M??? ???? ti??u di???t ?????i t?????ng Yamamoto nh?? th??? n??o?

Chủ nhật - 22/09/2019 20:06
23 gi??? ng??y 13 th??ng 4 n??m 1943. Ph??ng T??nh b??o B??? T?? l???nh H???i qu??n M??? ??? Th??i B??nh D????ng tr??nh l??n ???? ?????c Chester Nimitz b???c ??i???n c???a qu??n ?????i Nh???t h??? v???a gi???i m?? ???????c. B???c ??i???n c?? n???i dung: ???K??? ho???ch c??ng t??c ng??y 18 th??ng 4 c???a T?? l???nh H???m ?????i Li??n h???p Yamamoto:
M??? ???? ti??u di???t ?????i t?????ng Yamamoto nh?? th??? n??o?

M??? ???? ti??u di???t ?????i t?????ng Yamamoto nh?? th??? n??o?

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T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

23 gi??? ng??y 13 th??ng 4 n??m 1943. Ph??ng T??nh b??o B??? T?? l???nh H???i qu??n M??? ??? Th??i B??nh D????ng tr??nh l??n ???? ?????c Chester Nimitz b???c ??i???n c???a qu??n ?????i Nh???t h??? v???a gi???i m?? ???????c. B???c ??i???n c?? n???i dung: ???K??? ho???ch c??ng t??c ng??y 18 th??ng 4 c???a T?? l???nh H???m ?????i Li??n h???p Yamamoto: 8h ????p m??y bay t??? Rabaul ?????n Bougainville, c?? 6 m??y bay chi???n ?????u h??? t???ng; 10h ?????n n??i, ??i ti???p t???u ng???m ?????n Shortland; 11h30 ?????n n??i; ??????

M???t Nimitz s??ng l??n nh?? khi th??? s??n th???y con m???i: nh?? v???y ngh??a l?? Isoroku Yamamoto[1] s??? ??i v??o v??ng b??n k??nh t??c chi???n c???a m??y bay M??? c???t c??nh t??? ?????o Guadalcanal![2] M???t d???p may tr???i cho ????? kh??? h???n ??? vi??n ?????i t?????ng n???i ti???ng nh???t n?????c Nh???t, uy danh ch??? sau c?? Nh???t Ho??ng. Do th??? hi???n t??i ch??? huy cao si??u trong vi???c l???p k??? ho???ch v?? ch??? huy tr???n t???p k??ch Tr??n Ch??u C???ng, Yamamoto ???????c c??? n?????c Nh???t s??ng b??i. N???u kh??? ???????c h???n th?? s??? l??m nh???t tinh th???n chi???n ?????u c???a ?????ch???

Nh??ng v?? Yamamoto qu?? quan tr???ng n??n vi???c h??? s??t h???n c??n li??n quan t???i c??c y???u t??? ch??nh tr???. Vi???c n??y t???t ph???i xin ?? ki???n c???a T???ng th???ng ??? Nimitz ngh??.

B???c ??i???n c???a T?? l???nh H???i qu??n M??? ??? Th??i B??nh D????ng Nimitz t???i tay T???ng th???ng Franklin Roosevelt khi ??ng ??ang h???p v???i B??? tr?????ng H???i qu??n Frank Knox v?? ???? ?????c Ernest King, Tr?????ng ban T??c chi???n H???i qu??n.

Nghe b??o c??o xong Roosvelt v???n c??n do d???, v?? ??ng bi???t ??? ph????ng T??y c?? m???t c??i l??? b???t th??nh v??n mang m??u s???c hi???p s??: trong chi???n tranh kh??ng ???????c ??m s??t nguy??n th??? ho???c th???ng so??i n?????c ?????i ?????ch. Th???c ra trong Th??? chi???n II, ?????c v?? Anh ?????u ???? b??? l??? ???y, nh??ng M??? v???n ki??n tr??.

???? ?????c King v???i n??i: ???L???n n??y Isoroku Yamamoto t??? d???n x??c ra m???t tr???n, m?? ??? m???t tr???n th?? ?????i t?????ng c??ng ch???ng kh??c g?? binh nh??! H???n l???i l?? k??? kh??ng t??n tr???ng lu???t qu???c t???, t???ng ch??? m??u v??? ????nh tr???m Tr??n Ch??u C???ng khi ch??a tuy??n chi???n, do ???? t??? l??u h???n ???? t??? ????nh m???t s??? b???o v??? c???a lu???t qu???c t???; h???n c?? s???ng ?????n ng??y h???t chi???n tranh th?? c??ng kh??ng tho??t kh???i b??? to?? ??n t??? h??nh!???

B??? tr?????ng H???i qu??n Knox c??ng ?????ng ?? v???i ?? ki???n tr??n sau khi g???i ??i???n tham kh???o quan ??i???m c???a Cha Tuy??n u?? qu??n ?????i.

Th??? l?? Roosevelt h??? quy???t t??m: kh??? Yamamoto, nh??ng ph???i l??m sao cho ng?????i ngo??i th???y vi???c n??y ho??n to??n ch??? l?? ng???u nhi??n!

Ng??y 15, ???? ?????c Nimitz h??? l???nh cho Thi???u t?????ng Mitchell Ch??? huy kh??ng qu??n tr??n qu???n ?????o Solomon tri???n khai t??c chi???n, y??u c???u b???ng m???i gi?? ph???i di???t ???????c Yamamoto, nh??ng ph???i t???o ra ???n t?????ng l?? h???n t??nh c??? g???p m??y bay M???, tr??nh ????? l??? vi???c M??? bi???t m???t m?? c???a Nh???t.

Nimitz ch???n bi??n ?????i 339 trang b??? m??y bay chi???n ?????u P-38 Tia Ch???p ??ang ??? tr??n ?????o Guadalcanal ????? th???c hi???n nhi???m v??? t??c chi???n. ????y l?? lo???i m??y bay hai ?????ng c??, t???c ????? t???i ??a 732km/h, t???m bay xa 3600 km, trang b??? m???t ph??o 20 ly v?? 4 s??ng m??y 12,7 ly, h??n h???n lo???i m??y bay ti??m k??ch ki???u ???Zero??? t???t nh???t c???a Nh???t.

Thi???u t?????ng Mitchell l???p t???c c??ng thi???u t?? John W. Mitchell v?? trung u?? Rex Barber trong bi??n ?????i 339 b??n c??c ph????ng ??n t??c chi???n. Ph????ng ??n t???n c??ng v??o l??c Yamamoto ????p t???u ng???m tr??n ???????ng ??i Shortland b??? b??c b???, v?? l?? do Nh???t c?? nhi???u t???u ng???m, kh?? m?? bi???t Yamamoto ??i t???u n??o; v??? l???i n???u t???u ch??m th?? h???n v???n c?? th??? tho??t ch???t.

Cu???i c??ng m???i ng?????i quy???t ?????nh b???n r??i m??y bay ch??? Yamamoto; song v?? qu??ng ???????ng bay c???a ?????ch r???t d??i, M??? ph???i n???m ch??nh x??c ?????a ??i???m v?? th???i ??i???m c??ng k??ch, t???c ????? c???a m??y bay M??? v?? ?????ch, ph???i c?? k??? x???o bay c???c gi???i. R???t may l?? Yamamoto c?? th??i quen ????ng gi???, cho n??n M??? kh??ng lo l??? th???i c??.

Michell ph??n t??ch: ???Theo d??? b??o, th???i ti???t ng??y mai t???t; ???????ng bay t??? Rabaul ?????n s??n bay tr??n ?????o Bougainville d??i 563 km, t???c ????? m??y bay Nh???t kho???ng 290 km/h. N???u m???i vi???c thu???n l???i th?? ta s??? g???p ?????ch ??? Bougainville. Ch??ng s??? bay ??? ????? cao d?????i 3000 m v?? ????y l?? ????? cao d??? ch???u, v?? ch??ng s??? h??? c??nh t??? ph??a T??y v?? nh?? v???y ???????ng bay ng???n nh???t. Khi g???n ?????n v??ng tr???i g???p ?????ch, ta ph???i bay cao h??n ch??ng v?? bay th???ng ?????n s??n bay, c??ng k??ch v??o l??c m??y bay ch??? Yamamoto s???p h??? c??nh.???

K??? ho???ch c???a thi???u t?? Michell ???????c t???t c??? ?????ng ??, cu???i c??ng ???????c ???? ?????c T?? l???nh Nimitz duy???t. Michell ch???n 18 phi c??ng gi???i, ph??n c??ng trung u?? Thomas G. Lanphier d???n ?????u 6 m??y bay t??? c??ng k??ch, c?? nhi???m v??? b???n h??? m??y bay ch??? Yamamoto; Michell ch??? huy 12 m??y bay y???m h???, t??? tr??n cao ng??n ch???n m??y bay h??? t???ng c???a ?????ch. Sau ???? Michell ph??? bi???n ph????ng ??n t??c chi???n: ????? tr??nh b??? ra ??a ?????ch ph??t hi???n, kh??ng nh???ng ta ph???i bay th???p c??ch m???t bi???n kho???ng 10 m m?? c??n ph???i bay v??ng; tr?????c ti??n bay 55 ph??t v???i g??c 265 ????? tr??n qu??ng ???????ng 294 km, sau ???? bay 27 ph??t v???i g??c 290 ????? tr??n c??? ly 141 km, cu???i c??ng bay 38 ph??t v???i g??c 305 ?????, qu??ng ???????ng 192 km; nh?? v???y t???ng c???ng bay m???t 2 gi???, t???ng h??nh tr??nh 627 km. Trong th???i gian bay c???m d??ng v?? tuy???n ??i???n li??n l???c.

7h30 s??ng Ch??? nh???t 18 th??ng 4, phi ?????i c???a Michell c???t c??nh. Do mang th??ng d???u ph??? v?? nhi???u ?????n n??n c??c m??y bay ?????u qu?? n???ng; 1 chi???c b??? tr???c tr???c kh??ng th??? c???t c??nh, 1 chi???c kh??c th??ng d???u ph??? c?? v???n ?????, ph???i quay l???i h??? c??nh. Michell d??ng tay ra hi???u cho 2 m??y bay t??? y???m h??? b??? sung v??o t??? c??ng k??ch.

T???i s??n bay c???a Nh???t ??? Rabaul s??ng h??m ????, ????ng gi??? hai m??y bay n??m bom h???ng trung ki???u Mitsubishi G4M Betty mang s??? hi???u 1 v?? 2 ch??? ??o??n c???a Yamamoto c???t c??nh tr?????c, r???i ?????n 6 m??y bay chi???n ?????u ki???u Mitsubishi A6M Zero bay theo ?????i h??nh 3-3 y???m h??? hai b??n. Sau 90 ph??t bay ??? ????? cao 2000 m, c??? ??o??n ?????n b??? T??y ?????o Bougainville, chu???n b??? h??? c??nh. B???ng m???t m??y bay h??? t???ng ph??t hi???n ph??a sau c?? nhi???u chi???c P-38 c???a M??? t??? tr??n cao 500 m bay t???i. 6 chi???c h??? t???ng v???i v???t l??n qu???n nhau v???i m??y bay M???. Hai chi???c m??y bay l???n h??? ????? cao t??m ???????ng t???u tho??t, nh??ng v???n b??? t??? c??ng k??ch c???a Lanphier b??m ri???t.

L??c n??y c??c m??y bay h??? t???ng c???a Nh???t m???i bi???t l?? b??? m???c l???a, 3 chi???c v???i lao xu???ng c???u nh??ng ???? qu?? mu???n. M??y bay s??? 1 ch??? Yamamoto tr??ng ?????n, b???c ch??y r???i r??i xu???ng c??nh r???ng. Chi???c s??? 2 v??ng ra bi???n nh??ng c??ng kh??ng tho??t. M??y bay Nh???t tr??n ?????o Rabaul v???i c???t c??nh ????nh tr???. Michell kh??ng ham ????nh m?? quy???t ?????nh cho phi ?????i tr??? v??? c??n c???. Khi ?????n s??n bay tr??n ?????o Guadalcanal, m??y bay c???a Lanphier h???t nh???n d???u ph???i h??? c??nh theo ki???u t??u l?????n.

T??? s??n bay Guadalcanal, m???t b???c ??i???n g???i ?????n B??? T?? l???nh Nam Th??i B??nh D????ng: ???9h30 s??ng nay, phi ?????i P-38 do Michel ch??? huy ?????n v??ng tr???i ?????o Bougainville, b???n r??i 2 m??y bay n??m bom v?? 3 m??y bay chi???n ?????u h??? t???ng. M???t chi???c P-38 kh??ng tr??? v??? c??n c???.???

Chi???n th???ng n??y c?? c??ng l???n c???a h???i qu??n New Zealand, m???t ?????ng minh c???a M???, v?? h??? ???? cung c???p cho M??? cu???n s??? m???t m?? l???y ???????c tr??n chi???c t???u ng???m Nh???t v???a b??? h??? b???n ch??m m???y tu???n tr?????c. Nh??? th??? t??nh b??o M??? gi???i m?? ???????c c??c b???c ??i???n m???t c???a qu??n ?????i Nh???t.

Chi???n c??ng di???t Yamamoto di???n ra ????ng v??o ng??y 18 th??ng 4, ng??y m?? tr?????c ???? m???t n??m (1942) phi ?????i m??y bay B-25 c???a trung t?? Doolittle c???t c??nh t??? t??u s??n bay ?????t nh???p n??m bom Tokyo, l??m rung chuy???n c??? n?????c Nh???t. T??? ????, 18 th??ng 4 tr??? th??nh ng??y h???i c???a kh??ng qu??n M???.

V?? ph??a Nh???t gi??? b?? m???t tin Yamamoto t??? tr???n n??n ph??a M??? kh??ng th??? ch??nh th???c x??c nh???n h???n ???? ch???t hay ch??a. Trong s??? theo d??i chi???n s??? c???a H???m ?????i Th??i B??nh D????ng h??m ???y ch??? ghi: ???H??m nay T???ng T?? l???nh H???m ?????i Li??n h???p Nh???t c?? l??? ???? b??? m??y bay chi???n ?????u P-38 c???a ta h??? s??t tr??n v??ng tr???i Bougainville.???

Chi???u ng??y 18, ????n v??? qu??n ?????i Nh???t ??? Rabaul ??i???n v??? B??? H???i qu??n ??? Tokyo b??o tin Yamamoto t??? tr???n. Ng??y 20 ch??ng t??m th???y x??c chi???c m??y bay s??? 1 c??ng 11 t??? thi. Yamamoto ch???t ??? t?? th??? ng???i, m???c qu??n ph???c m??u xanh c???, tay ??i g??ng tr???ng, tay tr??i n???m ?????c ki???m, ?????u tr???n; h???n tr??ng ?????n ch???t tr?????c khi m??y bay r??i. Trong t??i ??o Yamamoto c?? m???t cu???n s??? ?????p ch??p nhi???u thi ca c???a Thi??n Ho??ng Minh Tr??? v?? Ho??ng Th??i h???u.

M???t t???u v???t ng?? l??i ch??? c??c x??c ch???t v??? c??n c??? r???i ho??? t??ng. C??c h???p tro x??c ???????c m???t thi???t gi??p h???m ch??? v??? Nh???t. M??i ?????n ng??y 20 th??ng 5, v??? Yamamoto m???i ???????c b??o tin ch???ng t??? tr???n.

H??m sau, h???p tro x??c Yamamoto v??? ?????n Tokyo, ?????i B???n doanh Qu??n ?????i Nh???t c??ng b??? b???n tin: ???T???ng T?? l???nh H???m ?????i Li??n h???p, ?????i t?????ng H???i qu??n Isoroku Yamamoto th??ng 4 n??m nay trong khi ch??? huy chi???n ?????u tr??n m??y bay t??c chi???n v???i ?????ch, ???? kh??ng may hy sinh oanh li???t.???

C??? n?????c Nh???t ??au bu???n v?? hoang mang lo s???. Yamamoto ???????c truy t???ng danh hi???u ng?????i c?? c??ng tr???ng l???n, hu??n ch????ng qu??n c??ng h???ng nh???t v?? danh hi???u nguy??n so??i, ???????c mai t??ng theo nghi th???c qu???c tang.

V??? ph??a M???, trung u?? Lanphier ???????c th??ng c???p th?????ng u?? tr?????c th???i h???n, ???????c t???ng hu??n ch????ng Vinh d??? t???i cao; nh??ng v?? ????? gi??? b?? m???t, anh ph???i v??? n?????c ngay. ?????ng ?????i c???a anh c??ng kh??ng ???????c ph??p n??i h??? ???? b???n h??? m??y bay ch??? ai.

N??m 1949, khi Lanphier thay m???t kh??ng qu??n M??? d??? cu???c thi bay v??ng tr??i ?????t do H???i H??ng kh??ng Qu???c t??? t??? ch???c, anh ?????n Tokyo v?? nh???n ???????c s??? ????n ti???p n???ng nhi???t c???a ng?????i Nh???t, trong ???? c?? v??? go?? c???a Yamamoto. B?? ch??c m???ng Lanphier l???p k??? l???c m???i v?? t??? l???i c???m ??n n?????c M??? ???? kh???ng kh??i vi???n tr??? Nh???t h??n g???n v???t th????ng chi???n tranh. V?? ph???i gi??? b?? m???t v??? tr???n ph???c k??ch Yamamoto n??n Lanphier r???t x???u h??? khi g???p v??? go?? c???a k??? ???? b??? m??nh h??? s??t. M??i cho ?????n cu???i th???p ni??n 1960, khi ???????c ph??p c??ng khai b?? m???t n??i tr??n, Lanphier vi???t b??i ???T??i b???n h??? m??y bay ch??? Yamamoto??? ????ng tr??n t???p ch?? Reader???s Digest.

Chi???n c??ng oanh li???t ph???i gi???u k??n m???t ph???n t?? th??? k??? gi??? ????y m???i ???????c m???i ng?????i bi???t. Cho t???i ng??y nay, x??c chi???c m??y bay ch??? Yamamoto v???n ????? nguy??n ??? ch??? c?? v?? tr??? th??nh ?????a ??i???m tham quan du l???ch n???i ti???ng tr??n ?????o Bougainville Nam Th??i B??nh D????ng. C??nh b??n tr??i chi???c m??y bay n??y v??? sau b??? c???t ra mang v??? ?????t t???i B???o t??ng gia ????nh Yamamoto ??? Nagaoka, Nh???t B???n.

Tuy v???y, do s??? ki???n tr??n b??? gi???u k??n nhi???u n??m n??n m??i sau n??y ng?????i ta m???i bi???t vi??n phi c??ng b???n h??? Yamamoto th???c ra l?? trung u?? Rex T. Barber ?????ng ?????i c???a Thomas G. Lanphier, Jr. C??? hai ?????u c?? c??ng b??m theo chi???c m??y bay ch??? Yamamoto nh??ng Barber m???i l?? ng?????i n??? s??ng b???n h??? chi???c m??y bay n??y. C?? ??i???u khi v??? c??n c???, Lanphier l?? ch??? huy t??? c??ng k??ch ???? l???p t???c ??i???n v??? b??? ch??? huy b??o tin: ???T??i b???n h??? Yamamoto??? (I got Yamamoto) n??n ban ch??? huy ai c??ng cho l?? anh l???p c??ng. Ngay h??m ???? c??c phi c??ng t??? c??ng k??ch ?????u nghi ng??? k???t lu???n n??y. Nh??ng chuy???n tranh lu???n ???y bu???c ph???i g??c l???i v?? c???p tr??n ???? ra l???nh ph???i gi??? tuy???t ?????i b?? m???t v??? chi???n d???ch. R???t nhi???u n??m v??? sau, m???t phi c??ng Nh???t l??i m??y bay Zero h??? t???ng ??o??n Yamamoto c??ng ph??t bi???u l?? m??y bay c???a Lanphier kh??ng b???n r??i m??y bay s??? 1 c???a Nh???t. ????ng ti???c l?? trong chi???n tranh, nh???ng chuy???n nh???m l???n t????ng t??? t???ng x???y ra kh??ng ??t l???n./.

??????????????????

[1] Isoroku Yamamoto, 1884-1943, ???? ?????c ?????i t?????ng h???i qu??n Nh???t, T???ng ch??? huy H???m ?????i Li??n h???p Nh???t.

[2] Rabaul, Bougainville, Guadalcanal l?? 3 h??n ?????o g???n nhau n???m trong v??ng c?? v?? ????? Nam 50-100, kinh ????? ????ng 1500-1650, g???n Papua New Guinea v?? ch??u ??c. N??m 1942 Nh???t chi???m m???y ?????o n??y. Th??ng 2/1943 M??? chi???m l???i Guadalcanal, ?????o l???n nh???t thu???c qu???n ?????o Solomon, r???i t??? ????y ph???n c??ng ????nh ??u???i qu??n Nh???t, ti???n t???i chi???m n?????c Nh???t.
 

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