30/08/1967: Thurgood Marshall tr??? th??nh th???m ph??n T??a ??n t???i cao Hoa K???

Thứ sáu - 30/08/2019 08:25
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1967, Thurgood Marshall tr??? th??nh ng?????i M??? g???c Phi ?????u ti??n ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m th???m ph??n T??a ??n T???i cao Hoa K???. ??ng s??? l??m vi???c t???i T??a ??n T???i cao trong 24 n??m tr?????c khi ngh??? h??u v?? l?? do s???c kh???e, ????? l???i m???t di s???n v??? vi???c duy tr?? c??c quy???n c???a c?? nh??n theo quy ?????nh c???a Hi???n ph??p Hoa K???.
30/08/1967: Thurgood Marshall tr??? th??nh th???m ph??n T??a ??n t???i cao Hoa K???
30/08/1967: Thurgood Marshall tr??? th??nh th???m ph??n T??a ??n t???i cao Hoa K???


Ngu???n: Thurgood Marshall confirmed as Supreme Court justiceHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1967, Thurgood Marshall tr??? th??nh ng?????i M??? g???c Phi ?????u ti??n ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m th???m ph??n T??a ??n T???i cao Hoa K???. ??ng s??? l??m vi???c t???i T??a ??n T???i cao trong 24 n??m tr?????c khi ngh??? h??u v?? l?? do s???c kh???e, ????? l???i m???t di s???n v??? vi???c duy tr?? c??c quy???n c???a c?? nh??n theo quy ?????nh c???a Hi???n ph??p Hoa K???.
T??? khi c??n tr???, Marshall d?????ng nh?? ???? ???????c ti??n ?????nh s??? gi??? m???t v??? tr?? trong h??? th???ng t?? ph??p Hoa K???. Cha m??? ??ng ???? gi??p ??ng hi???u r?? t???m quan tr???ng c???a Hi???n ph??p, m???t c???m gi??c ???????c c???ng c??? b???i c??c gi??o vi??n c???a ??ng, nh???ng ng?????i ???? bu???c ??ng ph???i ?????c t??i li???u n??y nh?? l?? h??nh ph???t cho c??c h??nh vi ngh???ch ng???m c???a ??ng.
Sau khi t???t nghi???p ?????i h???c Lincoln n??m 1930, Marshall xin nh???p h???c t???i ?????i h???c Lu???t Maryland, nh??ng ???? b??? t??? ch???i v?? ch??nh s??ch ph??n bi???t ch???ng t???c c???a tr?????ng n??y, trong ???? c???m ng?????i da ??en h???c t???p v???i ng?????i da tr???ng. Thay v??o ????, Marshall ???? theo h???c t???i ?????i h???c Lu???t Howard, n??i ??ng t???t nghi???p v???i b???ng danh d??? xu???t s???c v??o n??m 1933. (Sau ????, Marshall ???? ki???n th??nh c??ng Tr?????ng Lu???t Maryland v?? ch??nh s??ch tuy???n sinh kh??ng c??ng b???ng c???a h???.)
Sau khi th??nh l???p m???t h??ng lu???t nh??? t???i qu?? nh?? Maryland, Marshall nhanh ch??ng tr??? n??n n???i ti???ng l?? m???t lu???t s?? c???a ???nh???ng ng?????i b?? nh???.??? Trong v??ng m???t n??m, ??ng b???t ?????u l??m vi???c v???i Baltimore NAACP (Hi???p h???i Qu???c gia v?? s??? ti???n b??? c???a ng?????i da m??u), v?? ti???p t???c tr??? th??nh c??? v???n tr?????ng c???a t??? ch???c n??y v??o n??m 1940 khi ??ng 32 tu???i. Trong hai th???p ni??n ti???p theo, Marshall t??? nh???n m??nh l?? m???t trong nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? quy???n c?? nh??n h??ng ?????u c???a ?????t n?????c, khi ??ng gi??nh chi???n th???ng 29 trong s??? 32 v??? ki???n m?? ??ng tranh t???ng tr?????c T??a ??n T???i cao, t???t c??? ?????u th??ch th???c h???c thuy???t ???t??ch bi???t nh??ng c??ng b???ng??? ???? ???????c thi???t l???p b???i v??? ??n mang t??nh b?????c ngo???t Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
?????nh cao trong s??? nghi???p lu???t s?? tranh t???ng c???a Marshall ?????n v??o n??m 1954 v???i chi???n th???ng c???a ??ng trong v??? Brown v. ???y ban Gi??o d???c Topeka. Trong v??? ki???n ????, Marshall l???p lu???n r???ng nguy??n t???c ???t??ch bi???t nh??ng c??ng b???ng??? l?? vi hi???n v?? ???????c thi???t k??? ????? gi??? ng?????i da ??en ???g???n nh?? l?? [n?? l???] ??? m???c cao nh???t c?? th???.???
N??m 1961, Marshall ???????c T???ng th???ng l??c ???? l?? John F. Kennedy b??? nhi???m v??o T??a ph??c th???m Li??n bang V??ng 2, m???t v??? tr?? m?? ??ng n???m gi??? cho ?????n n??m 1965, khi ng?????i k??? nhi???m c???a Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, b??? nhi???m ??ng l??m T???ng Bi???n l?? s??? v??? (Solicitor General). Sau khi Th???m ph??n Tom Clark ngh??? h??u v??o n??m 1967, T???ng th???ng Johnson ???? b??? nhi???m Marshall v??o T??a ??n T???i cao, m???t quy???t ?????nh ???????c Th?????ng vi???n ph?? chu???n v???i s??? phi???u 69-11.
Trong 24 n??m ti???p theo, Th???m ph??n Marshall c??ng khai ???ng h??? quy???n ph?? thai v?? ch???ng l???i ??n t??? h??nh, khi ??ng ti???p t???c cam k???t kh??ng m???t m???i c???a m??nh ????? ?????m b???o s??? ?????i x??? c??ng b???ng v???i c??c c?? nh??n ??? ?????c bi???t l?? nh???ng ng?????i thu???c nh??m thi???u s??? ??? b???i c??c ch??nh ph??? ti???u bang v?? li??n bang.
Trung Qu???c: Cai tr??? b???ng s??? s??? h??i


Ngu???n: Minxin Pei, ???China???s Rule of Fear???, Project Syndicate, 08/02/2016.
Bi??n d???ch: ?????ng Th??? Ph????ng Th???o & Tr????ng Th??i Ti???u Long | Hi???u ????nh: Ph???m Trang Nhung
Trung Qu???c l???i m???t l???n n???a b??? k??m k???p trong s??? s??? h??i ch??a t???ng x???y ra k??? t??? th???i Mao Tr???ch ????ng. T??? ph??ng h???p k??n c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c (??CSTQ) ?????n gi???ng ???????ng c???a c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c v?? v??n ph??ng c???a l??nh ?????o c??c c?? quan, b??ng ma c???a nh???ng l???i bu???c t???i kh???c nghi???t v?? nh???ng h??nh ph???t th???m ch?? c??n kh???c nghi???t h??n ??ang r??nh r???p gi???i tinh hoa ch??nh tr???, h???c gi??? v?? doanh nh??n Trung Qu???c.
R???t d??? d??ng ????? nh???n ra n???i lo s??? ??ang lan tr??n. K??? t??? khi chi???n d???ch ch???ng tham nh??ng kh??ng khoan nh?????ng c???a Ch??? t???ch T???p C???n B??nh kh???i ?????ng v??o th??ng 12 n??m 2012, vi???c b???t gi??? c??c quan ch???c ch??nh ph??? ???? th??nh chuy???n th?????ng ng??y, khi???n nh???ng ng?????i ?????ng nghi???p v?? b???n b?? c???a h??? ?????u c???m th???y run s???.
Gi???i ch???c cao c???p c??ng ch???ng ???????c b???o v??? l?? bao, nh?? 146 ???con h?????? (nh???ng quan ch???c gi??? nh???ng ch???c v??? t????ng ??????ng b??? tr?????ng ho???c ch??? t???ch t???nh) m???i m???t ch???c ???? nh???n ra, h??? th?????ng b??? h???t c???ng m?? kh??ng h??? ???????c c???nh b??o. Th???m ch?? m???t c???m t??? m???i ???? ???????c b??? sung v??o t??? ??i???n thu???t ng??? ti???ng Trung ????? mi??u t??? s??? r???t ????i ?????t ng???t khi ??ang ???????c tr???ng th???:  ???mi???u s??t??? (??????), hay ???gi???t ngay t???c kh???c???.
Nh??ng n???i lo s??? th???m ch?? c??n t??c ?????ng m???nh h??n t???i c??c quan ch???c c???p th???p h??n, ???????c minh ch???ng b???ng s??? l?????ng c??c b??o c??o t??? t??? (c???a gi???i ch???c n??y) ng??y c??ng t??ng. Truy???n th??ng ???? x??c nh???n c?? 28 tr?????ng h???p v??o n??m ngo??i, cho d?? con s??? th???c t??? c?? th??? c??n cao h??n nhi???u. Lo ng???i v??? xu h?????ng n??y, ban l??nh ?????o ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c hi???n t???i ??ang giao nhi???m v??? cho c??c t??? ch???c ?????ng ?????a ph????ng thu th???p s??? li???u v??? c??c v??? t??? t??? c???a quan ch???c ch??nh ph??? k??? t??? khi chi???n d???ch ch???ng tham nh??ng b???t ?????u.
Kh??ng ch??? nh???ng k??? t???i ph???m m???i ph???i s???ng trong n???i s??? h??i th?????ng tr???c. V???i vi???c th?????ng xuy??n ph???i th??ng qua nh???ng d??? ??n v?? y??u c???u c?? kh??? n??ng kh??i g???i nghi ng???, b??? m??y h??nh ch??nh c???a Trung Qu???c ??ang t?? li???t v?? s??? h??i.
Ngo??i b??? m??y h??nh ch??nh, c??c h???c gi???, lu???t s?? nh??n quy???n, blogger v?? l??nh ?????o c??c doanh nghi???p c??ng ph???i ch???u tr???n. ??? c??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c, ch??nh ph??? chi??u m??? nh???ng ng?????i cung c???p th??ng tin t??? c??o c??c gi??o s?? t??n th??nh c??c gi?? tr??? t??? do trong b??i gi???ng; nhi???u h???c gi??? l??n ti???ng th???ng th???n ???? b??? m???t vi???c. H??ng tr??m lu???t s?? nh??n quy???n ???? b??? s??ch nhi???u v?? b???t gi???.
Nhi???u l??nh ?????o doanh nghi???p ???? b??? m???t t??ch t???m th???i, c?? l??? l?? b??? giam gi??? b???i c??c nh?? ??i???u tra ch???ng tham nh??ng. M???t trong s??? nh???ng tr?????ng h???p n???i tr???i nh???t l?? v??? vi???c c???a ??ng tr??m Qu??ch Qu???ng X????ng (Guo Guangchang), ng?????i gi??u th??? 17 ??? Trung Qu???c v???i t???ng t??i s???n tr??? gi?? h??n 7 t??? ????. ??ng Qu??ch ???? b??? b???t gi??? h???i th??ng 12 n??m ngo??i ????? ???h??? tr??? m???t cu???c ??i???u tra t?? ph??p???, v?? r???i ??ng xu???t hi???n trong cu???c h???p th?????ng ni??n c???a c??ng ty m???t v??i ng??y sau ???? m?? kh??ng c?? l???i gi???i th??ch n??o ???????c ????a ra.
Nh??ng c?? l??? ???nh h?????ng ????ng b??o ?????ng nh???t m?? s??? tr??? l???i c???a vi???c cai tr??? d???a tr??n n???i s??? h??i ??? Trung Qu???c g??y ra l?? ??i???u n??y ??ang g??y ???nh h?????ng t???i ngay c??? ng?????i ngo??i. Kh??ng ch??? gi???i b??o ch?? ph????ng T??y, ?????i di???n c??c t??? ch???c phi ch??nh ph??? v?? c??c gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh ng?????i n?????c ngo??i ??ang s???ng trong n???i s??? h??i, m?? ngay c??? c??c gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh, c??c nh?? xu???t b???n v?? c??c bi??n t???p vi??n ??? H???ng Kong, nh???ng ng?????i kh??ng ph???i ch???u quy???n t??i ph??n c???a Trung Qu???c theo nh?? th???a thu???n ???m???t qu???c gia, hai ch??? ???????? c??ng ph???i ?????i m???t v???i ??i???u n??y.
N??m 2013, m???t c??ng d??n Anh b??? tuy??n ??n 2,5 n??m t?? v?? nh???ng c??o bu???c m?? h??? li??n quan ?????n c??ng ty cung c???p d???ch v??? ??i???u tra ChinaWhys c???a m??nh; m???t n??m sau, v??? ??ng v?? l?? ?????i t??c kinh doanh, m???t c??ng d??n M??? sinh t???i Trung Qu???c, c??ng ph???i nh???n b???n ??n hai n??m t?? v?? nh???ng c??o bu???c t????ng t???. Th??ng 12 n??m ngo??i, m???t nh?? b??o ng?????i Ph??p b??? tr???c xu???t kh???i Trung Qu???c v?? m???t b??i b??o v??? c??ch ch??nh quy???n ?????i x??? v???i ng?????i thi???u s??? Duy Ng?? Nh??. M???t th??ng sau ????, nh??n vi??n m???t t??? ch???c phi ch??nh ph??? c???a Th???y ??i???n c??ng b??? tr???c xu???t, sau khi b??? b???t v?? bu???c t???i ???de d???a cho an ninh qu???c gia???.
Nh???ng t???p ??o??n kh???ng l??? c???a ph????ng T??y, t???ng ???????c ch??nh ph??? Trung Qu???c s??n ????n, hi???n gi??? c??ng lo s??? nh???ng cu???c kh??m x??t b???t ng??? t??? ph??a c???nh s??t v?? c??c cu???c ??i???u tra ch???ng ?????c quy???n. H??ng d?????c ph???m kh???ng l??? Glaxosmithkline ???? b??? ph???t 500 tri???u USD v??o n??m 2014 v?? h??nh vi tham nh??ng, m???t trong nh???ng kho???n ti???n ph???t doanh nghi???p l???n nh???t ???????c Trung Qu???c ????a ra. C??ng ty s???n xu???t chip ??i???n t??? M??? Qualcomm c??ng t???ng ph???i chi ra g???n 1 t??? USD ti???n ph???t cho Trung Qu???c v?? ho???t ?????ng kinh doanh ????????c quy???n??? v??o n??m ngo??i ( 2015).
????ng ng???i h??n, n??m chuy??n vi??n xu???t b???n s??ch v?? bi??n t???p vi??n t???i Hong Kong l??m vi???c cho nh?? xu???t b???n Mighty Current chuy??n ????ng nh???ng chuy???n gi???t g??n v??? c??c l??nh ?????o h??ng ?????u c???a Trung Qu???c ???? bi???n m???t trong v??i th??ng g???n ????y. Hai trong s??? ???? r?? r??ng l?? ???? b??? b???t c??c v?? b??? ????a t???i Trung Qu???c d?? h??? kh??ng h??? mu???n. M???t trong hai ng?????i, m???t c??ng d??n Th???y ??i???n, ???? bu???c ph???i xu???t hi???n tr??n truy???n h??nh Trung Qu???c, v?? kh???ng ?????nh m???t c??ch ????ng ng??? r???ng anh ta ???? t??? nguy???n r???i Th??i Lan ????? tr??? v??? Trung Qu???c v?? y??u c???u m???i ng?????i kh??ng c??? gi??p ????? m??nh.
R?? r??ng, s??? ki???m so??t d???a tr??n n???i s??? h??i v???n kh??ng k???t th??c c??ng v???i cu???c C??ch m???ng V??n h??a n??m 1976 nh?? nhi???u ng?????i ngh??. ??i???u n??y c??ng kh??ng c?? g?? ????ng ng???c nhi??n. Cho d?? n???n kinh t??? Trung Qu???c ???? ???????c hi???n ?????i h??a v?? ph??t tri???n m???nh m???, h??? th???ng ch??nh tr??? c???a qu???c gia n??y v???n duy tr?? nh???ng ?????c t??nh chuy??n ch??? c???t l??i: m???t nh?? n?????c ???????c mi???n tr??? kh???i c??c quy ?????nh ph??p lu???t, m???t b??? m??y an ninh trong n?????c v???i nh???ng ?????c v??? v?? ng?????i cung c???p th??ng tin ??? h???u h???t m???i n??i, s??? ki???m duy???t r???ng r??i, v?? (c?? ch???) b???o v??? quy???n c?? nh??n y???u k??m. Kh??ng nh???ng kh??ng b??? b??c b???, nh???ng di s???n v??? th??? ch??? c???a ch??? ngh??a Mao Tr???ch ????ng v???n ???????c gi??? nguy??n ????? s??? d???ng v?? s??? ???????c t??ng c?????ng b???t c??? khi n??o gi???i l??nh ?????o th???y ph?? h???p, nh?? hi???n nay ch???ng h???n.
??i???u n??y ch???c h???n s??? gi??ng l??n h???i chu??ng c???nh t???nh ??? ph????ng T??y. Th???c ch???t, thay v?? ????n thu???n coi vi???c tr??? l???i c???a s??? cai tr??? d???a tr??n s??? h??i ??? Trung Qu???c nh?? m???t nh??n t??? ?????nh h??nh s??? can d??? v???i qu???c gia n??y, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ph????ng T??y n??n ph??t tri???n nh???ng chi???n l?????c bu???c Trung Qu???c ph???i suy ngh?? l???i v??? con ???????ng c???a h???. V???i t???m ???nh h?????ng qu???c t??? ??ang l??n c???a Trung Qu???c hi???n nay, s??? kh??i ph???c l???i nh???ng chi???n thu???t g??y s??? h??i c???a ch??? ????? chuy??n ch??? c?? ???nh h?????ng s??u r???ng v?? c???c k?? ????ng lo ng???i ?????i v???i ch??u ?? v?? to??n th??? gi???i.
Minxin Pei (B??i M???n H??n) l?? gi??o s?? v??? Qu???n tr??? Ch??nh quy???n t???i Claremont McKenna College v?? l?? nghi??n c???u vi??n kh??ng th?????ng tr?? c???a Qu??? Marshall ?????c ??? Hoa K???.
Copyright: Project Syndicate 2016 ??? China???s Rule of Fear

 

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