nh???t B???n. Tr?????c h???t, h??? ???? th???o lu???n vi???c ????? ngh??? Nh???t B???n c??ng khai th??c m??? than c???c Tavantolgoi, c?? tr??? l?????ng 7-8 t??? t???n. N???u khai th??c m??? l???n nh?? v???y, t???t nhi??n ban l??nh ?????o M??ng C??? ph???i h???i c??c ?????ng ch?? Li??n X??. Tsedenbal n??i s??? h???i Moskva v??? v???n ????? n??y. T??? Moskva, nh?? l??nh ?????o M??ng C??? ???? mang v??? n?????c s??? kh?????c t??? c???a Brezhnev: ???C??c ?????ng ch?? kh??ng ???????c chia s??? v???i m???t qu???c gia t?? b???n (??m ch??? Nh???t B???n) ngu???n d??? tr??? to l???n nh?? v???y m?? h??? th???ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a ??ang c?? k??? ho???ch s??? d???ng trong t????ng lai???. Th??? r???i, ?? t?????ng h???p t??c v???i ng?????i Nh???t ????? khai th??c m??? Tsagaansuvarga (?????c t??nh 250,4 tri???u t???n qu???ng, 1,6 tri???u t???n ?????ng, 66,1 t???n molipden v?? 11,2 t???n v??ng ??? ND) l???i ???????c th???o lu???n. Tr??? gi?? m??? ?????ng n??y ?????c t??nh kho???ng 2,3 t??? USD. V???n ????? n??y ph???i ???????c B??? Ch??nh tr??? th???o lu???n th??ng qua. ??ng ??. Dorj, em r??? c???a Tsedenbal, Th??? tr?????ng B??? Ngo???i th????ng th???i k??? ???? cho bi???t, Tsedenbal ???? k???ch li???t ph???n ?????i v?? m???ng l???i nh???ng ng?????i n??u ra ?? t?????ng n??y: ???2,3 t??? USD l?? t??i s???n c???a nh??n d??n M??ng C??? s??? ???????c bao ph??? b???ng nh???ng lo???i h??ng h??a xa x??? hay sao????
Th??? r???i, ?????c m?? h???p t??c v???i Nh???t B???n c??? gi???m d???n gi???m d???n cho t???i khi nh?? m??y ch??? bi???n l??ng d?? v?? l??ng l???c ???? ???????c x??y d???ng nh??? s??? vi???n tr??? c???a Nh???t B???n v???i t??n g???i ???G??-bi??? (th???c ch???t nh?? m??y ???????c x??y d???ng b???ng ti???n b???i th?????ng chi???n tranh c???a Nh???t B???n nh??ng n??p d?????i danh ngh??a vi???n tr??? kh??ng ho??n l???i, nay s???n ph???m l??ng d?? m???n c???a G??-bi n???m trong t???p 5 s???n ph???m h??ng ?????u c???a th??? gi???i ??? ND). Nh?? m??y ph???i th???c s??? tr??? th??nh bi???u t?????ng h???p t??c c???a hai n?????c. Nh??ng n??i g?? th?? n??i, d??? ??n n??y c??ng ph???i ???????c B??? Ch??nh tr??? th???o lu???n th??ng qua.
Ngay t??? ?????u, c??ng vi???c chu???n b??? x??y d???ng nh?? m??y, ????o t???o c??ng nh??n v?? chuy??n gia h???u nh?? b???t ?????u t??? con s??? kh??ng. C??c trang thi???t b??? ???????c cung c???p t??? Nh???t B???n ???? b??? th???t l???c m?? kh??ng r?? nguy??n nh??n. H??ng h??a v???n chuy???n t???i c???ng bi???n Nakhotka c???a Li??n X?? th?????ng b??? th???t l???c. N???u c?? ?????n n??i th?? c??ng b??? h?? h???ng kh?? n???ng kh??ng th??? s???a ch???a ???????c. ?????i s??? Nh???t B???n N. Tsuge khi nh??n th???y c??c trang thi???t b??? ????? x??y d???ng nh?? m??y b??? ph?? h???ng, ???? h??i h?????c n??i: ???T??i bi???t r?? ai ???? ???? ch??? ?? ph?? h???ng c??c trang thi???t b??? tr??n ???????ng v???n chuy???n, ch??? kh??ng ph???i t???i M??ng C??????.
D???u sao th?? nh?? m??y ???? v?????t qua nhi???u kh?? kh??n v?? ??i v??o s???n xu???t cho d?? r???t mu???n so v???i k??? ho???ch. Ngo??i ra, ng?????i Nh???t c??n trao t???ng cho M??ng C??? trang thi???t b??? n??ng nghi???p v?? y t??? qua C?? quan H???p t??c Qu???c t??? Nh???t B???n (JAICA).[2] ??i???u n??y khi???n c??c ?????ng ch?? Li??n X?? kh??ng h??i l??ng. ?????i s??? qu??n Li??n X?? t???i M??ng C??? th?????ng xuy??n c???nh b??o v???n ????? n??y ?????n B??? tr?????ng, Th??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao v?? c??c quan ch???c li??n quan kh??c c???a ?????ng NDCM M??ng C??? (nay l?? ?????ng Nh??n d??n M??ng C???). Nh???ng c??u khi???n tr??ch nh??: ???Nh???t B???n ??ang gi??p ????? c??c ?????ng ch?? v?? ??ang c??? th??m nh???p v??o M??ng C???. C??c ?????ng ch?? n??n bi???t, l??c ?????u ng?????i ta ch???t ?????t ng??n tay, r???i l?? c??nh tay c???a c??c ?????ng ch??. Nh???t B???n s??? c??? d???n d???n l??m nh?? th??? v?? v??i n??m sau, n???u kinh t??? c??ng b??? ch???c th???ng nh?? th??? th?? c??c ?????ng ch?? t??nh sao????.
Theo l???i m???i, Th??? tr?????ng B??? Ngo???i giao D. Yondon sang th??m Nh???t, tr?????c chuy???n th??m, Yondon ???????c Tsedenbal g???i ?????n giao nhi???m v??? l?? ch??? tham quan, kh??ng ???????c th???o lu???n b???t c??? v???n ????? g?? v??? h???p t??c kinh t??? v???i ng?????i Nh???t. Khi Yondon t???i Tokyo, ?????i s??? Li??n X?? t???i Nh???t B???n l?? D.S.Polyanski ???? ????ch th??n ?????n ?????i s??? quan M??ng C??? giao nhi???m v??? ph???i th???n tr???ng khi n??i v??? kinh t??? v???i ng?????i Nh???t. Khi ??o??n ?????i bi???u tr??? v??? Ulan Bato, c??n b??? ?????i s??? qu??n Li??n X?? t???i Ulan Bato ???? h???i r???t c???n k??? v??? ??o??n ???? g???p g??? nh???ng ai v?? th???o lu???n v??? nh???ng v???n ????? g??.
Sau khi nh?? m??y ???G??-bi??? ??i v??o ho???t ?????ng, c??c l??nh ?????o M??ng C??? ???? ti???p t???c ????a ra ????? ngh???, nh?? ti???n h??nh ????m ph??n th????ng m???i gi???a M??ng C??? v?? Nh???t B???n, tri???n l??m m???t s??? h??ng h??a, k??? thu???t t???i Ulan Bato, c??ng h???p t??c x??y d???ng nh?? m??y v?? c??ng tr??nh v??n h??a. Ti???n xa h??n, nh??? M??ng C??? c??n Nh???t B???n l??m d??? ??n ????? x??y d???ng nh?? m??y luy???n kim c??? nh???.
Moskva ???? gi??ng ????n m???nh m??? tr?????c t??nh tr???ng v?????t r??o n??y c???a Ulan Bato. Th??? tr?????ng Mikhail Kapitsa, ng?????i ph??? tr??ch ????ng ?? c???a B??? Ngo???i giao Li??n X?? khi ti???p nh???ng ng?????i M??ng C??? ???? b???c x??c n??i: ???Nghe n??i c??c ?????ng ch?? M??ng C???, ?????c bi???t l?? nh???ng ng?????i ph??? tr??ch n??ng nghi???p, h???p t??c trong l??nh v???c kinh t??? v???i Nh???t B???n. Ch??ng t??i ??ang chu???n b??? so???n th???o th?? c???a ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng ch??ng t??i g???i ???y ban Trung ????ng ?????ng c??c ?????ng ch?????. C??c ?????ng ch?? nh???t ?????nh ph???i chuy???n t???i Ban l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng m??nh l?? ph???i h???t s???c th???n tr???ng trong quan h??? kinh t??? v???i Nh???t B???n???.
C?? m???t ??i???u r???t d??? hi???u l?? n??m 1939, ng?????i Nh???t ???? ti???n h??nh tr???n ????nh t???i s??ng Khalkh nh???m bi???n M??ng C??? tr??? th??nh thu???c ?????a c???a m??nh, ch??? c?? Li??n X?? l?? n?????c duy nh???t ???? gi??p ?????, b???o v??? v?? c???u M??ng C??? tho??t kh???i hi???m h???a n??y. Ng?????i X?? vi???t kh??ng mu???n c?? s??? ??i???u ch???nh n??o trong ti???m th???c c???a nh???ng ng?????i ch??n nu??i du m???c M??ng C??? v???n ???? tr??? th??nh m???c ?????nh./.
Ho??ng Tu???n Th???nh d???ch t??? b???n g???c ti???ng M??ng C???: ?????????????? ????????????-???????? (???????????? ???????? ???????????? ???????? ?????????????????? ??????????????), Baabar.mn.

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