L?? gi???i s??? t??n b???o c???a Stalin

Thứ bảy - 31/08/2019 09:04
L??m sao m?? Stalin ???? tr??? th??nh Stalin? Hay n??i m???t c??ch ch??nh x??c h??n: l??m th??? n??o m?? Iosif Vissarionovich Djugashvili ??? ch??u c???a hai ng?????i n??ng n??, con c???a m???t ng?????i ph??? n??? l??m ngh??? gi???t qu???n ??o v?? m???t th??? s???a gi???y ??? ???? tr??? th??nh Nguy??n so??i Stalin, ng?????i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho nh???ng v??? gi???t ng?????i h??ng lo???t d?? man nh???t m?? th??? gi???i t???ng bi???t ?????n?

L?? gi???i s??? t??n b???o c???a Stalin


T??c gi???: Anne Applebaum | Bi??n d???ch: L????ng Kh??nh Ninh
Kho l??u tr??? h??? s?? c???a Nga h?? l??? r???ng Stalin kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t k??? ??i??n r??? m?? l?? m???t nh?? l?? lu???n t??i t??nh v?? duy l?? ?????n m???c kh??ng g?? lay chuy???n ???????c.
L??m sao m?? Stalin ???? tr??? th??nh Stalin? Hay n??i m???t c??ch ch??nh x??c h??n: l??m th??? n??o m?? Iosif Vissarionovich Djugashvili ??? ch??u c???a hai ng?????i n??ng n??, con c???a m???t ng?????i ph??? n??? l??m ngh??? gi???t qu???n ??o v?? m???t th??? s???a gi???y ??? ???? tr??? th??nh Nguy??n so??i Stalin, ng?????i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho nh???ng v??? gi???t ng?????i h??ng lo???t d?? man nh???t m?? th??? gi???i t???ng bi???t ?????n? L??m sao m?? m???t c???u b?? sinh ra t???i m???t th??? tr???n v??ng n??i heo h??t ??? Gruzia ???? tr??? th??nh m???t nh?? ?????c t??i n???m quy???n ki???m so??t m???t n???a ch??u ??u? L??m sao m?? m???t ch??ng thanh ni??n m??? ?????o, ng?????i ???? ch???n theo h???c ????? tr??? th??nh m???t linh m???c, l???i tr??? th??nh m???t ng?????i nhi???t th??nh v???i ch??? ngh??a v?? th???n v?? m???t ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a Marx?
Ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a Freud, nhi???u nh?? vi???t ti???u s??? tham v???ng ??? ch??a k??? ?????n nh???ng nh?? t??m l?? h???c, tri???t gia hay s??? gia ??? ???? t??m ki???m c??u tr??? l???i cho c??c c??u h???i n??y d???a tr??n th???i th?? ???u c???a Stalin. Gi???ng nh?? s??? cu???ng t??n c???a Hitler ???????c ???gi???i th??ch??? d???a tr??n n???n t???ng gi??o d???c, ?????i s???ng t??nh d???c hay tinh ho??n ???????c cho l?? ch??? c?? m???t b??n c???a ??ng ta, s??? t??n b???o mang h??i h?????ng t??m th???n c???a Stalin ???????c quy cho ng?????i cha c???a ??ng, ng?????i ???????c ch??nh Stalin mi??u t??? l?? ??????? ????nh ?????p ??ng ta kh??ng th????ng ti???c,??? hay cho ng?????i m??? v???n c?? th??? ???? ngo???i t??nh v???i m???t v??? linh m???c ?????a ph????ng. Nh???ng ki???n gi???i kh??c ????? c???p ?????n m???t tai n???n khi???n cho tay ph???i Stalin b??? teo l???i, vi???c ??ng b??? b???nh ?????u m??a l??m cho khu??n m???t ??ng tr??? n??n ?????y s???o, hay khi???m khuy???t t??? khi sinh ra khi???n hai ng??n ch??n c???a b??n ch??n tr??i d??nh v??o nhau ??? d???u hi???u c???a qu??? d???.
Ch??nh tr??? c??ng c?? t??c ?????ng ?????n nh???ng ng?????i vi???t ti???u s??? Stalin. Trong cu???c ?????i Stalin, nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ???? bi???n ??ng ta th??nh m???t si??u anh h??ng nh??ng nh???ng ng?????i ph???n ?????i c??ng ??p ?????t th??nh ki???n c???a h??? v???i ??ng. Leon Trotsky, ?????i th??? nguy hi???m nh???t c???a Stalin, l?? m???t ng?????i ????a ra ki???n gi???i v??? Stalin c?? t???m ???nh h?????ng nh???t cho ?????n gi???, qua ???? ?????nh h??nh quan ??i???m c???a m???t th??? h??? s??? gia t??? Isaac Deutscher tr??? ??i. Stalin trong con m???t c???a Trotsky l?? m???t ng?????i tr?? tu??? h???n ch??? v?? t??m h???n u ??m, l?? m???t anh t???nh l??? kh??ng c?? gi??o d???c ???? th??u t??m quy???n l???c nh??? thao t??ng ch??nh tr??? v?? b???o l???c ?????m m??u. Tr??n h???t, theo Trotsky, Stalin l?? k??? ban ?????u ???? ph???n b???i Lenin v?? sau ???? l?? s??? nghi???p c???a ch??? ngh??a Marx. ????y l?? nh???ng ph??c h???a v??? Stalin nh???m truy???n c???m h???ng cho nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a Trotsky ti???p t???c trung th??nh v???i m???t d???ng th???c c??ch m???ng X??-vi???t m?? ??????? c?? th??? x???y ra??? n???u nh?? ng?????i l??n n???m quy???n l?? Trotsky ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t Stalin ???m ?????m, th???n tr???ng v?? lu??n nghi ng???.
K??? t??? khi kho l??u tr??? Li??n X?? m??? c???a t??? nh???ng n??m 1990, nh???ng b???n m?? t??? mang m??u s???c ch??nh tr??? v?? t??m l?? h???c k??? tr??n v??? cu???c ?????i Stalin b???t ?????u b??? ph??? nh???n. Ch??nh tr??? v???n c?? ???nh h?????ng ?????n vi???c ??ng ???????c c??ng ch??ng nh??? ?????n nh?? th??? n??o: nh???ng n??m g???n ????y, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Nga ???? l??m nh??? ??i nh???ng t???i ??c c???a Stalin ?????i v???i ch??nh ng?????i d??n c???a ??ng ta v?? t??? ch???c l??? k??? ni???m cu???c chinh ph???t ch??u ??u do ??ng ti???n h??nh. Tuy nhi??n, s??? s???n c?? c???a h??ng ng??n t??i li???u m???t m???t th???i v?? nhi???u th?? t??? c??ng nh?? h???i k?? tr?????c ????y ???????c gi???u k??n ???? cho ph??p c??c s??? gia nghi??m t??c vi???t v??? nh???ng s??? th???t ????ng ch?? ?? h??n.
 
Ch???ng h???n, sau khi khai th??c nh???ng ngu???n tin ??? Tbilisi v?? Moscow cho cu???n s??ch Stalin th???i tr??? (Young Stalin), nh?? s??? h???c v?? nh?? b??o Simon Sebag Montefiore ???? kh???c h???a nh?? ?????c t??i Stalin nh?? m???t ng?????i n??ng n??? trong ho???t ?????ng khu???y ?????ng qu???n ch??ng, m???t tay m?? ho???c ph??? n??? ki???u Lothario, m???t nh?? th?? v?? m???t nh?? vi???t lu???n ph?? b??nh ch??nh tr??? ??? kh??c h???n v???i h??nh ???nh m???t tay vi??n ch???c th?? l??? ngu xu???n nh?? trong tr?? t?????ng t?????ng c???a Trotsky.
????o s??u t??m hi???u b??? s??u t???p h??? s?? ???????c ??t ng?????i bi???t ?????n n??y, h???c gi??? ng?????i Nga Oleg Khlevniuk ???? ????a ra c??u chuy???n v?? c??ng chi ti???t v??? s??? ph??t tri???n c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? t??? s??? h???n lo???n c???a c??ch m???ng cho ?????n c??i m?? cu???i c??ng tr??? th??nh ch??? ngh??a Stalin. Nh???ng cu???n s??ch c???a Khlevniuk ??? c??ng v???i nh???ng b???c th?? ???? ???????c bi??n t???p c???a Stalin g???i ?????n hai trong s??? nh???ng tr??? th??? c???a ??ng, Vyacheslav Molotov v?? Lazar Kaganovich, c??ng v???i r???t nhi???u t??i li???u kh??c v??? l???ch s??? c???a Gulag (tr???i c???i t???o lao ?????ng c???a Li??n X??- NBT), v??? qu?? tr??nh t???p th??? h??a, v??? n???n ????i ??? Ukraine, v??? KGB ??? cho th???y Stalin kh??ng g??y d???ng n???n ?????c t??i Li??n X?? ch??? nh??? m??nh kh??e, th??? ??o???n, hay ??ng ???? kh??ng l??m ??i???u n??y m???t m??nh. Stalin ???? ???????c tr??? gi??p b???i nh???ng ng?????i c?? c??ng s??? t???n t??m c??ng nh?? t??? h??ng ng??n c???nh s??t m???t h???t s???c trung th??nh v???i l?? t?????ng.
Trong m???t cu???n ti???u s??? h???t s???c tham v???ng ??? t???p ?????u ti??n c???a b??? ba cu???n v???i ????? d??y g???n 1.000 trang vi???t v??? Stalin k??? t??? khi sinh (n??m 1878) cho ?????n n??m 1928 ??? Stephen Kotkin, gi??o s?? s??? h???c t???i Princeton, b???t ?????u t???ng h???p c??c c??ng tr??nh c???a nh???ng h???c gi??? tr??n c??ng nh?? c???a h??ng tr??m h???c gi??? kh??c. M???c ti??u c???a ??ng trong cu???n Stalin l?? qu??t s???ch v??nh vi???n m???i l???p ???m???ng nh???n??? c??ng nh?? nh???ng c??u chuy???n th???n b?? kh???i vi???c ch??p s??? Li??n X??.
??ng b??c b??? nh???ng ng?????i theo l???i t?? duy c???a Freud, l???p lu???n r???ng kh??ng c?? ??i???u g?? ?????c bi???t b???t th?????ng trong th???i ni??n thi???u c???a Stalin so v???i m???t ng?????i c?? c??ng ????? tu???i v?? xu???t th??n gi???ng ??ng ta. Sergei Kirov, m???t th??nh vi??n trong nh??m n???i b??? c???a Stalin, l???n l??n trong m???t tr???i tr??? m??? c??i sau khi ng?????i cha nghi???n r?????u r???i b??? gia ????nh v?? ng?????i m??? c???a ??ng ch???t b???i b???nh lao. Grigory Ordzhonikidze, m???t ?????ng ch?? kh??c c???a Stalin, m???t c??? cha l???n m??? khi ??ng ta 10 tu???i. Ng?????c l???i, ch??ng trai Stalin c?? m???t ng?????i m??? m??, b???t ch???p xu???t th??n c???a b??, l?? m???t ng?????i tham v???ng v?? n??ng n???, ng?????i ???? huy ?????ng c??? ?????i gia ????nh h??? tr??? cho c???u con trai t??i n??ng c???a b??.
Quan tr???ng h??n, Kotkin l??u ??, Stalin th???i trai tr??? tr??? n??n n???i b???t t???i Tiflis h???i cu???i th??? k??? 19 kh??ng ph???i b???i ??ng c?? t??nh du c??n m?? b???i ??ng l?? m???t h???c sinh xu???t s???c. M?????i s??u tu???i, Stalin ???????c nh???n h???c ??? tr?????ng d??ng Tiflis, ???n???c thang cao nh???t c???a h??? th???ng gi??o d???c ??? v??ng C??p-ca-d????? b?????c ?????m ????? theo h???c t???i m???t tr?????ng ?????i h???c n??o ???? c???a ????? ch???.??? D?? sau n??y b??? h???c ??? tr?????ng, b??? cu???n v??o th??? gi???i ch??nh tr??? c???c t??? b?? m???t nh??ng Stalin v???n gi??? ???????c phong c??ch l??i cu???n c???a m??nh. ??ng ?????n Baku n??m 1907 ????? k??ch ?????ng c??c c??ng nh??n khai th??c d???u, tham gia ???b???t con tin ????i ti???n chu???c, t???ng ti???n v?? c?????p bi???n??? v?? c??? m???t v??? ??m s??t ch??nh tr??? k??? l???. Stalin h???t ra t?? l???i v??o t??, th??? hi???n kh??? n??ng tr???n tho??t ?????c bi???t t??i t??nh v?? kh??? n??ng s??? d???ng m???t lo???t b?? danh v?? c???i trang ????? tr??nh b??? nh???n d???ng.
D???n d???n, Kotkin x??y d???ng n??n m???t c??ch l?? gi???i kh??c v??? con ng?????i Stalin c??ng nh?? m???t v??i th??? kh??c n???a. Th??nh t???u ?????c tr??ng c???a quy???n s??ch, v?? c??ng l?? sai l???m ch??? y???u c???a n??, l?? ph???m vi ????? t??i v?? c??ng r???ng l???n: Kotkin ???? b???t ?????u vi???t v??? kh??ng ch??? to??n b??? cu???c ?????i c???a Stalin m?? c??n to??n b??? l???ch s??? s??? s???p ????? c???a ????? ch??? Nga v?? qu?? tr??nh h??nh th??nh ????? ch??? Li??n X?? th??? ch??n ????? ch??? c??. Cu???n s??ch c???a ??ng vi???t v??? nh???ng chi ti???t t??? cu???c s???ng c???a Bismarck v?? Mussolini c??ng nh?? nh???ng ch??nh tr??? gia d?????i th???i Sa ho??ng nh?? Sergei Witte, Pyotor Stolypin, v?? Pyotor Durnovo cho t???i Sa ho??ng v?? N??? ho??ng Nga; v?? t???t nhi??n l?? c??? Lenin, Trotsky, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Nikolai Bukharin, and Felix Dzerzhinsky. V?? danh s??ch ch??a d???ng l???i ??? ????.
Tuy nhi??n, nh???ng n??m th??ng v?? nh???ng cu???c kh???ng ho???ng tr??i qua, m???t b???c tranh r?? n??t v??? s??? ph??t tri???n nh???n th???c c???a Stalin d???n xu???t hi???n. Ng?????i ta c?? th??? d??? b??? qua ??i???u n??y, nh??ng t???i th???i ??i???m C??ch m???ng Nga x???y ra Stalin ??ang ??? ????? tu???i cu???i 30 v?? b???n th??n kh??ng c?? b???t k??? th??? g?? ????? c?? th??? mang ra khoe khoang ???????c. ??ng ta ???kh??ng c?? ti???n, kh??ng c?? n??i ??? c??? ?????nh, v?? kh??ng c?? chuy??n m??n g?? ngo??i vi???c b??nh lu???n,??? t???c l?? ??ng vi???t cho nh???ng t??? b??o ngo??i lu???ng. Stalin ch???c ch???n kh??ng ???????c hu???n luy???n g?? v??? thu???t tr??? n?????c c??ng nh?? kh??ng c?? b???t k??? kinh nghi???m qu???n tr??? n??o. Cu???c ?????o ch??nh c???a nh???ng ng?????i Bolshevik n??m 1917 l???n ?????u ti??n mang ?????n cho Stalin v?? nh???ng ?????ng ch?? c???a ??ng ta h????ng v??? vinh quang chi???n th???ng. Cu???c c??ch m???ng g???n nh?? b???t kh??? c???a nh???ng con ng?????i n??y ??? k???t qu??? v??n c?????c m???o hi???m c???a Lenin ??? ???? gi??p x??c th???c ?? th???c h??? cu???ng t??n v?? m?? h??? c???a h???. H??n n???a, chi???n th???ng n??y mang ?????n cho h??? s??? an to??n c?? nh??n, danh ti???ng v?? quy???n l???c m?? tr?????c ???? h??? ch??a t???ng bi???t t???i.
K???t qu??? l??, h???u h???t nh???ng nh?? l??nh ?????o Bolshevik ti???p t???c t??m ki???m s??? d???n ???????ng ch??? l???i t??? ?? th???c h??? n??y v?? Stalin kh??ng ph???i l?? ngo???i l???. Nh???ng n??m sau ????, ng?????i ngo??i l???ng nghe m???t c??ch ho??i nghi nh???ng tuy??n b??? c???a gi???i l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? v?? kh??ng bi???t li???u nh???ng l???i n??y li???u c?? th??nh th???t. C??u tr??? l???i c???a Kotkin l?? ???c?????. Kh??ng gi???ng nh?? m???t k??? ??a nghi v?? gi??o d???c nh?? trong t?????ng t?????ng c???a Trotsky, Stalin ngo??i ?????i d??ng ng??n ng??? ?? th???c h??? ????? bi???n minh cho b???t k??? quy???t ?????nh n??o, k??? c??? tr?????c ????m ????ng hay trong c??c cu???c g???p ri??ng. Th???t l?? m???t sai l???m n???u nh?? ta kh??ng ????nh gi?? nghi??m t??c t???m quan tr???ng c???a th??? ng??n ng??? n??y b???i n?? cung c???p m???t ch??? d???n ho??n h???o ????? t??m hi???u suy ngh?? c???a Stalin. Stalin th?????ng xuy??n l??m ????ng nh?? nh???ng g?? ??ng ta ???? n??i.
??i???u n??y ch???c ch???n ????ng trong l??nh v???c kinh t???. Nh?? Kotkin ???? ch??? ra m???t c??ch ch??nh x??c, nh???ng ng?????i Bolshevik ???????c th??i th??c b???i ???nh???ng ?? t?????ng ho???c th??i quen t?? duy, ?????c bi???t l?? ??c c???m s??u s???c ?????i v???i th??? tr?????ng v?? t???t c??? nh???ng g?? li??n quan ?????n t???ng l???p t?? s???n c??ng nh?? c??c ph????ng ph??p ti???n h??nh c??ch m???ng b???ng m???i c??ch th???c.??? Ngay sau khi cu???c c??ch m???ng k???t th??c, nh???ng ni???m tin m??nh li???t n??y ???? khi???n h??? c???m bu??n b??n t?? nh??n, qu???c h???u h??a c??ng nghi???p, t???ch thu t??i s???n v?? ng?? c???c ?????ng th???i t??i ph??n ph???i ch??ng t???i c??c th??nh ph??? ??? t???t c??? nh???ng ch??nh s??ch n??y ?????u ph???i nh??? ?????n b???o l???c qu???n ch??ng ????? ti???n h??nh. N??m 1918, ????ch th??n Lenin ????? xu???t r???ng n??n ??p n??ng d??n chuy???n ng?? c???c cho nh?? n?????c v?? nh???ng ai t??? ch???i n??n b??? x??? b???n t???i ch???.
M???c d?? m???t v??i trong s??? nh???ng ch??nh s??ch k??? tr??n bao g???m c??? t???ch thu ng?? c???c t???m th???i b??? b??i b??? trong nh???ng n??m 1920, Stalin ???? mang ch??ng tr??? l???i v??o th???i ??i???m cu???i th???p ni??n n??y v?? sau c??ng c??n ??p d???ng ch??ng r???ng r??i h??n. Kh??ng c?? g?? ng???c nhi??n, nh???ng ch??nh s??ch ???????c Stalin ph???c h???i l?? k???t qu??? logic c???a m???i cu???n s??ch ??ng ta ???? ?????c v?? c???a t???t c??? nh???ng l???p lu???n ch??nh tr??? m?? ??ng ???? t???ng ????a ra. Stalin, theo nh?? Kotkin h?? l???, kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t tay vi??n ch???c r???ng tu???ch hay m???t k??? ngo??i v??ng ph??p lu???t m?? l?? m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng tu??n th??? m???t c??ch c???ng nh???c m???t th??? h???c thuy???t kh???t khe. T??nh b???o l???c c???a ??ng ta kh??ng ph???i l?? s???n ph???m c???a ti???m th???c m?? l?? s???n ph???m c???a s??? k???t h???p gi???a m???t ng?????i Bolshevik v?? ?? th???c h??? Marx-Lenin.
?? th???c h??? Marx-Lenin ???? cung c???p cho ni???m tin c???a Stalin m???t ??i???m t???a v???ng ch???c b???t ch???p nh???ng th???t b???i v??? kinh t???. N???u nh???ng ch??nh s??ch v???i m???c ????ch ??em l???i s??? th???nh v?????ng ???? th???t b???i v?? thay v??o ???? ???? d???n ?????n ????i ngh??o, ??ng ta ho??n to??n c?? th??? t??m ra m???t c??ch l?? gi???i cho nh???ng th???t b???i n??y: ho???c l?? thuy???t b??? di???n gi???i sai ho???c c??c l???c l?????ng kh??ng li??n k???t v???i nhau m???t c??ch h???p l?? hay c??c quan ch???c ???? m???c sai l???m trong kh??u th???c hi???n. N???u nh???ng ch??nh s??ch c???a Li??n X?? kh??ng ???????c l??ng d??n, trong ???? c?? gi???i c??ng nh??n, ??i???u n??y c??ng c?? th??? ???????c gi???i th??ch r???ng s??? ch???ng ?????i ??ang ng??y c??ng gia t??ng b???i xung ?????t giai c???p ??ang ng??y c??ng tr??? n??n c??ng th???ng.
B???t c??? ??i???u g?? c?? v???n ?????, th?? tr??ch nhi???m lu??n c?? th??? ???????c quy cho t??? s??? ch???ng ph?? c??ch m???ng, c??c l???c l?????ng b???o th???, cho ?????n t???m ???nh h?????ng b?? m???t c???a t???ng l???p t?? s???n. Ni???m tin n??y ???????c c???ng c??? h??n n???a b???i c??c tr???n chi???n kh???c li???t gi???a hai phe H???ng qu??n v?? B???ch v??? giai ??o???n 1918-1920. Sau h???t l???n n??y ?????n l???n kh??c, Stalin h???c ???????c r???ng b???o l???c l?? ch??a kh??a d???n ?????n th??nh c??ng. Kotkin vi???t, ???n???i chi???n kh??ng ph???i l?? th??? ti??u di???t nh???ng ng?????i Bolsheviks; n?? t???o ra h?????? [n?? cung c???p] cho h??? c?? h???i ph??t tri???n v?? ch???ng th???c (s??? c???n thi???t c???a) cu???c chi???n ch???ng l???i ???nh???ng giai c???p b??c l???t??? v?? ???nh???ng k??? th????? (trong n?????c v?? qu???c t???), nh??? ???? ??em l???i m???t s??? ng??? nh???n v??? t??nh ch??nh danh, t??nh kh???n c???p v?? ?????ng c?? ?????o ?????c nhi???t th??nh ????? ti???n h??nh nh???ng bi???n ph??p d?? man.???
?????i v???i Stalin, cu???c n???i chi???n mang t??nh ch???t ?????nh h??nh t?? duy ?????c bi???t quan tr???ng b???i n?? cho ??ng ta tr???i nghi???m ?????u ti??n v??? quy???n l???c ??i???u h??nh. N??m 1918, ??ng ???????c ??i???u ?????n th??nh ph??? Tsaritsyn n???m ??? v??? tr?? chi???n l?????c d???c theo s??ng Volga v?? l?? m???t ?????u m???i ???????ng ray xe l???a. Nhi???m v??? c???a Stalin l?? ?????m b???o ngu???n l????ng th???c cho nh???ng ng?????i c??ng nh??n ??ang ????i kh??t ??? Moscow v?? Petrograd b???ng c??ch t???ch thu ng?? c???c ??? Tsaritsyn, hay n??i c??ch kh??c ????ng vai tr?? nh?? m???t ???th??? l??nh b??ng ?????ng Bolshevik??? tr??n th???c t???.
????? l??m ???????c ??i???u n??y, Stalin t??? trang b??? cho b???n th??n s???c m???nh qu??n s??? b???ng vi???c chi???m quy???n ??i???u h??nh chi nh??nh c???nh s??t m???t t???i ?????a ph????ng v?? tr???m 10 tri???u r??p t??? m???t nh??m Bolshevik kh??c. Khi ???????ng ray xe l???a kh??ng ho???t ?????ng ???????c ????ng nh?? ??ng ta mong mu???n, Stalin h??nh quy???t nh???ng chuy??n gia k??? thu???t ?????a ph????ng, g???i h??? l?? ???nh???ng k??? ph???n giai c???p.??? ??ng ta gi???t h???i nh???ng ng?????i b??? nghi l?? ph???n c??ch m???ng, m?? theo l???p lu???n c???a Kotkin l?? Stalin l??m nh???ng ??i???u n??y ???kh??ng ph???i b???t ngu???n t??? t??nh t??n b???o hay ho???ng lo???n m?? t??? chi???n l?????c ch??nh tr??? nh???m k??ch ?????ng qu???n ch??ng,??? Stalin c??ng c???nh b??o nh???ng thu???c c???p r???ng nh???ng k??? th?? c???a c??ch m???ng ??? trong n?????c ??ang s???p s???a ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c n???i d???y, t??i chi???m th??nh ph??? v?? chuy???n giao th??nh ph??? cho phe B???ch v???: ???????y l?? k???ch b???n ph??i thai c???a v?? s??? nh???ng phi??n t??a ???????c th??u d???t n??n trong th???p ni??n 1920 v?? 1930 sau n??y.???
Nh???ng bi???n ph??p k??? tr??n su??t ch??t n???a ???? d???n ?????n s??? s???p ????? qu??n s??? c???a Tsaritsyn v?? Lenin cu???i c??ng c??ng ph???i g???i Stalin quay tr??? l???i Moscow. D?? v???y h??? c??ng ???? c?? ???????c ng?? c???c. Sau khi cu???c n???i chi???n ch???m d???t, nh???ng th???t b???i qu??n s??? c???a Stalin ch??m v??o qu??n l??ng. Tsaritsyn th???m ch?? c??n ?????i t??n th??nh Stalingrad. M???u h??nh n??y s??? c??n l???p l???i nhi???u l???n trong su???t cu???c ?????i c???a Stalin. H???t l???n n??y ?????n l???n kh??c, m???i khi ph???i ?????i m???t v???i m???t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng quy m?? l???n, Stalin s??? s??? d???ng nh???ng bi???n ph??p ngo??i v??ng ph??p lu???t ???mang t??nh c??ch m???ng??? ????? gi???i quy???t. ????i khi k???t qu??? ch??? k??o d??i v?? l??m s??u s???c th??m cu???c kh???ng kho???ng. Nh??ng n???u ??ng ta ????? t??n b???o v?? nh???n t??m, t???t c??? m???i s??? ch???ng ?????i s??? d???n bi???n m???t. T???p ?????u ti??n trong b??? ba cu???n c???a Kotkin k???t th??c v???i tuy??n b??? c???a Stalin v??? quy???t ?????nh t???p th??? h??a n???n n??ng nghi???p Li??n X??. Vi???c ban h??nh ch??nh s??ch n??y s??? ????i h???i s??? di t???n, c???m t?? ng?????i d??n, v?? sau c??ng l?? vi???c h??ng tri???u ng?????i b??? ch???t ????i. Tuy nhi??n ??i???u ???? d???n t???i chi???n th???ng ch??nh tr??? tuy???t ?????i c???a Stalin.
Trong x?? h???i ph????ng T??y ??????ng th???i, ch??ng ta th?????ng cho r???ng nh???ng k??? th???c hi???n b???o l???c qu???n ch??ng ph???i c?? v???n ????? v??? t??m th???n hay thu???c d???ng phi l?? tr??, nh??ng theo c??u chuy???n c???a Kotkin th?? Stalin kh??ng ph???i lo???i ng?????i nh?? v???y. Theo ????, vi???c di???n gi???i Stalin nh?? m???t con ng?????i duy l?? v?? c???c k??? th??ng minh, ???????c th??i th??c m???nh m??? b???i m???t ?? th???c h??? ????? ????? bi???n minh cho c??i ch???t c???a nhi???u tri???u ng?????i, th???m ch?? c??n ????ng gh?? s??? h??n.
??i???u ???? c?? ngh??a r???ng ch??ng ta c?? th??? c???n nh??n nh???n nghi??m t??c h??n nh???ng tuy??n b??? c???a c??c ch??nh tr??? gia Nga, nh???ng ng?????i g???n ????y ???? l???p lu???n ???ng h??? vi???c s??? d???ng v?? kh?? h???t nh??n ch???ng l???i c??c qu???c gia v??ng Baltic hay nh???ng tuy??n b??? c???a l??nh ?????o Nh?? n?????c H???i gi??o k??u g???i ti??u di???t t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i theo ?????o C?? ?????c v?? ng?????i Do Th??i. Ch??? v?? th??? ng??n ng??? di???n ?????t l?? t?????ng c???a h??? xa l??? v???i ch??ng ta kh??ng c?? ngh??a l?? h??? v?? nh???ng ng?????i theo h??? kh??ng th???y ???????c s???c h??t c???a n?? hay h??? s??? kh??ng d??ng logic c???a m??nh ????? ?????t ???????c m???c ????ch cu???i c??ng c???a nh???ng l?? t?????ng n??y.
Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p | B???n g???c ti???ng Anh: The Atlantic Magazine
 

31/08/1888: N???n nh??n ?????u ti??n c???a Jack ????? t???

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Ngu???n: Jack the Ripper???s first victim murderedHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1888, c?? g??i b??n hoa Mary Ann Nichols, n???n nh??n ?????u ti??n c???a k??? gi???t ng?????i h??ng lo???t ??? London, Jack ????? t??? (Jack the Ripper), ???????c ph??t hi???n ???? b??? s??t h???i v?? ph??n x??c t???i qu???n Whitechapel. Th??nh ph??? London sau ???? ???? ch???ng ki???n th??m b???n n???n nh??n c???a t??n gi???t ng?????i n??y trong v??i th??ng sau ????, nh??ng ch???ng c?? nghi ph???m n??o ???????c t??m th???y.

??? n?????c Anh th???i Victoria, khu East End c???a London ???????c m???nh danh l?? m???t khu ??? chu???t ????ng ????c v???i g???n m???t tri???u ng?????i ngh??o nh???t th??nh ph???. Nhi???u ph??? n??? ???? bu???c ph???i l??m ngh??? b??n hoa, v?? v??o n??m 1888, ?????c t??nh ???? c?? h??n 1.000 g??i m???i d??m ??? Whitechapel.

M??a h?? n??m ????, m???t k??? gi???t ng?????i h??ng lo???t ???? b???t ?????u nh???m v??o nh???ng ph??? n??? kh???n kh??? n??y. Ng??y 08/09, n???n nh??n th??? hai c???a t??n s??t nh??n ???? ???????c t??m th???y, Annie Chapman, v?? v??o ng??y 30/09, hai g??i b??n  hoa kh??c ??? Liz Stride v?? Kate Eddowes ??? ???? b??? gi???t h???i v?? ph??n x??c trong c??ng m???t ????m.

?????n l??c ????, S??? c???nh s??t London ???? x??c ?????nh ???????c m?? tu??p c???a th??? ph???m. K??? gi???t ng?????i, sau khi ????? ngh??? ?????n b??nh tr??? ti???n???, s??? d??? n???n nh??n c???a m??nh ?????n m???t con ???????ng hay qu???ng tr?????ng v???ng ng?????i v?? sau ???? c???t c??? c?? g??i t???i nghi???p. Sau khi n???n nh??n nhanh ch??ng t??? vong, h???n s??? ph??n x??c h??? m???t c??ch t??n nh???n v???i c??ng m???t con dao d??i s??u inch.

C??c s?? quan c???nh s??t, nh???ng ng?????i thi???u c??c k??? thu???t ph??p y hi???n ?????i nh?? l???y d???u v??n tay v?? m???u m??u, ???? ho??n to??n kh??ng th??? x??c ?????nh ???????c nghi ph???m. H??ng ch???c l?? th?? ???????c cho l?? c???a t??n s??t nh??n ???? ???????c g???i ?????n c???nh s??t, v?? ph???n l???n trong s??? n??y ngay l???p t???c b??? coi l?? b???p b???m. Tuy nhi??n, c?? hai l?? th?? ??? ???????c vi???t b???i c??ng m???t c?? nh??n ??? ???? ??m ch??? ?????n c??c th???c t??? hi???n tr?????ng m?? ch??? c???nh s??t v?? hung th??? th???c s??? m???i bi???t ???????c. Nh???ng l?? th?? n??y, k?? t??n Jack ????? t???, ???? t???o ra bi???t danh n???i ti???ng cho t??n gi???t ng?????i h??ng lo???t.

Ng??y 07/11, sau m???t th??ng im l???ng, Jack ???? s??t h???i n???n nh??n th??? n??m v?? cu???i c??ng c???a m??nh, Mary Kelly, m???t ph??? n??? th???nh tho???ng b??n d??m. Trong t???t c??? c??c n???n nh??n, x??c c???a Kelly b??? c???t x??? nhi???u nh???t. N??m 1892, v?? ch???ng c?? manh m???i n??o ????ng gi?? v?? kh??ng c?? th??m v??? gi???t ng?????i n??o ???????c ghi nh???n, v??? ??n Jack ????? t??? ???? ???????c ????ng l???i.

Kemal Atat??rk ??? ???Cha ????? c???a ng?????i Th??????

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ataturk_3473

Ngu???nHistoric figures, BBC (truy c???p ng??y 5/4/2015)

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Ph???m H???ng Anh

Atat??rk (1881-1938), nh?? l??nh ?????o ng?????i Th??? theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c, l?? ng?????i l???p n??n n?????c C???ng h??a Th??? Nh?? K??? v?? c??ng l?? T???ng th???ng ?????u ti??n c???a n?????c n??y.

Mustafa Kemal Atat??rk sinh n??m 1881 t???i Salonika (nay l?? Thessaloniki), thu???c ????? ch??? Ottoman th???i ????. Cha c???a ??ng l?? m???t vi??n ch???c nh???, v??? sau chuy???n sang bu??n b??n g???. Khi Atat??rk l??n 12 tu???i, ??ng ???????c g???i t???i tr?????ng h???c qu??n ?????i, sau ???? l?? h???c vi???n qu??n s??? t???i Istanbul v?? t???t nghi???p n??m 1905.

N??m 1911, Atat??rk tham gia cu???c chi???n v???i ng?????i ?? ??? Libya v?? sau ???? l?? Chi???n tranh Balkan (1912-1913). V???i chi???n c??ng ?????y l??i cu???c x??m l?????c c???a phe Li??n minh t???i Dardanelles n??m 1915, ??ng b???t ?????u n???i danh v??? qu??n s???.

Th??ng 5/1919, Atat??rk b???t ?????u ti???n h??nh cu???c c??ch m???ng d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a ??? Anatolia, t??? ch???c ph???n kh??ng nh???ng d??n x???p h??a b??nh m?? phe Li??n minh th???ng tr???n ??p ?????t l??n Th??? Nh?? K???. Cu???c c??ch m???ng n??y ch??? y???u t???p trung ng??n c???n Hy L???p chi???m th??nh ph??? c???ng Smyrna v?? l??nh th??? trong ?????t li???n. Th???ng l???i tr?????c ng?????i Hy L???p ?????m b???o cho Atat??rk c?? th??? x??t l???i nh???ng th???a thu???n h??a b??nh trong Hi???p ?????c Lausanne[1].

N??m 1921, Atat??rk th??nh l???p m???t ch??nh ph??? l??m th???i ??? Ankara. N??m sau ????, ch??? ????? V????ng qu???c H???i gi??o Ottoman ch??nh th???c b??? b??i b???. N??m 1923, Th??? Nh?? K??? tr??? th??nh m???t n?????c c???ng h??a th??? t???c, v???i Atat??rk n???m gi??? c????ng v??? t???ng th???ng. Ch??? ????? ?????c ?????ng do ??ng th??nh l???p ???? t???n t???i cho ?????n n??m 1945, g???n nh?? kh??ng c?? s??? gi??n ??o???n n??o.

Atat??rk kh???i ?????ng m???t ch????ng tr??nh c???i c??ch tri???t ????? ch??nh tr??? v?? x?? h???i nh???m hi???n ?????i h??a Th??? Nh?? K???. Nh???ng c???i c??ch n??y bao g???m gi???i ph??ng ph??? n???, x??a b??? m???i th??? ch??? H???i gi??o v?? b?????c ?????u ??p d???ng lu???t ph??p, trang ph???c, l???ch v?? b???ng ch??? c??i c???a ph????ng T??y, thay th??? ch??? vi???t Arab b???ng b???ng ch??? c??i Latin. V??? ?????i ngo???i, ??ng theo ??u???i ch??nh s??ch trung l???p, thi???p l???p quan h??? h???u ngh??? v???i c??c n?????c l??ng gi???ng.

N??m 1935, khi t??n h??? ???????c ??p d???ng t???i Th??? Nh?? K???, ??ng ???????c trao t???ng h??? Atat??rk, c?? ngh??a l?? ???Cha ????? c???a ng?????i Th??????. ??ng m???t v??o ng??y 10 th??ng 11 n??m 1938.

 ?????????????????????-

[1] Hi???p ?????c Lausanne l?? m???t hi???p ?????c h??a b??nh k?? ??? Lausanne, Th???y S?? (24/7/1923), ch??nh th???c ch???m d???t chi???n tranh t???n t???i gi???a Th??? Nh?? K??? v?? ?????ng minh Anh, Ph??p, Italy, Hy L???p, Romania, Nh???t, v?? Nh?? n?????c Serbia-Croatia-Slovenia k??? t??? l??c b???t ?????u Th??? chi???n th??? nh???t. Hi???p ?????c quy ?????nh c??c ???????ng bi??n gi???i c???a n?????c Th??? Nh?? K??? (g???n gi???ng nh?? hi???n t???i) tr??? bi??n gi???i v???i Iraq. Th??? Nh?? K??? bu???c ph???i t??? b??? m???i tuy??n b??? ch??? quy???n l??nh th??? v???i ph???n c??n l???i c???a ????? qu???c Ottoman ????? ?????i l???i s??? c...

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