H???p t??c h??a v?? n???n ????i d?????i th???i Stalin

Thứ sáu - 13/09/2019 21:56
H???p t??c h??T??m m????i n??m tr?????c, v??o m??a thu n??m 1930, Joseph Stalin ???? ??p ?????t m???t ch??nh s??ch l??m chuy???n d??ng ch???y l???ch s??? v?? ???? g??y n??n c??i ch???t c???a h??ng ch???c tri???u ng?????i trong nhi???u th???p ni??n v?? ??? kh???p th??? gi???i. Trong m???t chi???n d???ch ???H???p t??c h??a??? quy m?? l???n v?? ?????y b???o l???c, ??ng ???? ?????t quy???n ki???m so??t n???n n??ng nghi???p Li??n X?? v??o tay nh?? n?????c.a v?? n???n ????i d?????i th???i Stalin
H???p t??c h??a v?? n???n ????i d?????i th???i Stalin

H???p t??c h??a v?? n???n ????i d?????i th???i Stalin

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Ngu???n: Timothy Snyder, ???Stalin, our contemporary???, Project Syndicate, 16/11/2010

Bi??n d???ch: Ng?? Vi???t Nguy??n | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

T??m m????i n??m tr?????c, v??o m??a thu n??m 1930, Joseph Stalin ???? ??p ?????t m???t ch??nh s??ch l??m chuy???n d??ng ch???y l???ch s??? v?? ???? g??y n??n c??i ch???t c???a h??ng ch???c tri???u ng?????i trong nhi???u th???p ni??n v?? ??? kh???p th??? gi???i. Trong m???t chi???n d???ch ???H???p t??c h??a??? quy m?? l???n v?? ?????y b???o l???c, ??ng ???? ?????t quy???n ki???m so??t n???n n??ng nghi???p Li??n X?? v??o tay nh?? n?????c.

Stalin theo ??u???i ch??nh s??ch h???p t??c h??a m???c cho nh???ng ?????t ch???ng ?????i quy m?? l???n sau n??? l???c ??p d???ng ch??nh s??ch l???n ?????u ti??n c???a nh?? ch???c tr??ch Li??n X?? v??o m??a xu??n tr?????c ????. Gi???i l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? ???? ph??? thu???c v??o nh???ng ?????t b???n gi???t v?? tr???c xu???t t???i c??c tr???i gulag (lao ?????ng kh??? sai) nh???m ch???n tr?????c nh???ng s??? ch???ng ?????i. Nh??ng ng?????i d??n Li??n X?? v???n ch???ng c??? v???i s??? l?????ng l???n; nh???ng ng?????i du m???c Kazakh tr???n qua Trung Qu???c, c??n nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n Ukraine th?? tr???n qua Ba Lan.

V??o m??a thu, nh???ng ?????t b???n gi???t v?? tr???c xu???t v???n ti???p di???n, c??ng v???i nh???ng c?????ng b???c v??? kinh t???. N??ng d??n b??? ????nh thu??? cho ?????n khi h??? tham gia h???p t??c x??, v?? c??c n??ng tr?????ng h???p t??c ???????c quy???n t???ch thu h???t gi???ng cho m??a v??? ti???p theo t??? tay c???a nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n ?????c l???p.

Khi n???n n??ng nghi???p Li??n X?? ???? ho??n to??n b??? h???p t??c h??a th?? n???n ????i c??ng b???t ?????u. B???ng c??ch t?????c ??o???t ru???ng ?????t c???a n??ng d??n v?? bi???n h??? tr??n th???c t??? tr??? th??nh nh??n vi??n nh?? n?????c, c??c h???p t??c x?? n??ng nghi???p cho ph??p Moskva qu???n l?? c??? con ng?????i l???n nh???ng s???n ph???m c???a h???.

Nh??ng s??? ki???m so??t kh??ng gi??p t???o n??n hi???u qu???. Vi???c bi???n nh???ng ng?????i du m???c Trung ?? th??nh nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n l??m vi???c hi???u qu??? ch??? trong th???i gian m???t m??a v??? l?? ??i???u b???t kh??? thi. B???t ?????u t??? n??m 1930, kho???ng 1,3 tri???u ng?????i ??? Kazakhstan ???? ch???t ????i khi l?????ng thu ho???ch ??t ???i c???a h??? b??? tr??ng thu theo ch??? ?????nh c???a trung ????ng.

Ukraine b??? m???t m??a v??o n??m 1931. C?? nhi???u l?? do d???n ?????n m???t m??a, bao g???m th???i ti???t x???u, c??n tr??ng g??y h???i, thi???u s???c k??o ?????ng v???t sau khi nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n gi???t h???t gia s??c ????? tr??nh b??? m???t v??o tay h???p t??c x??, thi???u m??y c??y, nh???ng ?????t b???n gi???t v?? tr???c xu???t nh???ng n??ng d??n gi???i nh???t, v?? nh???ng gi??n ??o???n v??? c??y c???y v?? thu ho???ch b???i qu?? tr??nh h???p t??c h??a.

???L??m sao m?? ch??ng t??i c?? th??? x??y d???ng n???n kinh t??? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a,??? m???t ng?????i n??ng d??n Ukraine h???i, ???n???u t???t c??? ch??ng ta ?????u s??? ch???t ????i???? B??y gi??? ch??ng ta bi???t, sau 20 n??m t??m hi???u c??c t??i li???u c???a Li??n X??, r???ng v??o n??m 1932 Stalin ???? c??? t??nh bi???n ?????i n???n ????i do h???p t??c x?? th??nh m???t chi???n d???ch c??? t??nh b??? ????i mang ?????ng c?? ch??nh tr???. Stalin m?? t??? s??? m???t m??a nh?? m???t d???u hi???u ph???n kh??ng c???a ng?????i Ukraine, v?? ??i???u n??y y??u c???u Li??n X?? ph???i m???nh tay ch??? kh??ng ???????c nh??n nh?????ng.

Khi n???n ????i b???t ?????u lan r???ng v??o m??a h?? n??m ????, Stalin gi???i th??ch m???t c??ch r?? r??ng h??n, r???ng n???n ????i l?? do ph?? ho???i, c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng c???ng s???n ?????a ph????ng l?? nh???ng k??? ph?? ho???i, ???????c b???o v??? b???i gi???i ch???c c???p cao h??n ??? khu v???c, v?? t???t c??? ?????u ??n ti???n c???a nh???ng ??i???p vi??n n?????c ngo??i. V??o m??a thu n??m 1932, ??i???n Kremlin ra m???t lo???t nh???ng ngh??? ?????nh v???i h???u qu??? ?????m b???o khi???n nhi???u ng?????i ch???t. M???t trong nh???ng ngh??? ?????nh tr??n c???t ?????t to??n b??? h??ng ti???p t??? cho nh???ng c???ng ?????ng kh??ng ?????t ???????c m???c thu ho???ch ng?? c???c t???i thi???u.

C??ng l??c ????, nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n chi???m ??o???t t???t c??? nh???ng th???c ph???m h??? c?? th??? t??m ???????c, ????????n t???ng h???t l??a nh??? b?? cu???i c??ng,??? v?? v??o ?????u n??m 1933 bi??n gi???i Ukraine b??? ????ng l???i, ????? ng??n c???n nh???ng ng?????i ??ang d???n ch???t ????i t??m ki???m s??? tr??? gi??p. Nh???ng n??ng d??n ch???t d???n ch???t m??n ph???i thu ho???ch v??? xu??n d?????i h???ng s??ng c???a c??c th??p canh.

H??n 5 tri???u ng?????i ch???t ????i ho???c ch???t v?? nh???ng c??n b???nh c?? li??n quan ?????n ????i kh??t ??? Li??n X?? v??o ?????u th???p ni??n 1930, trong ???? 3,3 tri???u ng?????i ch???t ??? Ukraine, v?? trong con s??? ???? 3 tri???u ng?????i c?? th??? ???? s???ng s??t n???u Stalin ????n thu???n ch??? t???m ng??ng thu mua v?? xu???t kh???u trong v??i th??ng v?? cho ph??p ng?????i d??n ???????c ti???p c???n c??c ngu???n cung c???p l??a m??.

Nh???ng s??? ki???n n??y v???n l?? tr???ng t??m c???a ch??nh tr??? ????ng ??u cho ?????n ng??y h??m nay. M???i th??ng 11, ng?????i Ukraine t?????ng ni???m nh???ng n???n nh??n c???a n??m 1933. Nh??ng Viktor Yanukovych, t???ng th???ng ??????ng nhi???m (v??o th???i ??i???m c???a b??i vi???t ??? ND), kh??ng c??ng nh???n s??? th???ng kh??? ?????c bi???t c???a ng?????i Ukraine, nh?? m???t c??ch ?????ng ?? theo quan ??i???m l???ch s??? c???a Nga, v???n t??m c??ch ????? l??m lu m??? nh???ng t??c h???i c??? th??? c???a ch??nh s??ch h???p t??c h??a th??nh m???t th???m k???ch m?? h??? ?????n m???c kh??ng c?? n???n nh??n v?? nh???ng th??? ph???m c??? th???.

Rafal Lemkin, lu???t s?? ng?????i Ba Lan g???c Do Th??i, ng?????i ???? l???p n??n kh??i ni???m ???genocide??? (di???t ch???ng) v?? ngh?? ra thu???t ng??? n??y, s??? ph???n ?????i ??i???u ????: ??ng g???i n???n ????i ??? Ukraine l?? m???t v?? d??? ??i???n h??nh v??? di???t ch???ng d?????i tay Li??n X??. Nh?? Lemkin ???? bi???t, kh???ng b??? s??? ??i theo n???n ????i: nh???ng ng?????i s???ng s??t qua n???n ????i v?? tr???i c???i t???o tr??? th??nh nh???ng n???n nh??n ti???p theo c???a Stalin. Cu???c ?????i thanh tr???ng v??o th???i k??? 1937-1938 b???t ?????u b???ng m???t chi???n d???ch b???n gi???t nh???m ph???n l???n v??o n??ng d??n, c?????p ??i m???ng s???ng c???a 386.798 ng?????i, ??a ph???n ??? Ukraine.

H???p t??c h??a c?? t??c ?????ng l??u d??i. Khi ?????c Qu???c x?? x??m l?????c ph??a T??y Li??n X??, ng?????i ?????c gi??? nguy??n nh???ng n??ng tr?????ng h???p t??c x??, v?? h??? coi n?? nh?? l?? m???t c??ng c??? cho ph??p h??? ??i???u ?????ng th???c ph???m Ukraine cho nh???ng m???c ????ch ri??ng c???a h???, v?? b??? ????i nh???ng ai h??? mu???n b??? ????i.

Sau khi Mao kh???i ?????ng cu???c c??ch m???ng c???a ??ng v??o n??m 1948, nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n Trung Qu???c b???t ch?????c h??nh m???u ph??t tri???n c???a Stalin. ??i???u n??y c?? ngh??a l?? 30 tri???u ng?????i Trung Qu???c ???? ch???t ????i trong giai ??o???n 1958-1961, trong m???t n???n ????i r???t gi???ng nh?? ??? Li??n X??. H???p t??c h??a ki???u Mao c??ng ???????c ti???p theo b???ng nh???ng ?????t b???n gi???t quy m?? l???n.

Th???m ch?? b??y gi???, h???p t??c x?? n??ng nghi???p l?? n???n t???ng cho quy???n l???c ?????c ??o??n ??? Tri???u Ti??n, n??i m?? h??ng tr??m ng??n ng?????i ch???t ????i v??o th???p ni??n 1990. V?? ??? Belarus, n???n ?????c t??i duy nh???t c??n s??t l???i ??? ch??u ??u, h???p t??c x?? n??ng nghi???p kh??ng bao gi??? ch???m d???t, v?? m???t c???u gi??m ?????c h???p t??c x?? n??ng nghi???p, Aleksandr Lukashenko, ??ang ?????ng ?????u ?????t n?????c.

Lukashenko ??ang tranh c??? nhi???m k??? t???ng th???ng th??? t?? li??n ti???p v??o th??ng 12/2010. B???ng c??ch ki???m so??t ?????t ??ai, ??ng ta c??ng ki???m so??t phi???u b???u. T??m m????i n??m sau chi???n d???ch h???p t??c h??a, th??? gi???i c???a Stalin v???n c??n v???i ch??ng ta.

Timothy Snyder l?? gi??o s?? l???ch s??? t???i ?????i h???c Yale. Cu???n s??ch m???i nh???t c???a ??ng l?? Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.

Copyright: Project Syndicate 2010 ??? Stalin, our

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