???i Nam Quan sao l???i v??? T??u?

Thứ sáu - 21/06/2019 04:26
Thi???t t??nh, v???i Ho??ng t??i, bi??n gi???i n??o th?? c??ng th??? th??i. B???i l?? cho ?????n b??y gi??? Ho??ng t??i ch??? th???c s??? th???y t???n m???t hai c??i-g???i-l??-bi??n-gi???i. Th??? nh???t, c???u Hi???n L????ng tr??n s??ng B???n H???i do Hi???p ?????nh Gen??ve 1954 ch???n l??m m???c t???m ph??n chia Nam ??? B???c. Th??? hai, l???n m???c s??ng n?????c bao la v?? h??nh tr??n V???nh Th??i Lan khi ng?????i t??i c??ng chi???c ghe v?????t bi??n ch???t c??? con g?? th???p h????ng c??ng tr?????c m??i ghe r???i h??n hoan b???o: Y??n ch??! Ghe ???? v??o h???i ph???n qu???c t???! Ho??ng t??i ????u bi???t ???h???i ph???n qu???c t?????? ch??nh l?? l???n ranh c???a m???t t
???i Nam Quan sao l???i v??? T??u?
NGHI??N C???U - PH?? B??NH - TRAO ?????I - M???C CON

??? b??n th???ng v???a ?????c
V???a ??c l???i v???a tham
Ch??ng l???n t???ng t???c ?????t
M???t th???i m???t Vi???t Nam!
21- 6 - 2019
????? Ho??ng


???i Nam Quan v?? s??? th???t chuy???n ???C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam d??ng ?????t cho Trung Qu???c???

10/06/2017

Chi???u m??a bi??n gi???i anh ??i v??? ????u
Bi??n gi???i n??o?

Thi???t t??nh, v???i Ho??ng t??i, bi??n gi???i n??o th?? c??ng th??? th??i. B???i l?? cho ?????n b??y gi??? Ho??ng t??i ch??? th???c s??? th???y t???n m???t hai c??i-g???i-l??-bi??n-gi???i. Th??? nh???t, c???u Hi???n L????ng tr??n s??ng B???n H???i do Hi???p ?????nh Gen??ve 1954 ch???n l??m m???c t???m ph??n chia Nam ??? B???c. Th??? hai, l???n m???c s??ng n?????c bao la v?? h??nh tr??n V???nh Th??i Lan khi ng?????i t??i c??ng chi???c ghe v?????t bi??n ch???t c??? con g?? th???p h????ng c??ng tr?????c m??i ghe r???i h??n hoan b???o: Y??n ch??! Ghe ???? v??o h???i ph???n qu???c t???! Ho??ng t??i ????u bi???t ???h???i ph???n qu???c t?????? ch??nh l?? l???n ranh c???a m???t th??? gi???i m???i trong ???? Ho??ng t??i r???i ra c?? th??? ch??? l?? m???t ???con th?? hoang l???c ????n??? nh?? Nam L???c ngh???n ng??o th??? than trong b???n nh???c S??i G??n V??nh Bi???t.

H???c tr?? Vi???t Nam ai m?? ch???ng ???t???ng???: ???Nam qu???c s??n h?? Nam ????? c????? v?? ????????t n?????c ta t??? ???i Nam Quan ?????n m??i C?? Mau???. Ch???ng ?????a n??o th??m b??n kho??n bi??n gi???i ph??a B???c c???a Nam qu???c ???? l??n t???n ????u? Th???i khuy???t s??? bi??n gi???i ???? h??nh nh?? l??n ?????n t???n Tri???t Giang hay H??? Nam c?? ????ng kh??ng? L?? Th?????ng Ki???t v?? Quang Trung d???a v??o b???n ????? n??o m?? chu???n b??? ????i l???i Qu???ng ????ng Qu???ng T??y?

Ho??ng t??i l?? m?? v??? chuy???n bi??n gi???i v?? nhi???u l?? do. Th??? nh???t, v?? l?? m?? v??? l???ch s??? v?? c??ng ph??p qu???c t???. Hi???u bi???t v??? bi??n gi???i chung quy ?????u do k?? ???c t???p th???, l???ch s??? truy???n mi???ng, s??ch b??o r???t l??a th??a m?? m??ng??? Th??? hai, trong th???i ?????i Internet, Star Wars, MAD (mutual assured destruction ??? b???o ?????m ch???t ch??m), WMD (weapons of mass destrucion ??? ch???t c??? ????m), Jihad-Mujaheddeen v?? to??n c???u h??a kinh t??? t??i ch??nh n??y, bi??n gi???i tr??n b??? tr??n bi???n c?? th??? ??ang tr??? th??nh l???i th???i l???c ??i???u. Th???t v???y, bi??n gi???i n??o ??? ngay c??? m???t h??ng r??o ??i???n t??? ki???u h??ng r??o McNamara ng??y tr?????c, c?? th??? ng??n ch???n ???????c nh???ng bom vi khu???n ph?? computer, nh???ng tay c?????p c???n to??n c???u trong ?????i c??ng ty ENRON, hay nh???ng k??? li???u m???ng g??y ra v??? 11.9 ??? M???? Th??? ba, v?? s??n h?? qu?? h????ng v???n l?? chuy???n c?? th??? nh???y c???m, c???c b???, ch??? quan, d??? ????ng m?? c??ng d??? sai. Th???m k???ch Mi???n ?????t H???a c???a Do Th??i ??? Palestine h??m nay cho th???y m???t quan ni???m qu?? ????ng v??? ?????t ??ai l??nh th??? c?? th??? g??y ra nh???ng h???u qu??? kinh ho??ng ?????n m???c n??o.

Khi phong tr??o t??? kh??? ???Vi???t c???ng d??ng ?????t cho Trung c???ng??? x???y ra, Ho??ng t??i m???i l???c l???i s??ch b??o xem c?? th??m ???????c hi???u bi???t n??o kh??ng ngo??i chuy???n n??i lui n??i t???i tr??n b??o, tr??n ????i, tr??n Internet v???n ???? b??? ch??nh tr??? h??a m??o m?? ?????n ????? kh??ng bi???t ????u m?? ph??n bi???t th???c h??. T??i li???u coi nh?? x??a nh???t Ho??ng t??i c?? s???n trong tay l?? quy???n ??tat Actuel du Tunkin, de la Cochinchine et des Royaumes de Cambodge, Laos et Lac Tho c???a M. de la Bissach??re, in n??m 1812, t???c 44 n??m tr?????c khi Ph??p ??? B??? ????o Nha t???n c??ng ???? N???ng v?? 72 n??m sau khi Vi???t Nam ph???i kh??? nh???c k?? v??n ki???n ?????u h??ng g???i l?? H??a ?????c Gi??p Th??n. V??? bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa, de la Bissach??re kh??ng cung c???p m???t b???n ????? n??o c??? m?? ch??? vi???t m???t c??u: ?????? ng?????i ta c?? th??? ?????c ??o??n r???ng Tonkin (hay ????ng Kinh) tr???i d??i t??? v?? ????? 17 l??n ?????n v?? ????? 23, t??? kinh tuy???n 118 ????? ?????n kinh tuy???n 127 ????? 30 ph??t??? (1). So v???i th???c t??? bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa h??m nay, ?????c t??nh ???? h??nh nh?? ch??? c?? m???t ??i???m kh??? d?? ch???p nh???n ???? l?? v?? ????? 23. Ngo??i ra, quy???n Vietnam ??? Places and History do Stewart, Tabori & Chang ???n h??nh ??? New York n??m 1998, c?? in l???i ba b???n ????? Vi???t Nam c???. B???n ????? th??? nh???t c???a anh em Van Langren ph??c h???a n??m 1595. B???n ????? th??? hai c???a P. du Val n??m 1686. V?? b???n ????? th??? ba l?? c???a Gi??m M???c Alexandre de Rhodes (2). C??ng xem ba b???n ????? n??y Ho??ng t??i c??ng m?? m??? th??m n??n ????nh ch??o thua. M???t kh??c, Nguy???n Xu??n Th??? k??? r???ng ng??y 15.12.1883, Th??? t?????ng Ph??p Jules Ferry t???ng ????? ngh??? v???i ?????c s??? nh?? Thanh t???i Paris hai b??n n??n th????ng thuy???t v??? ???m???t ???????ng bi??n gi???i ch???c ch???n??? gi???a Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c ????? ??i ?????n m???t v??ng tr??i ?????n trung l???p (3). Kh??ng bi???t chuy???n n??y ??i ?????n ????u nh??ng ??t ra Ho??ng t??i c?? th??? ngh?? r???ng cho ?????n 1883 th?? gi???a Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c ch??a c?? m???t ???????ng bi??n gi???i r???ch r??i n??o c???.

V?? kinh nghi???m v?? hi???u bi???t v??? bi??n gi???i ??n ??ong nh?? th???, Ho??ng t??i kh??ng kh???i ch???i v???i khi nghe n??i ?????n Hi???p ?????c Thi??n T??n 1885 v??? ph??n ranh l??nh th??? v?? Hi???p ?????c Br??vi?? 1887 v??? l??nh h???i (4), ho???c khi nghe Th??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao L?? C??ng Ph???ng nh???c ?????n l?? C??ng ?????c 1887 v?? 1895 ph??n ?????nh to??n b??? bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa t??? T??y sang ????ng tr??n chi???u d??i tr??n d?????i 1.300km v?? ???? c???m tr??n 300 c???t m???c, c??ng nh?? n???i dung Hi???p ?????nh Vi???t ??? Hoa 30.12.1999 v??? bi??n gi???i v?? Hi???p ?????nh 25.12.2000 v??? l??nh h???i (5).

Ho??ng t??i c??? lao ??ao v?? nh???ng c??u h???i nh?? bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa n??o, ai ph??n ?????nh bi??n gi???i ????, h???i n??o? ???i Nam Quan c???a ai, n???m ??? ????u? Th??c B???n Gi???c ??? ????u, c???a ai? Hang P??c B?? ??? ????u? T???i sao chuy???n hi???p ?????nh bi??n gi???i v?? l??nh h???i b??y gi??? m???i ?????t ra v.v??? v?? v.v????

Ph??t s??ng l????nh cu??a Tr????n Khu??

Chi???n d???ch t??? kh??? ???Vi???t c???ng c???t ?????t d??ng cho Trung c???ng??? h??nh nh?? kh???i s??? t??? trong n?????c v???i nh???ng danh t??nh ????????i kh??ng??? quen thu???c??? Ph??t s??ng l???nh ??i???n h??nh kh???i s??? chi???n d???ch l?? l?? th?? ngo?? g???i T???ng B?? th?? Giang Tr???ch D??n c???a Tr???n Khu??. Tr???n Khu?? vi???t th?? ng??y 20.2.2002 trong l??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c n??y d??? t??nh ?????n Vi???t Nam ng??y 27.2.2002 (6). ???? h???n, Tr???n Khu?? l?? ng?????i ??ang ??? trong n?????c d??? thu l?????m v?? ki???m ch???ng c??c ngu???n tin t???c t??i li???u li??n h???, l???i l?? m???t ng?????i l??m c??ng t??c nghi??n c???u v??n h??a, ngh??a l?? ng?????i m?? thi??n ch???c tr?? th???c bu???c ph???i nghi??m t??c n??i c?? s??ch m??ch c?? ch???ng. Tr???n Khu?? nghi??m t??c ?????n m???c n??o?

Tr???n Khu?? nh???c l???i chuy???n x??a r???ng: ?????? N???u ch??ng t??i nh??? kh??ng nh???m th?? trong d???p ti???p m???t ??o??n ?????i bi???u cao c???p c???a Vi???t Nam do H??? Ch??? t???ch d???n ?????u, Mao Ch??? t???ch ???? thay m???t nh??n d??n Trung Qu???c xin l???i nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam v??? nh???ng l???i l???m v?? tai h???a m?? c??c tri???u ?????i phong ki???n ???? g??y ra cho nh??n d??n Vi???t Nam trong qu?? kh???. Ng?????i c??n ????? ngh??? v?? t??? tay m??nh b??t ph?? s???a l???i t??n cho c???a ???i bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa, ?????i ba ch??? ???Tr???n Nam Quan??? th??nh ???M???c Nam Quan??? (7). Tr???n Khu?? kh??ng n??i h???i ngh??? th?????ng ?????nh ???y x???y ra ??? ????u, n??m n??o. ??i???u khi???n Ho??ng t??i ph??n v??n l?? t???i sao Mao Tr???ch ????ng v???a xin l???i H??? Ch?? Minh v??? nh???ng t???i ??c phong ki???n r???i l???i t??i ph???m ngay l???i l???m phong ki???n ???? khi t??? ti???n c???m b??t s???a ch??? Tr???n th??nh ch??? M???c tr??n ???i Nam Quan m?? kh??ng h??? trao ?????i hay l???ch s??? h???i qua ?? ki???n H??? Ch?? Minh, nh?? th??? Trung Qu???c l?? ch??? nh??n c???a Tr???n Nam Quan v???y?

???i nam quan n??o?

B??n kho??n ???? ch??a ???????c gi???i t???a th?? Ho??ng t??i l???i nh???n ???????c t??? Ph??p ??m s??? 72, th??ng 1.2002 ph??t h??nh t??? Canada c???a H??a th?????ng T??m Ch??u. B??a sau c???a t??? b??o ????ng m???t b???c h??nh v???i ch?? th??ch: ???C???a a??i Nam Quan. Bi??n gi???i Vi???t Nam & Trung Qu???c t??? nhi???u ?????i. Nay t???p ??o??n C???ng s???n Vi???t Nam nh?????ng cho Trung c???ng v?? c??n nh?????ng th??m v??o n???i ?????a Vi???t Nam ch???ng 5 c??y s??????.

Anh-Ai-Nam-Quang-tren-buu-thiep-thoi-xua
A??nh a??i Nam Quan tr??n b??u thi????p th????i x??a ??? A??nh internet

H??a th?????ng T??m Ch??u cao t??ng ?????c tr???ng, l???i H??a th?????ng h???n ph???i l?? ???ch??n nh????? ch??? kh??ng th??? c?? chuy???n ???s???c t???c th??? kh??ng, kh??ng t???c th??? s???c???, r??u ??ng n??? c???m c???m b?? kia, H??a th?????ng b???o c???a ???i Nam Quan t???c th??? l?? c???a ???i Nam Quan, m???t th??m 5 km t???c th??? l?? m???t th??m 5km. Bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa d??i ng??t 1.300km, H??a th?????ng d???y m???t 5km b??? r???ng t???c l?? m???t 1.300km x 5km = 6.500km2, ngh??a l?? m???t m???t di???n t??ch r???ng h??n g???p ba l???n di???n t??ch H?? N???i. Th???c h?? th??? n??o?

Ho??ng t??i ?????c mong c?? c?? duy??n h???u H??a th?????ng ????? H??a th?????ng khai t??m cho chuy???n ????. C??ng nh?? ????? xin H??a th?????ng gi???i t???a b??n kho??n v??? hai ch??? Nam Quan hay c???a Nam. N???u ng?????i Vi???t t??? ?? x??y m???t c???a ???i ?????a ?????u gi???a m??nh v?? Trung Qu???c th?? ???i ???? ph???i l?? c???a B???c, ???i B???c hay B???c Quan ch??? sao l???i Nam Quan? N??i th??? kh??c, n???u Vi???t Nam th???c s??? c?? m???t c???a ???i g???i l?? ???i Nam Quan th?? c???a ???i ???? ph???i ??? C?? Mau, ??? U Minh H???, hay ??t ra th?? c??ng ????u ???? ??? khu Mo?? V???t T???nh Bi??n ch???ng h???n ch??? sao Nam Quan l???i n???m v??? ph??a B???c v?? nh??n v??? ph????ng Nam?

???i nam quan cu??a ai?

Trong kho???ng 1.300km bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa th?? Cao B???ng c?? 314km v?? L???ng S??n c?? 253km bi??n gi???i chung v???i t???nh Qu???ng T??y (8). L???ng S??n ??? c??ch H?? N???i 154km ??? l?? t???nh ?????a ?????u c???a Vi???t Nam theo ngh??a trong t???t c??? c??c t???nh bi??n gi???i, L???ng S??n l?? t???nh g???n nh???t v???i th??? ???? H?? N???i. L???ng S??n n???i danh v???i hai c???a kh???u hay hai quan ???i l?? Chi L??ng v?? Nam Quan.

???i Chi L??ng, kh??ng ph???i c???ng hay c???a m?? l?? ???m???t tr???n ????? hi???m ??c??? m???t thung l??ng h???p, h??nh b???u d???c, chi???u d??i B???c ??? Nam kho???ng 4km. C?? hai c???a, c???a ph??a B???c g???i l?? Quy?? M??n Quan, c???a ph??a Nam g???i l?? Ng?? Th???. ???i Chi L??ng c??ch H?? N???i ch???ng 110km v?? c??ch bi??n gi???i 60km??? (9).

Trong t???nh L???ng S??n, th??? tr???n bi??n gi???i c???c B???c l?? ?????ng ????ng. T??? ?????ng ????ng ng?????i ta c?? th??? ??i l??n a??i Nam Quan. Kho???ng c??ch L???ng S??n ??? ?????ng ????ng theo Madrolle l?? 15km, theo Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n l?? 14km. ??i???u ???? ch???ng g??y ra th???c m???c n??o c???. R???c r???i l?? kho???ng c??nh ?????ng ????ng ??? ???i Nam Quan. Kho???ng c??ch ????, theo Madrolle l?? 4km (10), theo Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n l?? 3km (11), theo D. Robinson ??? R. Storey l?? 600m, theo L?? C??ng Ph???ng 200m. S??ch Indochina c???a Madrolle vi???t n??m 1930, ngh??a l?? trong l??c c??c hi???p ?????c gi???a Ph??p v?? nh?? Thanh c???a Trung Qu???c c??n hi???u l???c. S??ch ?????t N?????c Vi???t Nam c???a Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n & al. vi???t n??m 1989, quy???n h?????ng d???n du l???ch Vietnam c???a D. Robinson ??? R. Storey vi???t n??m 1993 (12), L?? C??ng Ph???ng l??n ti???ng m???i ????y v?? ???????c ph??? bi???n l???i tr??n t??? Vi???t Lu???n ng??y 8.2.2002 (13).

Nh?? v???y, kho???ng c??ch t??? c???t m???c 0km tr??n ???????ng bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa ngang ?????ng ????ng ?????n a??i Nam Quan ho???c l?? 4km, ho???c l?? 3km, ho???c l?? 600m, hay ??t n???a c??ng l?? 200m ch??? kh??ng tr??ng v???i c???t m???c 0km, c??ng kh??ng ??? tr?????c c???t m???c 0km v??? ph??a Nam, ngh??a l?? n???m l??? trong l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam. N??i th??? kh??c, ???i Nam Quan, Tr???n Nam Quan, M???c Nam Quan, H???u Ngh??? Quan l?? m???t v?? x??y tr??n ph???n ?????t c???a Trung Qu???c ch??? kh??ng ph???i tr??n ph???n ?????t Vi???t Nam. H??nh ???nh c???a ???i Nam Quan ???? ch??nh l?? h??nh ???nh xu???t hi???n tr??n trang b??a sau t??? Ph??p ??m c???a H??a th?????ng T??m Ch??u nh?? ???? n??i. Madrolle c??ng c??n k??? m???t chi ti???t kh??c ????ng ch?? ?? v??? a??i Nam Quan ???? l?? ???V??o ng??y 24.2.1885, m???t ng??y sau khi x???y ra tr???n chi???n ??? ?????ng ????ng, T?????ng de N??grier cho ph?? s???p ???i Nam Quan v??o l??c 2 gi??? 30 chi???u v?? cho d???ng l??n g???n ???? m???t t???m bi???n ghi b???ng ch??? H??n: ???Kh??ng ph???i v??ch ???? b???o v??? ???????c bi??n gi???i, m?? l?? s??? t??n tr???ng c??c hi???p ?????nh??? (14). Nh?? v???y l?? ch??nh Ph??p ???? ph?? s???p a??i Nam Quan, v?? ph???i ch??ng a??i Nam Quan hay H???u Ngh??? Quan ??ang c?? h??m nay ???? ???????c Trung Qu???c x??y l???i v??o m???t l??c n??o ???? sau ng??y 24.2.1885?

H???c tr?? Vi???t Nam ng??y tr?????c ?????a n??o m?? ch???ng ???t???ng???: ????????t n?????c ta t??? ???i Nam Quan ?????n m??i C?? Mau???. Ch??ng t??i ngu ng??, d???i kh???, cu???ng t??n, l?????i bi???ng ?????n ????? ch???ng ?????a n??o th??m th???c m???c: M???t, ???i Nam Quan kh??ng ph???i do Vi???t Nam x??y d???ng v?? n???u c???a Vi???t Nam th?? ph???i g???i l?? ???i B???c Quan. Hai, ???i Nam Quan do Trung Qu???c x??y tr??n ?????t Trung Qu???c. Ba, ???i Nam Quan kh??ng n???m tr??n bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa tr??ng v???i c???t m???c 0km ho???c trong ?????a ph???n Vi???t Nam. B???n, ???i Nam Quan n???m trong ?????a ph???n Trung Qu???c, c??ch c???t m???c 0km t??? 4km ?????n 200m v??? ph??a B???c nh?? ???? n??i tr??n. N???u h???i ???? lu?? ch??ng t??i th???c m???c ???????c nh?? th??? th?? ????u ?????n n????i b??y gi??? c??? ng???n t?? te ra tr?????c m??n ?????u t??? ???t???i d??ng ?????t??? nh?? xem ???o thu???t hay l??m xi???c th??? n??y?!

Ai l????n ??????t cu??a ai?

Tr??? l???i v???n ????? kho???ng c??ch gi???a c???t m???c 0km n???m tr??n ranh gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa ??? ?????ng ????ng v???i a??i Nam Quan hay H???u Ngh??? Quan n???m g???n tr??n ?????t Trung Qu???c. Nh?? ???? n??i, Madrolle, Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n, D. Robinson ??? R. Storey v?? L?? C??ng Ph???ng ?????u ????a ra nh???ng con s??? kh??c nhau v??? kho???ng c??ch ????, ch???ng t??? kho???ng c??ch ???? ???? co d??n. Nh??ng kho???ng c??ch co d??n nh?? v???y l?? v?? a??i Nam Quan di chuy???n v??? h?????ng Vi???t Nam, hay v?? l???n ranh gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa di chuy???n v??? h?????ng Trung Qu???c? N???u l???n ranh gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa th???c s??? ???? b?? v??? h?????ng H???u Ngh??? Quan tr??n ?????t Trung Qu???c khi???n cho kho???ng c??ch t??? c???t m???c 0km ?????n H???u Ngh??? Quan ???? t??? 4km n??m 1930 ?????n 200m n??m 2002 nh?? v???y th?? ph???i ch??ng Vi???t Nam ???? l???n ?????t b???ng c??ch nh??ch c???t m???c 0km v??? ph??a H???u Ngh??? Quan ch??? kh??ng ph???i ???? nh?????ng ?????t hay ???? c???t ?????t d??ng cho Trung Qu???c? V?? nh?? v???y, n???u c?? t??? c??o th?? ph???i t??? ???Vi???t c???ng l???n ?????t c???a Trung c???ng??? ch??? sao l???i t??? ng?????c ???Vi???t c???ng d??ng ?????t cho Trung c???ng????

Tr???n Khu?? x??c nh???n l?? ???? ??i ???kh???o s??t th???c ?????a ??? L???ng S??n??? (15) h???i th??ng 8.2001, ngh??a l?? g???n 20 th??ng sau khi hi???p ?????nh v??? bi??n gi???i v?? l??nh h???i ???????c k?? k???t. ???? l???n l???i l??n L???ng S??n nh?? th??? nh??ng Tr???n Khu?? l???i kh??ng ch???u kh?? ch??t n???a ?????n t???n ?????ng ????ng ????? xem a??i Nam Quan n???m ??? ch??? n??o? Tr???n Khu?? ch??? ??? l?? t???i t???nh l??? v???nh tai nghe nguy??n v??n ???ng?????i th?? n??i (a??i Nam Quan) ???? n???m s??u trong l??nh th??? Trung Qu???c 500m, ng?????i th?? n??i 2.000m. Di???n t??ch ?????t nh?????ng ng?????i th?? b???o m???t 500km2, ng?????i th?? b???o m???t h??n 700km2, c?? ng?????i l???i n??i m???t h???n 900km2. Ri??ng ?????ng ch?? L?? Th??? Ngh??a nguy??n tr?????ng ban bi??n gi???i c???a ch??nh ph??? th?? cho ch??ng t??i bi???t M???c Nam Quan hi???n n???m c??ch v???ch bi??n gi???i l?? 800m v?? t???ng s??? di???n t??ch ?????a gi???i m?? Vi???t Nam ph???i c???t nh?????ng cho Trung Qu???c ch??? m???t 232km2??? (16).

Nh??ng ng?????i m?? Tr???n Khu?? g???i l?? ?????/c L?? Th??? Ngh??a nguy??n tr?????ng ban bi??n gi???i c???a ch??nh ph?????? th???c s??? l?? ?????i t?? L?? Minh Ngh??a, k??? ???? x??c nh???n hai b??n Vi???t ??? Hoa ??ang tranh ch???p v??? 227km2 d???c bi??n gi???i ch??? kh??ng h??? c?? chuy???n ???d??ng??? cho Trung Qu???c 232km2 nh?? Tr???n Khu?? nghe n??i (17). L???i n???a, v??? 227km2 hai b??n tranh ch???p L?? C??ng Ph???ng cho bi???t ???? l?? t???ng s??? di???n t??ch c???a 164 ??i???m tranh ch???p tr???i d??i tr??n kho???ng 400km bi??n gi???i. Tranh ch???p n??y cu???i c??ng ???????c gi???i quy???t ng??y 30.12.1999 theo th???a thu???n VN: 113km2 v?? TQ: 114km2 (18). Ngh??a l??, n???u c?? m???t th?? Vi???t Nam ???? ch??? m???t 114km2 ch??? kh??ng ph???i 232, 500, 700 hay 900km2 nh?? Tr???n Khu?? nghe n??i?

Chuy???n tr??n b??? c???a Tr???n Khu?? l?? th???, chuy???n tr??n bi???n th?? sao? Tr???n Khu?? qu??? quy???t r???ng ???v??ng h???i gi???i theo m???t c??n b??? trong ban bi??n gi???i th?? t??? l??? chia l???i v??ng V???nh B???c b??? l??: VN 53,23%, TQ 46,77%. Theo hi???p ?????c k?? n??m 1895 gi???a tri???u Thanh Trung Qu???c v?? ch??nh quy???n th???c d??n Ph??p ??? Vi???t Nam th?? t??? l??? l?? VN 64%, TQ 36%, nh?? th??? c?? ng?????i t??nh c??? th??? Vi???t Nam m???t (kho???ng 10% hay) 112.000km2 l??nh h???i??? (19). Tr???n Khu?? kh??ng cho bi???t d???a v??o ????u m?? k???t lu???n 10% = 112.000km2 v?? th???c t??? to??n b??? di???n t??ch V???nh B???c b??? l?? kho???ng 123.700km2 th?? 10% s??? ???? ph???i l?? 12.370km2 ch??? l??m sao l??n ?????n 112.000km2 ???????c (20)?

D???a v??o nh???ng k???t qu??? nghe ng??ng v?? t??nh to??n nh?? v???y, Tr???n Khu?? th???ng tay t??? c??o B??? Ch??nh tr??? L?? Kh??? Phi??u v?? Nh?? n?????c Vi???t Nam ??????? t??y ti???n k?? nh?????ng ?????t ??ai s??ng bi???n c???a T??? qu???c, ???? ph???n b???i d??n t???c v?? c??ng l??m l??? r?? th??m b??? m???t b?? nh??n c???a m??nh, ???? g??y ra nh???ng t???i ??c tr???i kh??ng dung ?????t kh??ng tha v?? ???? k?? hai hi???p ?????nh b??n n?????c Vi???t ??? Hoa (21)???. ????y ch??nh l?? n???i dung b???n ?????i c??o m?? nh???ng nh??n v???t ?????i kh??ng chuy??n nghi???p trong ngo??i n?????c ?????ng lo???t l???p l???i. C??n chuy???n t???i sao l???i B??? Ch??nh tr??? L?? Kh??? Phi??u m?? kh??ng ph???i l?? B??? Ch??nh tr??? N??ng ?????c M???nh th?? ch??? c?? Tr???n Khu?? v?? ?????ng b???n bi???t.

L????i th???? cu??a tr????n ??a??i s??

Ng?????i th??? hai theo ch??n ??? ho???c d???n ???????ng ??? Tr???n Khu?? trong vi???c kh???o s??t th???c ?????a v???n ????? bi??n gi???i v?? t???i ??c m???i qu???c c???u vinh l?? B??c s?? Tr???n ?????i Si?? ??? Paris (22).

Kh??c v???i Tr???n Khu?? l?? tr?????c khi ph??t hi???n c??i g???i l?? ??? nguy??n v??n c???a Tr???n ?????i Si?? ??? nh???ng ???b?? ???n??? v??? vi???c ????????ng CSVN l??nh ?????o Nh?? n?????c CHXHCNVN nh?????ng l??nh th???, l??nh h???i cho THNDCHQ???, Tr???n ?????i Si?? ???? long tr???ng tuy??n b???: ???Tuy t??i ???? tuy??n th??? t???i ????y h???i th??ng Ba v???a qua. Nh??ng h??m nay t??i xin tuy??n th??? m???t l???n n???a: ???T??i xin tuy??n th??? v???i t???t c??? danh d??? c???a t??i r???ng: T??i kh??ng th??, kh??ng gh??t nh???ng ng?????i t???i Vi???t Nam h??? ???? n???p l??nh th???, l??nh h???i cho Trung Qu???c. T??i c??ng kh??ng v?? l??ng y??u n?????c m?? o??n gh??t h???. T??i kh??ng h???n nh???ng ng?????i Vi???t ch??? tr????ng kh???ng b??? t??i khi h??? m???i t??i v??? Vi???t Nam gi??p ????? h???. Nh???ng l???i t??i tr??nh b??y h??m nay ho??n to??n v?? t?????. Th??? xong, Tr???n ?????i Si?? b???t m?? nh???ng ??i???u ???????c Tr???n ?????i Si?? coi l?? b?? ???n nh?? sau:

Th??? nh???t, s??? ?????t Vi???t Nam nh?????ng cho Trung Qu???c d???c theo bi??n gi???i hai t???nh L???ng S??n v?? Cao B???ng l?? 789km2 ch??? kh??ng ph???i 720km2.

Th??? hai, c???t c??y s??? Zero (c???t m???c 0km) b??y gi??? ??? ph??a Nam ch??nh l?? c???t 5 c??y s??? (c???t m???c 5km) ng??y tr?????c.

Th??? ba, v??ng Cao B???ng b??? Trung Qu???c l???n s??t t???i hang Pak-b?? v?? hang n??y tr?????c kia n???m r???t xa bi??n gi???i (kho???ng 50km) nay n???m s??t bi??n gi???i.

Th?? t??, hi???p ?????nh v??? l??nh h???i ng??y 25.12.2000 l??m cho Vi???t Nam m???t th??m 9%, ngh??a l?? theo Hi???p ?????c Ph??p ??? Hoa 1887 v??? V???nh B???c b??? th?? t??? l??? l?? VN 62%, TQ 38%, b??y gi??? l?? VN 53% v?? TQ 47%.

Th??? n??m, t???t c??? nh???ng ???b?? ???n??? ???? l?? do hai k?? gi??? Trung Qu???c b???n c???a Tr???n ?????i Si?? cho bi???t ng??y 9.1.2000???.

Tr???n ?????i Si?? th??? v???i ng?????i ?????c nh??ng hai k?? gi??? b???n Tr???n ?????i Si?? c?? th??? ??? ho???c Tr???n ?????i Si?? c?? ????i h??? ph???i th??? ??? khi h??? ti???t l??? b?? ???n cho Tr???n ?????i Si?? kh??ng? M???t kh??c, Tr???n ?????i Si?? b???o l???y danh d??? c?? nh??n ????? th???, nh??ng l???i kh??ng cho bi???t l???y g?? ????? b???o ch???ng danh d??? c?? nh??n ????? Th??? n??n, Tr???n ?????i Si?? ???? kh??ng th??? gi???i t???a h???t nh???ng th???c m???c v??? nh???ng ??i???u ???????c b???t m?????

Th??? nh???t, Tr???n ?????i Si?? qu??? quy???t Vi???t Nam m???t 789km2 ch??? kh??ng ph???i ch??? 720km2 th??i, nh??ng Tr???n ?????i Si?? l???i kh??ng vi???n d???n t??i li???u n??o n??i Vi???t Nam m???t 720km2? M???t kh??c, chi???u d??i bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa thu???c t???nh L???ng S??n l?? 253km, thu???c Cao B???ng l?? 314km, t???ng c???ng l?? 567km. Tr???n ?????i Si?? t??nh chi???u r???ng c???a nh???ng ch??? b??? m???t nh?? th??? n??o m?? ????a ra ????p s??? 789km2 t??? 567km chi???u d??i ?????

Th??? hai, Tr???n ?????i Si?? qu??? quy???t c???t m???c 0km hi???n t???i ch??nh l?? c???t m???c 5km ng??y tr?????c. ??? tr??n ???? l?????c qua m???t s??? ?? ki???n kh??c nhau v??? ??o???n ???????ng t??? ?????ng ????ng ??? c??? th??? l?? t??? c???t m???c 0km ??? l??n ?????n ???i Nam Quan, theo Madrolle l?? 4km, Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n l?? 3km, D. Robinson v?? R. Storey l?? 600m v?? L?? C??ng Ph???ng l?? 200m. D?? xa g???n c?? kh??c nhau nh?? th???, nh??ng kh??ng m???t ng?????i n??o trong s??? ???? d??m b???o l?? c???t m???c 0km tr??n ???????ng bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa b??ng quang v??ng ?????ng ????ng b??y gi??? ch??nh l?? c???t m???c 5km trong l??nh th??? Vi???t Nam ng??y tr?????c ??? ngh??a l?? c???t m???c 0km ???? b??? ?????y l??i v??? ph??a Nam s??u v??o n???i ?????a Vi???t Nam 5km ??? nh?? Tr???n ?????i Si?? th??? quy???t. Kh??ng ai d??m n??i, v?? n???u s??? th???t qu??? nh?? l???i th??? c???a Tr???n ?????i Si?? th?? th??? tr???n ?????ng ????ng ??? c??? th??? l?? ga xe l???a ?????ng ????ng ??? b??y gi??? ???? l?? c???a Trung Qu???c, ???? l???t th???m v??o trong l??nh th??? Trung Qu???c r???i. ??i???u n??y ch??? m???i c?? trong m?? c???a Tr???n ?????i Si??.

Th??? ba, v??? t??? l??? b??ch ph??n trong vi???c ph??n chia l??nh h???i gi???a Vi???t Nam v?? Trung Qu???c. Con s??? Tr???n ?????i Si?? ????a ra ?????i ????? c??ng gi???ng nh?? con s??? c???a Tr???n Khu??. Ch??? kh??c hai ??i???u. M???t, Tr???n ?????i Si?? kh??ng d??m qu??? quy???t 9%-10% l?? b???ng 112.000km2 nh?? Tr???n Khu??. Hai, s??? li???u c???a Tr???n ?????i Si?? l?? do hai k?? gi??? Trung Qu???c ti???t l??? trong khi s??? li???u c???a Tr???n Khu?? l?? do ???m???t c??n b??? trong Ban Bi??n gi???i??? cho bi???t. T???t c??? ?????u v?? danh, ?????u kh???u thuy???t v?? b???ng nh??ng ?????u ????ng tin v?? m???t ????ng do t??i ???nghe n??i??? c???a Tr???n Khu??, m???t ????ng do ???t???t c??? danh d?????? c???a Tr???n ?????i Si??.

Th??? t??, hang P??c B?? (Tr???n ?????i Si?? vi???t l?? Pak-b??) v?? th??c B???n Gi???c. ????y c??ng l?? nh???ng ?????a ??i???m Tr???n Khu?? ??? Tr???n ?????i Si?? v?? ?????ng b???n n??ng c???p th??nh v??ng ?????t thi??ng ????? th??m b???ng ch???ng cho c??o tr???ng ???d??ng ?????t???. Tr???n ?????i Si?? b???t m?? l?? Vi???t Nam ???? ???nh?????ng v??ng Cao B???ng s??t t???i hang Pak-b??. Tr?????c kia n???m r???t xa bi??n gi???i (kho???ng 50km) nay n???m s??t bi??n gi???i???. Nh??ng Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n cho bi???t th???c t??? P??c B?? l?? ???m???t x??m nh??? n???m s??t bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa c??ch Cao B???ng 60km??? n??i ????y c?? m???t d??ng su???i, m???t ng???n n??i v?? m???t c??i hang g???i l?? hang C??c B?? n??i ???? che ch??? H??? Ch?? Minh khi H??? Ch?? Minh t??? Trung Qu???c tr??? v??? n??m 1941. Khu v???c hang P??c B?? ???? n???m ngay tr??n bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa, c???t bi??n gi???i 108??? (23). Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n vi???t ra chi ti???t ???? n??m 1989, m?????i n??m sau cu???c chi???n bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa. Nh?? v???y th?? c??i hang m?? Tr???n ?????i Si?? g???i l?? ???Tr?????c kia n???m r???t xa bi??n gi???i kho???ng 50km ???? nh??ng nay l???i n???m s??t bi??n gi???i??? ??? ngh??a l?? ???????ng ranh gi???i ???? b??? d???i xu???ng ph??a Nam, l?? c??i hang t??n g??, ??? ????u? Ph???i ch??ng ????y l?? c??i hang m?? Tr???n ?????i Si?? th??? b??n s???ng b??n ch???t l?? ???? t???n m???t nh??n th???y t?????? Paris?

Th??c B???n Gi???c. Theo Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n th?? ???T??? huy???n Tr??ng Kh??nh ??i ch???ng 20km v??? t???i x?? ????m Th???y, t??? xa c?? th??? nghe th???y ti???ng ???m ???m vang l???i v?? m???t l??n s????ng m??? t???a ngang s?????n n??i v??ng l???y m???t ??o???n s??ng Quy S??n n???m ngang bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa, ??? ????y m???t n?????c s??ng Quy S??n ?????t ng???t h??? th???p h???n xu???ng ch???ng 30m, l??m c??? kh???i n?????c kh???ng l??? ???y ????? xu???ng, t???o th??nh th??c B???n Gi???c??? D?????i ch??n th??c B???n Gi???c l?? m???t s??ng r???ng, ph???ng nh?? g????ng??? (24).

Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n x??c nh???n th??c B???n Gi???c n???m ngang bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa. C??ng nh?? hang P??c B??, x??c nh???n ???? ???????c ????a ra n??m 1989. Tr???n Khu?? v?? ?????ng b???n c?? th??? l???c ?????u ph??? nh???n n???i c??? l?? ???????ng bi??n gi???i ???? ???? b??? Trung Qu???c ??p bu???c Vi???t Nam v??? l???i ????? h???p th???c h??a vi???c chi???m ?????t c???a Trung Qu???c. H??nh nh?? Th?????ng t???a Nh?? ??i???n ??? ?????c c??ng ???? ngh?? nh?? th???. T??? Vi??n Gi??c s??? 127 th??ng 2.2002 c???a Th?????ng t???a vi???t: ????????ng CSVN ???? giao n???p 12 c??y s??? chi???u s??u v??o ?????t li???n thu???c bi??n gi???i 6 t???nh mi???n B???c, t??? bi??n gi???i L??o Qu???c ?????n V???nh B???c Vi???t???. Do ???? ???Th??c B???n Gi???c Cao B???ng nay thu???c v??? l??nh th??? c???a Trung Qu???c???. Nh?? v???y, t??? c??o c???a Th?????ng t???a Nh?? ??i???n tr???m tr???ng h??n c??o tr???ng c???a H??a th?????ng T??m Ch??u. V?? theo Th?????ng t???a Nh?? ??i???n th?? Vi???t Nam m???t 1.300km x 12km = 15.600km2 ?????t li???n ch??? kh??ng ph???i ch??? 6.500km2 nh?? H??a th?????ng T??m Ch??u d???y. C??n th??c B???n Gi???c th?? m???t ?????t. Ng?????i Vi???t n??o m?? kh??ng ???m ???c ti???c h???n. ???? c??ng l?? nh??? qu?? H??a th?????ng, Th?????ng t???a khai t??m cho. Nh??ng th???c h?? ra sao?

Kh??ng ph???i ?????n n??m 1989, Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n m???i x??c nh???n t??nh tr???ng th??c B???n Gi???c n???m ngang bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa nh?? th??? m?? 59 n??m tr?????c, Madrolle c??ng t???ng n??i nguy??n v??n: ???T??? Cao B???ng ?????n B???n Gi???c, 81km ????ng-B???c-????ng. Cu???i d??ng l?? th??c Tu-Tong, cao 25m. L??ng s??ng t???o th??nh ranh gi???i gi???a Tonkin v?? Trung Qu???c??? (25). Madrolle vi???t c??u ???y n??m 1930 n??n kh??ng th??? nghi ng??? Madrolle b??? ??p l???c Trung Qu???c m?? qu???y qu??. V?? trong t??nh th??? n??m 1930, Ph??p kh??ng chi???m ?????t c???a Trung Qu???c th?? th??i ch??? kh??ng th??? c?? chuy???n ng?????c ng???o Trung Qu???c ??p Ph??p d??ng ?????t. M???t kh??c, Madrolle n??i ?????n th??c ???Tu-tong???, ph???i ch??ng ????y l?? ti???ng ng?????i Trung Qu???c d??ng ????? g???i ph???n th??c B???n Gi???c c???a h???? L?? C??ng Ph???ng c??ng nh???c l???i ?? ni???m ???L??ng s??ng t???o th??nh ranh gi???i gi???a Tonkin v?? Trung Qu???c??? c???a Madrolle b???ng c??ch n??i r??: ???C???t m???c ??ang t???n t???i ???????c c???m t??? th???i Thanh, x??c ?????nh ch??? c?? ch??a ???????c m???t n???a th??c B???n Gi???c l?? ??? b??n ph??a ta. Theo quy ?????nh qu???c t???, khi ph??n gi???i c???m m???c th?? th??c ???????c coi nh?? m???t d??ng s??ng, m???t d??ng su???i. ???? l?? s??ng su???i th?? ???????ng bi??n gi???i ??i qua lu???ng ch??nh t???c l?? ch??? t??u thuy???n ??i l???i ???????c. C??n ?????i v???i s??ng su???i n??i t??u thuy???n kh??ng ??i l???i ???????c, th?? ???????ng bi??n gi???i ph???i ??i theo r??nh s??u nh???t??? L??? ra theo th???c ti???n th?? ch??ng ta ch??? ???????c 1/3. Nh??ng sau ????m ph??n, ch??ng ta v?? b???n ???? th???a thu???n th??c B???n Gi???c ???????c chia ????i, m???i b??n ???????c 50%. Hi???n nay c??? hai b??n ??ang ti???n h??nh khai th??c du l???ch ph??a b??n m??nh??? (26). Nh?? v???y, n???u n??i r???ng th??c B???n Gi???c v???n l?? ho??n to??n c???a Vi???t Nam v?? b??y gi??? ???? l???t 2/3 hay 1/2 v??o tay Trung Qu???c th?? h??a ra k??? ????ng b??? t??? kh??? ch??nh l?? th???c d??n Ph??p tr?????c ????y ch??? kh??ng ph???i Vi???t Nam h??m nay?

?????y l?? nh???ng ??i???u Tr???n ?????i S?? th??? danh d??? khi n??i ra, v?? nh???ng ng?????i tham d??? chi???n d???ch t??? kh??? ???Vi???t c???ng d??ng ?????t cho Trung c???ng??? th??? m?? l???p l???i. Th??? l?? m???t quy???t t??m ch??n th???t v?? th??? c??ng l?? m???t h???a h???n gian d???i. B???i l??, n???u bi???t ch???c m??nh kh??ng n??i d???i th?? c???n g?? ph???i th??? n??i th???t. Ph???i ch??ng v?? kh??ng mu???n cho hai ??ng b???n k?? gi??? c???a m??nh ??? v??o t??nh tr???ng kh?? x??? ???? n??n Tr???n ?????i Si?? kh??ng b???t h??? th??? tr?????c khi ti???t l??? b?? ???n ????? Tr???n ?????i Si?? ti???t l??? l???i cho ?????ng b??o m??nh nghe ch??ng?

(Xem ti????p ky?? sau)

Ho??ng Nguy??n Nhu???n
29 th??ng 10, 2008
http://sachhiem.net/HOANGNN/Hoang16.php
Tu???n B??o V??n Ngh??? TP.HCM s??? 452

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Chu?? thi??ch
1. M. de la Bissach??re ??? ??tat Actuel du Tunkin, de la Cochinchine et des Royaumes de Cambodge, Laos et Lac Tho, Galignani, Paris 1812, tr.21: ?????? on peut estimer que le Tunkin s?????tend depuis le 17??me degr?? de latitude jusqu???au 23??me, et en longitude depuis le 118?? jusqu???au 127?? trente minutes???.
2. Stewart, Tabori & Chang ??? Vietnam ??? Places and History, New York 1998, tr.21, 23 v?? 24.
3. Nguy???n Xu??n Th??? ??? B?????c m??? ?????u c???a s??? thi???t l???p h??? th???ng thu???c ?????a Ph??p ???? Vi???t Nam (1858-1897), Mekong Printing, Santa Ana 1995, tr.324.
4. Nguy???n H???u Th???ng ??? L??n ti???ng v??? vi???c CSVN c???t ?????t cho Trung C???ng, G??p Gi??, Washington, 12.2.2002.
5. Di???u V??n ??? Ph???ng v???n Th??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao L?? C??ng Ph???ng, Vi???t Lu???n, Sydney 8.2.2002.
6. Tr???n Khu?? ??? Th?? ng??? g???i T???ng B?? th?? Giang Tr???ch D??n, Vi???t Lu???n, Sydney, 1.3.2002.
7. Tr???n Khu?? ??? s??d.
8. Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n & al. ??? ?????t n?????c Vi???t Nam, H?? N???i 1989, tr.285- 289.
9. Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n & al. ??? s??d, tr.286-288. 
10. Madrolle ??? Indochina, Hachette, London ??? Paris 1930, tr.178: From Dong Dang, the road runs uphill to the Port de Chine, 4k. Nam-quan (Nan-Kuan; Chinese), the Southern Toll Gate of China. A wall about 370m. long rises among the chalk cliffs (forming the frontier) and bars the frontier.
11. Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n & al. ??? s??d, tr.286: Ph??a ????ng l?? bi??n gi???i Vi???t ??? Hoa ch??? c??ch ?????ng ????ng 3km, nh??n th???y c???a H???u ngh??? n???m trong ?????t Trung Qu???c.
12. D. Robinson ??? R. Storey ??? Vietnam, Lonely Planet, Victoria 1993, tr.437, c??n d???n du kh??ch mu???n qu?? giang xe ????? sang Trung Qu???c b???ng nga?? L???ng S??n: Make sure they take you to Huu Nghi Quan ??? there are a few other checkpoints but this is the only one where foreigners can cross??? There is a walk of 600m from Vietnamese border post to ???Friendship Gate??? on the Chinese side.
13. Di???u V??n ??? s??d.
14. Madrolle ??? s??d, tr.177: On Feb. 24, 1885 the day after the fighting at Dong-dang, General de N??grier blew up the Gate at 2???30pm, while near by an inscription was posted in Chinese characters, reading: ???It is not stone walls that protect frontiers, but the carrying out of treaties???.
15. Tr???n Khu?? ??? s??d.
16. Tr???n Khu?? ??? s??d.
17. B??n T??n ?????nh ??? Gi???a s??? th???t v?? tin ?????n ??? V???n ????? l??ng ??o???n th??ng tin ??? Web Giaodiem. com 
18. Di???u V??n ??? s??d.
19. Tr???n Khu?? ??? s??d.
20. B??n T??n ?????nh ??? s??d.
21. Tr???n Khu?? ??? s??d.
22. Tr???n ?????i Si?? ??? B?? ????n c???a vi???c Vi???t Nam hi???n ?????t d??ng bi???n cho Trung Qu???c, c???t 789km2 ??? l??i 5 km ??? D??n Vi???t, Sydney s??? ng??y 24.1.2002.
M???t s??? ng?????i g???p t??c gi??? b??i n??y qu??? quy???t h??? kh??ng bi???t B??c s?? Tr???n ?????i Si?? l?? ai c???. Ch??? c?? Tr???n Th??? T??ng s???ng b???ng ngh??? ch??m c???u v?? thu???c Nam. Tr???n Th??? T??ng ng??y x??a l?? Thi???u sinh qu??n, l???n l??n h???c ?????i h???c S?? ph???m ban Vi???t ??? H??n, nh???p ng?? h???c s?? quan, ph???c v??? trong ng??nh Chi???n tranh ch??nh tr??? ?????n c???p b???c Thi???u t??. Tr???n Th??? T??ng c?? m???t ng?????i anh l?? Tr???n Huy Phong t??? Quy???n, l??nh t??? Vovinam ??? Melbourne, ??c ?????i L???i. ?????i c?? th??? c?? s??? tr??ng h???p l??? l??ng v???y sao?! Xin nh?????ng cho B??c s?? Tr???n ?????i Si?? tr??? l???i.
23. Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n & al.- s??d., tr.291.
24. Nguy???n Kh???c Vi???n & al., s??d., tr.291-292.
25. Madrolle, s??d., tr.179-180: Cao Bang to Ban Gioc, 81k. E.N.E ??? Downstream, cascade of Tu-tong, the height of which is 25m. The bed of the river here constitutes the frontier between Tonkin and China.
26. Di???u V??n ??? s??d.
P/v Theo b??o V??n ngh??? tp H??? Ch?? Minh ng??y 21 - 6 - 2019

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