?????i v??n h??o Mac xim Gorki

Thứ ba - 18/06/2019 19:49
V??n h??o Maksim Gorky, ng?????i s??ng l???p ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a, qua ?????i ng??y 18 th??ng 6 n??m 1936. ???? 80 n??m tr??i qua, nh??ng nh???ng cu???c tranh lu???n v??? con ng?????i n???i ti???ng n??y v???n ch??a l???ng d???u. Ng?????i ta n??i kh??ng s??t chuy???n g?? v??? nh?? v??n: v??? m???i quan h??? c???a ??ng v???i Lenin, Stalin, ch??nh quy???n X??vi???t, v?? v???i nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? Li??n X?? xinh ?????p; to??n t???p t??c ph???m c???a ??ng ???? ???????c t??i b???n nhi???u l???n. Nh??ng v???n c??n m???t ??i???u g?? ???? ch??a n??i h???t. ??i???u g?? v???y? Sau ????y l?? c??u chuy???n c???a ??aria Maksimovna Peshkova, ch??u n???i c???a nh?? v??n
?????i v??n h??o Mac xim Gorki
Tr???n H???u
17 th??ng 6, 2016
CU???C S???NG B?? M???T C???A MAKSIM GORKY
(Nh??n 80 n??m ng??y m???t c???a v??n h??o Maksim Gorky-18/6/1936-2016)

V??n h??o Maksim Gorky, ng?????i s??ng l???p ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a, qua ?????i ng??y 18 th??ng 6 n??m 1936. ???? 80 n??m tr??i qua, nh??ng nh???ng cu???c tranh lu???n v??? con ng?????i n???i ti???ng n??y v???n ch??a l???ng d???u. Ng?????i ta n??i kh??ng s??t chuy???n g?? v??? nh?? v??n: v??? m???i quan h??? c???a ??ng v???i Lenin, Stalin, ch??nh quy???n X??vi???t, v?? v???i nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? Li??n X?? xinh ?????p; to??n t???p t??c ph???m c???a ??ng ???? ???????c t??i b???n nhi???u l???n. Nh??ng v???n c??n m???t ??i???u g?? ???? ch??a n??i h???t. ??i???u g?? v???y? Sau ????y l?? c??u chuy???n c???a ??aria Maksimovna Peshkova, ch??u n???i c???a nh?? v??n
DI V???T CU???I C??NG
??aria Maksimovna Peshkova l?? n??? di???n vi??n ???? 62 n??m li??n t???c l??m vi???c t???i Nh?? h??t mang t??n Vakhtangov. 
?????i v???i ??aria, Gorky tr?????c h???t l?? ??ng n???i, c??n sau ???? m???i l?? nh?? v??n n???i ti???ng th??? gi???i, t??c gi??? ???B??i ca chim b??o b??o???, ???Ng?????i m??????, ???D?????i ????y???, ???Cu???c ?????i c???a Klim Samgin???, ???Tr?????ng ?????i h???c c???a t??i??????
- Cho ?????n t???n b??y gi??? tr?????c m???t t??i l?? h??nh ???nh ??ng n???i ??ang ?????ng v?? b??? v??o ???m samovar nh???ng qu??? sam m???c, - ??aria k???. ??? ??ng r???t th??ch nghe ti???ng n??? l??ch t??ch c???a ch??ng v?? nh??n ng???n l???a.
D?? s???ng b???t c??? ????u, trong nh?? lu??n lu??n c?? b???p l???a. ??? Krym, n??i gia ????nh chuy???n ?????n sau khi tr??? v??? t??? ??, bu???i t???i n??o ??ng c??ng nh??m l???a. ??ng d???y r???t s???m, ??n s??ng xong v?? b???t ?????u ng???i v??o b??n. Bu???i s??ng, kh??ng ai ???????c qu???y r???y ??ng. C??n bu???i chi???u, ??ng th??ch ??i d???o c??ng v???i c??c ch??u - nh???t qu??? sam m???c v?? c???i kh??. ??ng ??n m???c kh??ng c???u k???, th??ch compl?? m??u x??m v?? s?? mi m??u xanh da tr???i.

L???N ?????U TI??N B??? M???NG
Sau c??ch m???ng, Gorky m???y n??m li???n s???ng v?? l??m vi???c ??? ??, n??i hai ch??u g??i ra ?????i.
- T??i sinh ??? Neapol. Tr?????c n??m 1932, c??? gia ????nh s???ng ??? ??: ??ng n???i, b???, m???, t??i v?? ch??? g??i Marfa.
Trong ?????i, Gorky l?? m???t ng?????i ??ng h???t s???c b??nh th?????ng - ??i???m ?????m v?? hi???n l??nh. Ch??? hai l???n t??? ra nghi??m kh???c.
H??ng ng??y, v??o b???a s??ng c??c ch??u g??i ??n b??nh ng???t v?? ch??o b???t tr??n ch??u. M?? h???i b?? c?? ai th??ch ch??o b???t tr??n ch??u? Th??? l?? c?? b?? ??asha b???t ?????u l???ng l??? ????? m??n ??n ????ng gh??t v??o b???p. Ng?????i l???n v???a m???i quay ??i m?? b??t ????a ???? nh???n nh?? ch??i. Nh??ng m???t h??m trong gia ????nh x???y ra chuy???n om s??m ??? trong b???p c?? chu???t. ??ng n???i bi???t t???ng s??? vi???c. S??ng h??m sau, ??ng m??? h?? c???a ph??ng ??n v?? ph??t hi???n ra b???a s??ng ???bi???n??? ??i ????u. Th??? l?? sinh chuy???n!
- ??ng t??m l???y c??? t??i v?? g??o to l??n b???ng c??i th??? ??m v??ng Volga: ???Ch??u kh??ng bi???t x???u h??? ??? ??? n?????c Nga tr??? em ??ang ????i ??n, c??n ch??u th?? ????? ch??o ??i!???.

KH??NG TH??? S???NG TRONG BI???T TH???
L???n th??? hai, ??ng n???i b???c l??? t??nh nghi??m kh???c c???a m??nh ??? Moskva. L??c b???y gi??? gia ????nh s???ng ??? l??ng Gorki. G???n m???t th??ng, nh?? v??n Ph??p Romain Rolland c??ng v???i b?? v??? ng?????i Nga ?????n ch??i. Trong ng??i nh?? hai t???ng, kh??ch ???????c b??? tr?? ??? t???ng hai. C??n c??c ch??u ???????c chuy???n xu???ng t???ng m???t.
M???t l???n, t??? hi???u may ng?????i ta g???i cho c??c ch??u g??i hai chi???c ??o d??i l???a m??u xanh da tr???i c?? th??u nh???ng con chim ??n m??u xanh. Th???i b???y gi??? ???? l?? m???t s??? xa hoa th???m ch?? ?????i v???i gia ????nh nh?? v??n n???i ti???ng. Ph???n l???n c??ng d??n X??vi???t ?????u m???c b???ng ??o v???i b??ng.
- Ch??ng t??i ???????c m???c ??o m???i v?? h???n h??? ch???y v??o ph??ng ??n g???p ??ng n???i ??ang ng???i v???i Romain Rolland. Gorky nh??n trang ph???c c???a ch??ng t??i v?? h???i nghi??m kh???c: ???Ai cho c??c ch??u????. Khi nghe gi???i th??ch xong, ??ng tuy??n b??? th???ng: ???Ngay l???p t???c c???i ra v?? mang t???i nh?? tr???!???. 
??ng l???n l??n trong ngh??o kh??? v?? lang b???t, ch??nh v?? v???y ngay c??? khi ng??? tr??n ?????nh cao danh v???ng v???n c???m th???y b??? ng??? trong s??? xa hoa. L??c sinh th???i, ??ng k???ch li???t ph???n ?????i vi???c l???y t??n m??nh ?????t cho th??nh ph??? H??? Novgorog v?? ph??? Tver ??? Moskva. Khi Gorky t??? ?? tr??? v???, Stalin c???p cho ??ng m???t bi???t th??? sang tr???ng tr??n ph??? Malaya Nikitskaya. Nh??ng ??? ?????y nh?? v??n c???m th???y b???t ti???n. 
- ??ng g???p g??? v???i Stalin, ????n ti???p c??c nh?? v??n, nh??ng kh??ng bao gi??? s???ng ??? ?????y, - ??aria Maksimovna n??i.
Gorky g???p ng?????i v??? t????ng lai Ekaterina Pavlovna t???i to?? so???n b??o Samara. ??ng vi???t b??o, c??n b?? ch???a mo-r??t.
- B?? n???i r???t xinh g??i, nh??ng t??i kh??ng bi???t nh???ng t??nh ti???t v??? m???i t??nh c???a h???. Trong gia ????nh, kh??ng ai ???????c n??i t???i ??i???u ????. M???c d?? sau n??y ??ng b?? chia tay nhau, b?? v???n l?? ng?????i ????n b?? ch??nh, ng?????i v??? c???a ??ng.
- N??? ngh??? s?? n???i ti???ng Maria Andreeva c??ng t???ng l?? ???n??ng th????? c???a Maksim Gorky???
- Cu???c h??n nh??n v???i Andreeva kh??ng th??nh. ??ng n??i r???ng hai con g???u kh??ng th??? s???ng chung trong m???t c??i hang. ??ng l?? ng?????i c?? t??nh c??ch m???nh m???, b?? ???y c??ng v???y. C??n cu???c h??n nh??n v???i Ekaterina Pavlovna ch??? ????? l???i m???t ?????a con trai duy nh???t ??? Maksim. Theo ??aria Maksimovna, b??? b?? l?? m???t ng?????i ??a t??i: ??ng v??? r???t ?????p, th??ng th???o ti???ng ?? v?? Ph??p. Maksim m???t l??c c??n tr??? - n??m 36 tu???i.
V??o m???t ng??y m??a thu, Maksim say b?? t???, ng?????i ta ch??? anh v??? v?? ?????t n???m tr??n chi???c gh??? tr?????c nh??. Anh ng??? thi???p ??i v?? b??? c???m l???nh. K???t qu??? l?? anh b??? vi??m c??? hai b??n ph???i. L??c b???y gi??? ch??a c?? thu???c kh??ng sinh. C??i ch???t c???a ?????a con trai c?????ng tr??ng, kho??? m???nh, khi???n c??? nh?? b??? s???c. Sau n??y, khi ??? Krym, Gorky th?????ng kho??c ??o b??nh t?? c???a con trai v?? ng???i r???t l??u tr??n chi???c gh??? c???nh nh?? hay ??i l???i trong v?????n.

???B??? ?????U ?????C B???NG K???O???
Gorky m???t sau con trai hai n??m. Th???i b???y gi??? c?? tin ?????n r???ng nh?? v??n b??? ?????u ?????c. R???ng, Stalin ghen t??? v???i ti???ng t??m l???ng l???y c???a ??ng. Tr?????c l??c m???t, Maksim Gorky ???????c l??nh t??? ?????n th??m, trong bu???i g???p g??? ????, h??nh nh?? ng?????i b???nh ???????c m???i ??n nh???ng chi???c k???o t???m thu???c ?????c.
- ??i???u ???? ho??n to??n v?? l??! ??? ??aria Maksimovna qu??? quy???t. - ??ng n???i b??? ???m n???ng v?? qua ?????i, gi???ng nh?? b??? t??i, v?? b???nh vi??m ph???i. Ph???i l?? ??i???m y???u c???a ??ng. (H???u qu??? c???a m???t v??? t??? t??? b???t th??nh. B??? tr?????t ?????i h???c Kazan, c??i ch???t c???a b?? n???i, s??? ngh??o kh??? - t???t c??? ??i???u ???? ???? khi???n ch??ng trai Peshkov 19 tu???i mua m???t kh???u s??ng l???c ngo??i ch???, ?????n ng???i m???t m??nh b??n khe su???i v?? b???n v??o tim. Nh??ng vi??n ?????n l???i xuy??n qua ph???i, v?? m???t th??ng sau anh l???i ??i l??m trong hi???u b??nh m??). C???m th???y s???p m???t, ??ng ????? ngh??? ????a t??i v?? Marfa th?????ng xuy??n ?????n v???i ??ng. Ch??ng t??i ng???i b??n c???nh, l???ng nghe ??ng k??? chuy???n. Stalin ??i???u m???t n??? y t?? ?????n ch??m s??c. C??n khi Gorky s???p m???t, c??? Stalin, Molotov v?? Voroshilov ?????u ?????n th??m ??ng. Tr?????c m???t nh???ng ng?????i n??y, n??? y t?? ???? ti??m cho ??ng m???t m??i long n??o, v?? ??ng c???m th???y d??? ch???u ?????n m???c t?????ng nh?? ho??n to??n kho??? m???nh. H??? n??i v??? v??n h???c, v??? nh???ng chuy???n kh??c, nh??ng kh??ng l??u.
D???n d???n s???c kho??? c???a Gorky tr??? n??n suy s???p. ??ng ra ??i m???t c??ch l???ng l???. ???? l?? ng??y 18 th??ng 6 n??m 1936.
T.H.
(???nh: M. Gorky v???i hai ch??u g??i Marfa v?? ??aria)


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