????m ph??n m????t v??? Hong Kong v?? n???i bu???n c???a b?? Thatcher

Thứ năm - 11/07/2019 05:35
Ngay t??? n??m 1958 B???c Kinh ???? ph???n ?????i m????t s??? n??? l???c t??? ph??a Anh mu???n t??ng quy???n v?? ?????i quy ch??? cho Hong Kong v?? nh???t quy???t ????i l???i ch??? quy???n.Nh??ng ????m ph??n m????t c???a th??? t?????ng Anh Margaret Thatcher v???i Trung Qu???c th???i l??nh t??? ??????ng Ti???u B??nh trong c??c n??m 1982-84 ???? quy???t ?????nh s??? ph????n v??ng l??nh th??? m?? kh??ng c?? tham v???n d??n.
????m ph??n m????t v??? Hong Kong v?? n???i bu???n c???a b?? Thatcher


????m ph??n m????t v??? Hong Kong v?? n???i bu???n c???a b?? Thatcher

Ngay t??? n??m 1958 B???c Kinh ???? ph???n ?????i m????t s??? n??? l???c t??? ph??a Anh mu???n t??ng quy???n v?? ?????i quy ch??? cho Hong Kong v?? nh???t quy???t ????i l???i ch??? quy???n.
Nh??ng ????m ph??n m????t c???a th??? t?????ng Anh Margaret Thatcher v???i Trung Qu???c th???i l??nh t??? ??????ng Ti???u B??nh trong c??c n??m 1982-84 ???? quy???t ?????nh s??? ph????n v??ng l??nh th??? m?? kh??ng c?? tham v???n d??n.

1-T???t c??? ch??? v?? l??nh th??? m??? r????ng ??? T??n Gi???i
V??? nguy??n t???c, quan h???? Anh v???i Hong Kong ???????c x??c ?????nh qua ba hi????p ?????c v???i nh?? Thanh.
N??m 1862, Thanh tri???u nh?????ng l???i ho??n to??n ?????o Hong Kong (H????ng C???ng) cho Anh.
N??m 1860, Anh nh????n th??m b??n ?????o C???u Long, nh??? h??n nhi???u so v???i Hong Kong nh??ng c?? ??u ??i???m l?? g???n li???n v???i Qu???ng ????ng.
Sang n??m 1898, Anh k?? v???i nh?? Thanh, thu?? v??ng T??n Gi???i (San-gaai) t??? C???u Long v??? ph??a B???c, v??o s??u l??nh th??? Trung Hoa, ?????n t????n b??? nam c???a s??ng Th??m Quy???n, c????ng th??m tr??n 200 ?????o xung quanh Hong Kong.
Kh??c v???i hai ??i???u ?????c tr?????c, ??i???u ?????c ???M??? r????ng ?????a gi???i???, ??em l???i cho Anh th??m 952 km2 ?????t ??ai, l???i ch??? l?? thu?? ?????t, t???i 1997.

B???c Kinh sau nay y??u c???u ????m ph??n tr?????c h???n 1997 ????? xem x??t s??? ph????n c???a c??? T??n Gi???i, Hong Kong v?? C???u Long.
V??? m????t l?? thuy???t, Anh c?? th??? gi??? ?????o Hong Kong v?? b??n ?????o C???u Long, ch??? tr??? l???i T??n Gi???i.
Nh??ng v??? m????t th???c t??? th?? ??i???u n??y l?? kh??ng t?????ng v?? qu?? n???a c??ng d??n Hong Kong s???ng, l??m vi????c t???i T??n Gi???i, v?? v??ng ?????t n??y tr??? th??nh ph???n kh??ng th??? t??ch ra v??? kinh t???, x?? h????i, ngu???n n?????c???cho to??n b???? thu????c ?????a Anh.
Sau khi ????? qu???c Anh tan r??, c??c thu????c ?????a Singapore, Malaysia v?? ???n ?????? ?????u ??????c l????p, Anh kh??ng c??n qu??n ????ng ??? ????ng ?? n??n s??? ph????n Hong Kong ch??? l?? v???n ????? th???i gian.
2- Ba l???n Trung Qu???c ??e d???a
Ngay t??? ng??y th??nh l????p C????ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa (1949), d?? kh??ng c?? quan h???? ngo???i giao v???i London, B???c Kinh v???n c?? c??c ti???p x??c v???i Anh v?? v???n ????? Hong Kong.
N??m 1958, Anh c?? k??? ho???ch bi???n Hong Kong th??nh l??nh th??? ph??? thu????c (dominion) nh?? Singapore v?? m????t s??? ?????o thu????c ?????a.
???Dominion??? c?? quy???n t??? tr??? r????ng r??i h??n thu????c ?????a (colony), v?? t????ng lai c?? th??? tr??? th??nh ??????c l????p.
Nh??ng Th??? t?????ng Trung Qu???c, ??ng Chu ??n Lai ???? ngay l????p t???c ph???n ?????i, r???ng m???i ???h??nh ??????ng thay ?????i quy ch??? c???a Hong Kong??? l?? ???th?? ?????ch???.
Anh Qu???c kh??ng ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u n??y n??n t??m c??ch t??ng quy???n d??n ch??? n????i b???? cho ng?????i Hong Kong, v?? c??ng g????p ph???n ???ng m???nh t??? Trung Qu???c.
N??m 1960, Trung Qu???c ??e d???a ???t???n c??ng ????nh chi???m??? (potential invasion) n???u Anh ti???p t???c v???i s??ng ki???n t??ng d??n ch??? cho Hong Kong.
Trong ????m ph??n 1982-84, theo l???i k??? l???i c???a c???u Th??? t?????ng Thatcher, ??ng ??????ng Ti???u B??nh ???? ??e d???a l???n n???a l?? qu??n Gi???i ph??ng Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa ???b?????c sang Hong Kong??? n???u Anh kh??ng trao tr???.
3-Cu????c ????m ph??n b?? m????t v??? Hong Kong
Ngay sau khi l??n l??m Th??? t?????ng Anh (1979), b?? Margaret Thatcher ???? ph???i gi???i quy???t v???n ????? t????ng lai Hong Kong tr?????c h???n 1997.
Anh Qu???c t??nh r???ng h??? c?? th??? trao tr??? ch??? quy???n c???a Hong Kong cho Trung Qu???c v?? ch??? gi??? c??c quy???n ki???m so??t kh??c.
Nh??ng ngay t??? th??ng 9/1979, ?????i s??? Anh t???i Trung Qu???c, Sir Percy Cradock th??ng b??o v??? r???ng ch??nh quy???n Trung Qu???c b??c b??? ho??n to??n h?????ng ??i n??y.
B?? Thatcher ???????c Th??? t?????ng Singapore, ??ng L?? Quang Di????u khuy??n l?? kh??ng n??n nh?????ng b???? B???c Kinh, nh??ng ch??nh gi???i London th???y ???th????t l?? sai l???m??? n???u ngh?? Trung Qu???c kh??ng d??m l??m m???nh.
Ph??a Trung Qu???c, qua l???i ?????i s??? c???a h??? t???i London n??i v???i b?? Thatcher, kh??ng mu???n nh?????ng b???? m????t ch??t n??o v??? hai v???n ?????: x??a b??? c??c hi????p ?????c Anh k?? v???i nh?? M??n Thanh, v?? chuy???n nh?????ng ch??? quy???n.
Tuy th???, Anh Qu???c v???n c??? g???ng gi??nh l???i m????t ch??t g?? ????.
Quan ??i???m Anh t??? 1979 l?? ?????m b???o ???t??? tr?????? cho Hong Kong, v?? bi???n h???p ?????ng thu?? ?????t ??? T??n Gi???i sau h???n 1997 th??nh ???thu?? v??nh vi???n???.
Anh c?? th??? tr??? ch??? quy???n Hong Kong cho Trung Qu???c nh??ng gi??? c??c quy???n qu???n tr??? ????? ?????m b???o ???n ?????nh cho nh?? ?????u t?? v?? n???n kinh t??? Hong Kong.
Th??ng 2/1982, c???u th??? t?????ng Anh Edward Heath th??m Trung Qu???c v?? ???????c nghe t??? ch??nh l???i ??????ng Ti???u B??nh r???ng Trung Qu???c ch???p nh????n ????? Hong Kong c?? quy ch??? ?????????c khu h??nh ch??nh??? nh??ng B???c Kinh ph???i n???m ch??? quy???n.
C?? v??? nh?? ??i???m g????p nhau c???a hai b??n l?? s??? t???n t???i c???a n???n kinh t??? ??????c th?? ??em l???i th???nh v?????ng cho Hong Kong theo h??nh ch???c qu???n tr??? Anh Qu???c.
Cu????c ????m ph??n m????t t??? ???? ?????n 1984 xoay quanh ba kh??i ni????m: ch??? quy???n (sovereignty), ???n ?????nh (stability), v?? th???nh v?????ng (prosperity).
C??c gi?? tr??? nh?? d??n ch???, nh??n quy???n cho ng?????i Hong Kong kh??ng h??? ???????c n??u ra.
Th??ng 9/1982, Margaret Thatcher tr??? th??nh th??? t?????ng Anh ?????u ti??n th??m n?????c Trung Qu???c c????ng s???n v?? hai b??n th???o lu????n, m?? ch??a quy???t ?????nh v??? Hong Kong.
Nh??ng ??i???u b?? c???m nh????n l???i l?? th??i ?????? c???ng r???n c???a l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c.

Ng??y 23/09, ??ng Tri????u T??? D????ng ti???p b?? Thatcher ??? ?????i l??? ???????ng Nh??n d??n v?? cho bi???t B???c Kinh ??????t ch??? quy???n l??n tr??n th???nh v?????ng v?? ???n ?????nh c???a Hong Kong.
Ng??y h??m sau, l??nh t??? ??????ng Ti???u B??nh ti???p b?? Thatcher v?? n??i m???nh h??n, cho Anh 1-2 n??m ????? suy ngh??.
Trung Qu???c n??i mu????n h??n h???n ????, h??? s??? c??ng b??? bi????n ph??p ???thu h???i??? (recover) l???i Hong Kong.
Kh??ng ch??? c?? v????y, nh?? Lady Thatcher ti???t l???? trong h???i k?? ???The Downing Street Years??? (1993), ??????ng ???? ??e d???a tr???c ti???p b???ng c??u n??i:
???Ch??ng t??i c?? th??? ????a qu??n b?????c sang Hong Kong ngay t???i h??m nay (walk in and take Hong Kong back later today) n???u mu???n???.
B?? ?????m Th??p k??? l???i r???ng b?? ??i???m t??nh tr??? l???i, ???N???u ???? l?? ?? ?????nh c???a ng??i th?? t??i c??ng kh??ng l??m g?? ???????c, nh??ng ?????y c??ng l?? s??? s???p ????? c???a Hong Kong???.
B?? Thatcher n??i th??m:
???Th??? gi???i s??? th???y vi????c chuy???n t??? quy???n l??nh ?????o c???a Anh sang Trung Qu???c l?? th??? n??o.??? (The world would then see what followed a change from British to Chinese rule???)
4-Vai tr?? g?? cho ng?????i Hong Kong?
Tr??n th???c t???, Anh Qu???c ???? ph???i ch???p nh????n m?? th???c ???m????t qu???c gia, hai ch??? ????????? cho ??????ng Ti???u B??nh ????a ra.
Nh??ng ng?????i Hong Kong, ngay t??? khi Anh-Trung ra Tuy??n b??? chung v??? Hong Kong n??m 1984, ???? l??n ti???ng n??i h??? b??? b??? ra ngo??i.
D?? th???ng ?????c Chris Patten sau n??y c?? c??c n??? l???c c???i thi????n c?? ch??? d??n ch??? n????i b????, nh?? b???u Vi????n L????p ph??p, d??n Hong Kong kh??ng ???????c tham gia c??c cu????c ????m ph??n c???a London v???i B???c Kinh.
B?? Emily Lau, c???u ch??? t???ch ?????ng D??n ch??? ??? Hong Kong ???? chua ch??t v?? s??? ph????n ng?????i Hong Kong kh??ng b???ng ????n c???u ??? ?????o Falklands (Malvinas).
Anh cho Falklands (1800 d??n v?? nhi???u c???u) c?? ?????i di????n khi ????m ph??n v???i Argentina sau cu????c chi???n ??? Nam ?????i T??y D????ng, c??n d??n Hong Kong th?? kh??ng, theo b?? Emily Lau.
Tuy th???, c??ng b???ng m?? n??i, Anh Qu???c ???? n??? l???c b??? sung c??c quy???n cho ng?????i Hong Kong qua hi???n ph??p mini ??? Lu????t C?? b???n (Basic Law) sau 1997.
Tuy ch??? gi???i h???n ??? Hong Kong, c??c quy???n d??n ch???, t??? do b??o ch??, truy???n th??ng, v?? quan tr???ng h??n c??? l?? lu????t Anh trong m???i l??nh v???c x??? b???ng t??a ??n ki???u Anh ???? t???o cho Hong Kong v??? th??? ??????c bi????t cho t???i nay.
5-N???i bu???n cu???i ?????i c???a Margaret Thatcher
N??m 2007, nh??n k??? ni????m 10 n??m trao tr??? Hong Kong, c???u th??? t?????ng Thatcher l???n ?????u ti??n n??i th????t l??ng r???ng b?? ???r???t bu???n??? khi ph???i ch???m d???t 145 n??m quy???n l??m ch??? c???a Anh ??? Hong Kong.
B?? nh???c l???i v??o ng??y l??? trao tr???, ??? Hong Kong ???tr???i m??a x???i x?????? v?? than r???ng ???n?????c Anh ???? qu?? ????? m??a m?? sao l???i c??n c?? m??a ??? Hong Kong???.
??????c bi????t, b?? Thatcher n??i b?? kh??ng tin t?????ng g?? ??? c??ng th???c ???M????t qu???c gia, hai ch??? ????????? c???a ??????ng Ti???u B??nh.
???M????t qu???c gia, hai ch??? ?????? l?? th??? ???????c ngh?? ra v??i n??m tr?????c n???a nh???m ??p d???ng cho ????i Loan. N?? ?????n nay c??ng ch???ng t??? ra l?? ph?? h???p nh?? l??c tr?????c, v?? c??ng kh??ng ph???i l?? c??ch cho t????ng lai Hong Kong.???
??i???u b?? Thatcher th???c s??? mu???n l?? ti???p t???c quy???n h??nh ch??nh c???a Anh ??? Hong Kong nh??ng ???? l?? ???th??? b???t kh??????.
K??? t??? sau khi d??? l??? trao tr??? Hong Kong n??m 1997, b?? Thatcher ???? kh??ng bao gi??? quay l???i ????.
Qua ?????i n??m 2013, ??i???u b?? kh??ng d??? b??o ???????c l?? gi???i tr??? Hong Kong ng??y nay t??? ?????ng l??n ?????u tranh cho t????ng lai c???a Hong Kong, ch??? kh??ng tr??ng ?????i v??o Anh.
Ngu???n: BBC

Nghi??n c???u th??? gi???i g???i b???n b??o.

Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá

Click để đánh giá bài viết

  Ý kiến bạn đọc

Những tin mới hơn

Những tin cũ hơn

Thống kê
  • Đang truy cập9
  • Máy chủ tìm kiếm1
  • Khách viếng thăm8
  • Hôm nay1,623
  • Tháng hiện tại14,814
  • Tổng lượt truy cập5,909,816
Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây