L??? gi??o phong ki???n v?? n???n ??n th???t ng?????i??? Trung Qu??c x??a

Thứ tư - 04/12/2019 06:02
Trong Nh???t k?? ng?????i ??i??n, L??? T???n m?????n l???i ng?????i ??i??n ????? t??? c??o b???n ch???t ??n th???t ng?????i c???a l??? gi??o phong ki???n: ???M??nh ???? s???ng bao nhi??u n??m ??? m???t n??i ng?????i ta ??n th???t l???n nhau?????? ???S??ch th??nh hi???n ch??p to??n nh???ng ??i???u nh??n ngh??a nh??ng ng?????i ?????c ch??? th???y th???p tho??ng gi???a c??c trang s??ch m???y ch??? ??n Th???t Ng?????i!???

L??? gi??o phong ki???n li??n quan g?? v???i n???n ??n th???t ng?????i ??? TQ th???i x??a?

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T??c gi???: Nguy??n H???i

Trong Nh???t k?? ng?????i ??i??n, L??? T???n m?????n l???i ng?????i ??i??n ????? t??? c??o b???n ch???t ??n th???t ng?????i c???a l??? gi??o phong ki???n: ???M??nh ???? s???ng bao nhi??u n??m ??? m???t n??i ng?????i ta ??n th???t l???n nhau?????? ???S??ch th??nh hi???n ch??p to??n nh???ng ??i???u nh??n ngh??a nh??ng ng?????i ?????c ch??? th???y th???p tho??ng gi???a c??c trang s??ch m???y ch??? ??n Th???t Ng?????i!???

Th??nh hi???n ??? ????y l?? Kh???ng T???, nh?? s??ng l???p Nho gi??o v???i th??nh ph???n ch??nh l?? l??? gi??o phong ki???n. Nh?? v???y gi???a Nho gi??o v???i n???n ??n th???t ng?????i c?? m???i quan h??? g?? ch??ng? B??i n??y th??? b??n chuy???n ???y. Vi???c n??y n??n l??m, v?? Nho gi??o hi???n nay v???n c??n t??c ?????ng t???i ?????i s???ng m???i m???t ??? ta, l??m ch???m b?????c ti???n c???a n???n d??n ch???, do ???? c???n ph?? ph??n m???t ti??u c???c c???a Nho gi??o.

V??? t?? t?????ng c???a Kh???ng T???

Kh???ng T??? l?? b???c ch??nh nh??n qu??n t???, nh?? gi??o d???c v?? ?????i, nh??ng ph????ng ??n x?? h???i l?? t?????ng do c??? thi???t k??? th?? c?? v???n ?????. X?? h???i ???y x??y d???ng tr??n n???n t???ng ??? NH??N, t???c th????ng ng?????i, y??u c???u ng?????i c???m quy???n ?????u l?? b???c qu??n t???, lu??n tu th??n s???a m??nh, s??ng su???t v?? th????ng y??u d??n. Vua l?? Con Tr???i (Thi??n T???), thay Tr???i cai qu???n d??n, l??m cho h??? s???ng y??n vui. X?? h???i ???????c qu???n l?? b???ng m???t quy ph???m ?????o ?????c v??? sau g???i l?? Tam c????ng Ng?? th?????ng ??? m???t quy ph???m nghi??m ng???t, b???n v???ng, theo nguy??n t???c d?????i tuy???t ?????i ph???c t??ng tr??n.

Tin r???ng m???t x?? h???i nh?? th??? s??? ???n ?????nh, ph???n th???nh, Kh???ng T??? mang b???n thi???t k??? x?? h???i n??y ??i chu du kh???p n??i, thuy???t ph???c c??c ti???u qu???c ch???p nh???n. Nh??ng ch???ng vua ch??a n??o nghe theo, b???i l??? k??? n???m quy???n l???c bao gi??? c??ng c?? xu h?????ng ti???n t???i s??? d???ng quy???n l???c ????? m??u l???i ri??ng; n??i c??ch kh??c, h??? kh??ng mu???n v?? kh??ng th??? l??m ng?????i qu??n t???. V?? d??? vua ch??a n??o c??ng th??ch s???ng sung s?????ng, mu???n c?? h??ng ch???c h??ng tr??m cung n??? ph???c v??? nhu c???u t??nh d???c??? Vua quan kh??ng mu???n l??m b???c qu??n t??? song l???i mu???n m???i ng?????i ph???i tuy???t ?????i tu??n theo l???i m??nh ??? ????y l?? nguy??n nh??n kh??ng th???c hi???n ???????c Tam c????ng Ng?? th?????ng .

Tam C????ng l?? ba m???i quan h??? x?? h???i quan tr???ng nh???t: Qu??n-Th???n (vua-b??? t??i), Ph???-T??? (cha-con), Phu-Th?? (ch???ng-v???). ???Qu??n vi th???n c????ng, ph??? vi t??? c????ng, phu vi th?? c????ng???, t???c vua, cha, ch???ng ph???i l?? c????ng c???a b??? t??i, c???a con, c???a v???, m???t kh??c y??u c???u b??? t??i, con, v??? ph???i tuy???t ?????i ph???c t??ng vua, cha, ch???ng [c????ng t???c gi???ng m???i, ho???c ph???n quan tr???ng nh???t, l?? c????ng l??nh, ph??p t???c; theo c??ch gi???i th??ch hi???n nay c????ng l?? t???m g????ng].

Ng?? Th?????ng l?? ???Nh??n, ngh??a, l???, tr??, t??n???, t???c 5 chu???n m???c h??nh vi ??i???u ch???nh m???i quan h??? vua-t??i, cha-con, anh-em, ch???ng-v???, b???n b??.

Tam C????ng Ng?? Th?????ng, g???i t???t C????ng Th?????ng, l?? t?? t?????ng quan tr???ng nh???t trong v??n h??a lu??n l?? Nho gi??o Trung Qu???c, ???????c t???ng l???p phong ki???n s??? d???ng ????? gi??o h??a d??n, qua ???? duy tr?? s??? t???n t???i c???a ch??? ????? phong ki???n. S??ch v??? l??ng Tam T??? Kinh vi???t: Tam c????ng gi???, qu??n th???n ngh??a, ph??? t??? th??n, phu ph??? thu???n, t???c vua t??i ph???i gi??? t??nh ngh??a v???i nhau; cha m??? v?? con c??i ph???i th????ng y??u th??n thi???t v???i nhau; v??? ch???ng ph???i h??a thu???n v???i nhau. Nh??? th??? m???i ng?????i t??? nh??? ???? bi???t ph???i tu??n theo quy t???c ?????o ?????c Tam C????ng.

T??? Tam C????ng Ng?? Th?????ng xu???t hi???n ?????u ti??n trong s??ch Xu??n thu ph???n l??? c???a tri???t gia duy t??m ?????ng Tr???ng Th?? (179-104 TCN), nh??ng b???t ngu???n s??u xa t??? Kh???ng T??? (551-479 TCN) ??? ng?????i ????a ra quan ni???m ?????o ?????c ???Qu??n qu??n, Th???n th???n, Phu phu, T??? t??? v?? Nh??n, Ngh??a, L??????. V??? sau M???nh T??? (372-289 TCN) b??? sung quy ph???m ?????o ?????c Ng?? Lu??n: ???Ph??? t??? h???u th??n, qu??n th???n h???u ngh??a, phu ph??? h???u bi???t, tr?????ng ???u h???u t???, b???ng h???u h???u t??n???, t???c cha-con c?? t??nh th??n, vua-t??i c?? t??nh ngh??a, ch???ng-v???, gi??-tr??? c?? th??? t??? tr??n d?????i, b???n b?? c?? l??ng tin nhau.

Cu???i c??ng ?????ng Tr???ng Th?? d???a l?? lu???n D????ng t??n ??m ti c???a m??nh ph??t tri???n c??c l?? thuy???t tr??n th??nh Tam c????ng Ng?? th?????ng. ??ng pha tr???n t?? t?????ng t??ng ph??p c???a Nho gi??o v???i thuy???t ??m d????ng ng?? h??nh, k???t h???p th???n quy???n, ph??? quy???n, phu quy???n xuy??n su???t v???i nhau. ??ng s??ng l???p ch??? ngh??a duy t??m th???n h???c Thi??n nh??n c???m ???ng.

H??? ?????ng ????? xu???t v?? tr??? quan si??u h??nh ????????o chi ?????i nguy??n xu???t ?? thi??n, thi??n b???t bi???n ?????o di???c b???t bi???n??? t???c t???t c??? m???i quy lu???t, ph??p t???c, ?????o l?? tr??n th??? gian n??y ?????u c?? ngu???n g???c t??? Tr???i; Tr???i kh??ng thay ?????i th?? m???i th??? ???y c??ng ?????u kh??ng thay ?????i. Do ????a ???????c y???u t??? Thi??n (Tr???i) v??o n??n l?? lu???n c???a ?????ng tr??? n??n c?? c?? s??? v???ng ch???c kh??ng ai d??m b??c b???. ??ng cho r???ng ba m???i quan h??? Qu??n-Th???n, Ph???-T???, Phu-Thi???p l?? quan tr???ng nh???t trong Ng?? Lu??n, ???? l?? m???i quan h??? ch???-t??ng c?? t??nh ch???t tr???i ?????nh, v??nh h???ng b???t bi???n: Qu??n vi ch???, Th???n vi t??ng; Ph??? vi ch???, T??? vi t??ng; Phu vi ch???, Th?? vi t??ngTam C????ng xu???t ph??t t??? ?????o ??m D????ng, cho r???ng Qu??n, Ph???, Phu th??? hi???n m???t ???D????ng??? c???a v?? tr???, c??n Th???n, T???, Th?? th??? hi???n m???t ?????m???. D????ng v??nh vi???n ??? v??o ?????a v??? ch??a t???, t??n qu??, c??n ??m v??nh vi???n ??? v??o ?????a v??? ph???c t??ng, ti ti???n. B???ng c??ch ???y v??? ?????i Nho h??? ?????ng x??c l???p ?????a v??? th???ng tr??? c???a Qu??n quy???n, Ph??? quy???n, Phu quy???n, th???n th??nh h??a ch??? ????? ?????ng c???p v?? tr???t t??? x?? h???i phong ki???n th??nh ph??p t???c c?? b???n b???t bi???n c???a v?? tr???.

T??m l???i, ?????ng Tr???ng Th?? ???? k???t h???p t?? t?????ng Nho gi??o v???i nhu c???u c???a x?? h???i, h???p thu l?? lu???n c???a c??c tr?????ng ph??i h???c thu???t kh??c, s??ng l???p m???t h??? t?? t?????ng m???i l???y Nho gi??o l??m h???t nh??n, tr??n c?? s??? ???? ????? xu???t ???B??i tru???t B??ch gia, ?????c t??n Nho thu???t???, v?? ???????c H??n V?? ????? ch???p nh???n. Nh?? v???y ?????ng Tr???ng Th?? ???? bi???n Nho gi??o tr??? th??nh h??? t?? t?????ng ch??nh th???ng su???t hai ngh??n n??m c???a x?? h???i Trung Qu???c, ???nh h?????ng s??u s???c t???i c??n t??nh c???a ng?????i d??n n?????c n??y.

R?? r??ng, n???u l??m ????ng y??u c???u c???a Kh???ng T??? ??? t???c d?????i tuy???t ?????i ph???c t??ng tr??n nh??ng tr??n ph???i n??u g????ng t???t cho d?????i, t???c ph???i h??nh x??? nh?? b???c qu??n t??? ??? th?? ch???ng ai ph??n n??n g??. Nh??ng b???n vua quan c???m quy???n bao gi??? c??ng mu???n ???????c h?????ng l???i nhi???u nh???t, ch??? ????n ph????ng b???t ng?????i d??n ph???c t??ng ch??ng, ai kh??ng ph???c t??ng s??? b??? lu???t ph??p tr???ng tr???, nh??ng ch???ng c?? lu???t ph??p n??o tr???ng tr??? nh???ng k??? n???m quy???n kh??ng x???ng ????ng l?? b???c qu??n t???. Hi???n nhi??n, khi k??? c???m quy???n suy ?????i nh?? v???y m?? v???n b???t d??n tuy???t ?????i ph???c t??ng th?? tr???t t??? x?? h???i c???a Kh???ng T??? tr??? th??nh g??ng c??m xi???t c??? ng?????i d??n, l??m cho ?????o Kh???ng c?? t??nh ch???t ph???n d??n ch???. V?? th??? ch??? ????? phong ki???n s??? d???ng ?????o Kh???ng l??m c?? s??? l?? lu???n b???o v??? quy???n l???c c???a ch??ng, x?? h???i Trung Qu???c tr??? th??nh x?? h???i ?????c t??i chuy??n ch??? ph???n d??n ch???.

R???t cu???c, v?? kh??ng c?? c?? ch??? ki???m tra quy???n l???c n??n x?? h???i do ?????c Kh???ng thi???t k??? ch??? l?? x?? h???i kh??ng t?????ng, th???m ch?? t???o d???ng n??n m???t tr???t t??? x?? h???i m???t nh??n t??nh, l?? tr??. Ch??nh Mao Tr???ch ????ng c??ng n??i H???c thuy???t Kh???ng T??? danh cao, th???c ra l?? th??? b??? ??i.

T???ng k???t l???ch s??? nh??n lo???i, Lord Acton (1834-1902) r??t ra m???t quy lu???t mu??n th???a: Quy???n l???c th?? c?? xu h?????ng suy ?????i v?? quy???n l???c tuy???t ?????i th?? suy ?????i tuy???t ?????i. Ai ch??a bi???t quy lu???t n??y th?? ch??? c?? th??? ????a ra nh???ng m?? h??nh x?? h???i kh??ng c?? c?? ch??? ng??n ch???n s??? suy ?????i c???a t???ng l???p c???m quy???n, v?? th??? ?????u l?? kh??ng t?????ng, cu???i c??ng b??? bi???n ch???t th??nh x?? h???i chuy??n ch???.

Ho??n c???nh l???ch s??? kh??ng cho ph??p Kh???ng T??? ??i xa h??n. Th??? k??? XIX, m???t tri???t gia v?? ?????i kh??c c??n thi???t k??? ra m???t x?? h???i l?? t?????ng h??n nhi???u, nh??ng th???c thi ???????c 70 n??m th?? th???t b???i, v?? r???t cu???c k??? c???m quy???n ?????u suy ?????i, kh??ng th???c hi???n ?? t?????ng c???a tri???t gia ???y.

Gi???t ng?????i th??n, ??n th???t ng?????i ????? t??? l??ng trung

Trong Tam C????ng, m???i quan h??? vua-t??i l?? quan tr???ng nh???t, y??u c???u b??? t??i tuy???t ?????i trung th??nh v???i vua, vua b???o ch???t th?? ph???i ch???t, k??? nh?? v???y ???????c ca ng???i l?? trung th???n ngh??a s??, cho d?? ch??? l?? ngu trung, t???c m?? qu??ng trung th??nh v???i m???t c?? nh??n ho???c m???t nh??m ng?????i.

?????o Kh???ng ????? cao ???Trung dung???, n??i d??? hi???u l?? ???V???a ph???i???. Nh??ng tr??n th???c t??? ng?????i Trung Qu???c th???i c??? hay h??nh x??? m???t c??ch c???c ??oan. Trung th??nh m???t c??ch c???c ??oan t???i m???c ngu trung l?? nh???ng bi???u hi???n ??i???n h??nh s??? s??ch Trung Qu???c c?? ghi ch??p.

B???i th??? tuy Kh???ng T??? to??n n??i v??? lu??n l?? ?????o ?????c d???a tr??n t?? t?????ng th????ng ng?????i, nh??ng trong th???c t??? ??? Trung Qu???c c?? nh???ng ng?????i ???? ch???ng th????ng y??u nhau m?? c??n ??? ??n th???t nhau.

?????o Kh???ng truy???n sang Vi???t Nam tuy ???????c t???ng l???p phong ki???n n?????c ta t??n s??ng nh??ng xa l??? v???i d??n ta, kh??ng tr??? th??nh t??n ng?????ng trong l??ng ng?????i. ????ng ?????o d??n ta tin ?????o Ph???t, m???t t??n gi??o ch??? tr????ng kh??ng s??t sinh, ????? cao l??ng t??? bi, t???c t??nh th????ng m???i sinh linh. M???t s??? v????ng tri???u n?????c ta theo ?????o Ph???t, nh??? th??? x?? h???i Vi???t Nam d?????i c??c tri???u ???? ???? ph??t tri???n h??i h??a.

Ti???u thuy???t Tam Qu???c Ch??, Th???y H?????? k??? l???i nhi???u chuy???n ??n th???t ng?????i, gi???ng k??? r???t b??nh th???n, d?????ng nh?? ng?????i x??? n??y kh??ng s??? lo???i th???t ???y. Th???ng k?? theo s??ch Nh??? th???p t??? s??? cho th???y t??? ?????i Ti??n T???n ?????n cu???i ?????i Thanh, Trung Qu???c t???ng x???y ra 403 v??? gi???t ng?????i l???y th???t ??n v???i quy m?? l???n, do chi???n tranh ho???c ????i k??m g??y ra, ch??? y???u gi???t ????n b?? v?? tr??? con ??? hai h???ng ng?????i y???u th??? kh??ng th??? t??? b???o v??? m??nh. Trong n???n ????i g??y ra b???i phong tr??o ?????i Nh???y V???t 1958-1960, d??n ????i c??ng ??n th???t tr??? con ??? ti???u thuy???t ???K?? s??? ??? Tr???i tr??? m??? c??i ?????nh T??y??? c???a nh?? v??n D????ng Hi???n Hu??? c?? k??? chuy???n ???y (b???n d???ch ti???ng Vi???t m???i xu???t b???n).

V?? ????i m?? ??n th???t x??c ch???t ?????ng lo???i ???? l?? qu?? kinh kh???ng, kh??ng b???ng th?? v???t. Nh??ng ????ng l??n ??n nh???t l?? nh???ng k??? v?? ????? t??? l??ng trung v???i ch??? m?? gi???t t????i v??? con m??nh, d?? man kh??ng t?????ng t?????ng n???i. Ti???c thay ??i???u n??y c?? li??n quan t???i ?????o Kh???ng.

Trong Lo???n An S???, t?????ng nh?? ???????ng l?? Tr????ng Tu???n tr???n gi??? th??nh Tuy D????ng b??? v??y h??m, khi c???n l????ng th???c, Tr????ng b??n gi???t ngay v??? m??nh l???y th???t ????i qu??n s??. Chuy???n n??y ???????c s??? s??ch T??u ca ng???i l?? ???Thi??n c??? m??? ????m???, n??i l??n s??? x??? th??n hy sinh c???a ???trung th???n ngh??a s????? Tr????ng Tu???n. T???i n??i ???y nay c??n ?????n th??? v?? m??? Tr????ng Tu???n, c???ng ?????n vi???t ???C??ng chi??u nh???t nguy???t???, ???Trung li???t thi??n thu???. Bia m??? kh???c d??ng ch??? ??????????ng trung li???t h???u Tr????ng Tu???n chi m??????. Th???p ni??n 80 th??? k??? XX, Trung Qu???c c??n xu???t b???n t???p truy???n tranh ca ng???i ???ngh??a c?????? n??y c???a Tr????ng, g???n ????y b??o c?? ????ng l???i m???y b???c tranh ???y! Thi??n h??? qu??n m???t m???t chuy???n l?? sau khi ch??? t?????ng Tr????ng Tu???n ???n??u g????ng??? gi???t v???, qu??n s?? d?????i tr?????ng r??? nhau m???c s???c gi???t ????n b?? tr??? con trong th??nh l???y th???t ??n. D?? man ?????n th??? ??, ngo??i Trung Qu???c ra c?? n??i n??o nh?? v???y kh??ng ?

Tam qu???c Di???n ngh??a h???i 19 ch??p chuy???n v?? mu???n d??ng m??n ??n ???l??? mi???ng??? l??n ho??ng th??n nh?? H??n l?? Huy???n ?????c L??u B??? m?? th??? s??n L??u An gi???t v??? m??nh l???y th???t ????i B??? (v?? T??n C??n). Sau ?????y, khi th???y d?????i nh?? b???p c?? x??c ????n b?? b??? r??c h???t th???t b???p tay, L??u B??? bi???t s??? th???t, ???a n?????c m???t nh??ng ???? kh??ng m???ng L??u An m?? c??n an ???i ???Anh em nh?? ch??n tay, ????n b?? nh?? qu???n ??o??? (gi???t ??i c??ng ch???ng sao). Khi g???p T??o Th??o, B??? k??? l???i chuy???n ???y, Th??o c???m ph???c l??ng trung c???a L??u An, sai ??em 200 l???ng v??ng th?????ng An. ?????n ?????i nh?? Thanh, s??n kh???u T??u c??n di???n k???ch ca ng???i ???t???m g????ng??? L??u An! R?? r??ng An l?? k??? v?? c??ng ??ch k???. V?? sao h???n kh??ng nh??? ng?????i kh??c gi???t h???n l???y th???t kho???n ????i L??u B??? m?? l???i gi???t v????

Th???i Xu??n thu Chi???n qu???c, m???t h??m T??? Ho??n C??ng ????a b???o D???ch Nha, m???t ?????u b???p-gian th???n trong cung: ???Ta ??n ????? th??? s??n h??o h???i v??? r???i, ch??? th???t ng?????i l?? ch??a. Ng????i n???u ??n gi???i, c?? bi???t ch??? m??n th???t ng?????i kh??ng???? D???ch Nha t?????ng th???t, v??? nh?? gi???t ?????a con trai ba tu???i c???a m??nh d??ng vua ??n ????? l???y l??ng vua. T??? Ho??n c??ng bi???t chuy???n c??ng s???ng ??i D???ch Nha.

S??t h???i ????n b?? tr??? con, l?? t???i ??c v?? c??ng man r???, l??? ra ph???i l??n ??n. Ng??y nay ngay t???i ???u d??m c??ng b??? lu???t ph??p M??? x??? r???t n???ng. Th??? m?? k??? qu???c thay, ng?????i Trung Qu???c ch???ng nh???ng kh??ng l??n ??n L??u An, Tr????ng Tu???n,.. m?? s??? s??ch h??? l???i c??n ca ng???i nh???ng k??? s??t nh??n ???y l?? ???trung th???n ngh??a s?????. ???? l?? do ???nh h?????ng c???a ?????o Kh???ng, v??n h??a truy???n th???ng Trung Hoa coi trung th??nh v???i ng?????i l??nh ?????o (Qu??n) l?? ph???m ch???t ????ng qu?? nh???t c???a k??? b??? l??nh ?????o (Th???n), kh??ng c???n bi???t Qu??n s??ng su???t hay ngu d???t. Tam C????ng Ng?? Th?????ng t???o n??n truy???n th???ng ngu trung l??m cho su???t m???y ngh??n n??m n?????c n??y kh??ng c?? kh??i ni???m d??n ch??? t??? do b??nh ?????ng, v?? th??? kh?? c?? th??? s??ng t???o c??i m???i. V??n minh c??? Trung Hoa t???a s??ng m???t th???i nh??ng sau khi b??? ?????o Kh???ng th???ng tr??? th?? d???n d???n t???t xa sau ph????ng T??y, ch???ng c??n c???ng hi???n ????ng k??? n??o cho nh??n lo???i v??? khoa h???c x?? h???i-nh??n v??n ho???c khoa h???c c??ng ngh???. Khi ti???p x??c v???i v??n h??a ph????ng T??y, gi???i tinh hoa Trung Qu???c ???? l??n ??n th???m t??? ?????o Kh???ng v?? ????i t??? b??? n???n v??n h??a truy???n th???ng. D?? nhi??n, ch???ng t???t ?????p g?? khi ph??? nh???n di s???n v??n h??a t??? ti??n ????? l???i, nh??ng khi ???? l?? th??? t??i s???n ch???a ?????ng nh???ng gi?? tr??? l??m m???i ng?????i ngh?? ?????n ch??? th???y x???u h??? th?? l??? t??? nhi??n ch???ng ai mu???n th???a k???.

Ng??y nay d?????i chi??u b??i ???ph???c h???i v??n h??a truy???n th???ng Trung Hoa???, Trung Qu???c ??ang c??? ph???c h???i ?????o Kh???ng, ch??? y???u l?? truy???n th???ng t??n ti tr???t t??? Qu??n-Th???n. C?? ??i???u Qu??n hi???n nay ???????c hi???u l?? ?????ng ??? nh??m 80 tri???u ng?????i trong s??? 1400 tri???u d??n (5,7%). ??ng T???p C???n B??nh ??i kh???p n?????c k??u g???i m???i ng?????i m???i ng??nh tuy???t ?????i ph???c t??ng ?????ng C???ng s???n do ??ng ?????ng ?????u. ????? c???ng c??? ?????a v??? c?? nh??n, ??ng T???p ??ang t??m c??ch b??p ngh???t nguy???n v???ng d??n ch??? c???a d??n. C??ch l??m ???y g??y ra s??? lo l???ng trong ?????ng. C??ch ????y ??t l??u ch??nh Ban Ki???m tra k??? lu???t T?? ??CSTQ ???? ????ng m???t b??i b??o nh???c ??ng T???p n??n l???ng nghe nh???ng l???i can gi??n ngay th???ng. Cho d?? c??c ph????ng ti???n b??y t??? nguy???n v???ng c?? nh??n ???? b??? c???m, d??n b??? kh??a mi???ng, nh??ng v???n c?? ng?????i c??ng khai k??u g???i T???p C???n B??nh t??? ch???c. D??n m???ng Trung Qu???c n??i trong th???i ?????i th??ng tin ng??y nay kh??ng ai c?? th??? th???c thi ???????c ch??nh s??ch ngu d??n.

B??o ch?? ph????ng T??y c???nh b??o: vi???c ph???c h???i Kh???ng T??? c?? th??? l?? ???g???y ??ng ?????p l??ng ??ng??? v?? m??ch n?????c ??ng T???p n??n ??p d???ng c?? ch??? nh?? n?????c ph????ng T??y. Cu???i th??? k??? XVII, ?????u th??? k??? XVIII, c??c nh?? t?? t?????ng Anh v?? Ph??p t???ng ????? xu???t m?? h??nh nh?? n?????c ph??n quy???n, sau ph??t tri???n th??nh c?? ch??? tam quy???n ph??n l???p, c?? th??? ki???m so??t, ki???m ch??? ???????c quy???n l???c, nh??? th??? x?? h???i ???n ?????nh l??u d??i. C?? ch??? n??y kh??ng cho ph??p c?? nh??n ho???c m???t nh??m l???i ??ch n??o n???m quy???n m??i m??i, t???c kh??ng th??? chuy??n ch??? ?????c t??i. Nh??? ??p d???ng c?? ch??? n??y, n?????c M??? t??? ng??y l???p qu???c (1776) t???i nay ch??a h??? x???y ra ?????o ch??nh l???t ????? nh?? c???m quy???n, c??c ch??nh ph??? n???i ti???p nhau qu???n l?? x?? h???i, ?????t n?????c y??n b??nh ???n ?????nh v?? ph??t tri???n nhanh, ?????i s???ng nh??n d??n ???????c n??ng cao.

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