26/08/1920: Tu ch??nh ??n th??? 19 c???a Hi???n ph??p Hoa K??? ???????c th??ng qua

Thứ hai - 26/08/2019 05:28
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1920, b???n Tu ch??nh ??n th??? 19, b???o ?????m cho ph??? n??? quy???n b???u c???, ch??nh th???c ???????c th??ng qua v?? ????a v??o Hi???n ph??p Hoa K??? b???i tuy??n b??? c???a Ngo???i tr?????ng Bainbridge Colby. B???n Tu ch??nh ??n l?? ?????nh ??i???m c???a h??n 70 n??m ?????u tranh c???a nh???ng nh?? ho???t ?????ng v?? quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n???. Hai m???c c???a n?? ???????c vi???t ????n gi???n nh?? sau: ???Quy???n b???u c??? c???a c??ng d??n Hoa K??? s??? kh??ng b??? t??? ch???i ho???c h???n ch??? b???i Hoa K??? ho???c b???t k???
26/08/1920: Tu ch??nh ??n th??? 19 c???a Hi???n ph??p Hoa K??? ???????c th??ng qua

26/08/1920: Tu ch??nh ??n th??? 19 c???a Hi???n ph??p Hoa K??? ???????c th??ng qua

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Ngu???n: 19th Amendment adoptedHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1920, b???n Tu ch??nh ??n th??? 19, b???o ?????m cho ph??? n??? quy???n b???u c???, ch??nh th???c ???????c th??ng qua v?? ????a v??o Hi???n ph??p Hoa K??? b???i tuy??n b??? c???a Ngo???i tr?????ng Bainbridge Colby. B???n Tu ch??nh ??n l?? ?????nh ??i???m c???a h??n 70 n??m ?????u tranh c???a nh???ng nh?? ho???t ?????ng v?? quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n???. Hai m???c c???a n?? ???????c vi???t ????n gi???n nh?? sau: ???Quy???n b???u c??? c???a c??ng d??n Hoa K??? s??? kh??ng b??? t??? ch???i ho???c h???n ch??? b???i Hoa K??? ho???c b???t k??? Ti???u bang n??o tr??n c?? s??? gi???i t??nh??? v?? ???Qu???c h???i s??? c?? quy???n th???c thi ??i???u kho???n n??y th??ng qua ban h??nh ph??p lu???t ph?? h???p.???

Phong tr??o ????i quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n??? ???????c h??nh th??nh v??o gi???a th??? k??? 19 b???i nh???ng ph??? n??? ???? tham gia t??ch c???c v??o ho???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? th??ng qua c??ng vi???c c???a h??? trong c??c phong tr??o b??i n?? v?? c???m bia r?????u. V??o th??ng 07 n??m 1848, 200 ng?????i ?????u tranh m??? r???ng quy???n b???u c??? cho ph??? n???, bao g???m Elizabeth Cady Stanton v?? Lucretia Mott, ???? g???p nhau ??? Seneca Falls, New York, ????? th???o lu???n v??? c??c quy???n c???a ph??? n???.

Sau khi bi???u quy???t c??c bi???n ph??p kh???ng ?????nh quy???n c???a ph??? n??? ?????i v???i c??c c?? h???i gi??o d???c v?? vi???c l??m, h??? ???? th??ng qua m???t ngh??? quy???t tuy??n b??? ???Nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? c???a ?????t n?????c n??y c?? ngh??a v??? gi??nh ???????c quy???n thi??ng li??ng c???a h??? l?? quy???n b???u c???.??? V???i tuy??n b??? v??? quy???n b??? phi???u c???a ph??? n???, H???i ngh??? Seneca Fall ???? b??? ch??? gi???u c??ng khai, v?? m???t s??? ng?????i ???ng h??? quy???n c???a ph??? n??? ???? r??t l???i s??? ???ng h??? c???a h???. Tuy nhi??n, h???i ngh??? n??y ???? ????nh d???u s??? kh???i ?????u c???a phong tr??o ????i quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n??? M???.

H???i ngh??? v??? quy???n ph??? n??? qu???c gia ?????u ti??n ???????c t??? ch???c v??o n??m 1850 v?? sau ???? ???????c l???p l???i h??ng n??m, mang ?????n m???t t??m ??i???m quan tr???ng cho phong tr??o ????i quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n??? ??ang ph??t tri???n. Trong k??? nguy??n T??i thi???t, b???n Tu ch??nh ??n th??? 15 c???a Hi???n ph??p Hoa K??? ???? ???????c th??ng qua, trao cho nh???ng ng?????i ????n ??ng M??? g???c Phi quy???n b???u c???, nh??ng Qu???c h???i ???? t??? ch???i m??? r???ng quy???n b???u c??? theo ph???m vi gi???i t??nh.

N??m 1869, Hi???p h???i Quy???n b???u c??? Ph??? n??? Qu???c gia ???? ???????c th??nh l???p b???i Susan B. Anthony v?? Elizabeth Cady Stanton ????? th??c ?????y m???t b???n tu ch??nh ??n v??? quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n??? tr??? trong Hi???n ph??p Hoa K???. M???t t??? ch???c kh??c, Hi???p h???i Quy???n b???u c??? Ph??? n??? Hoa K???, do Lucy Stone l??nh ?????o, ???? ???????c th??nh l???p trong c??ng n??m ????? gi???i quy???t v???n ????? th??ng qua c??c c?? quan l???p ph??p ti???u bang. V??o n??m 1890, hai hi???p h???i n??y ???? ???????c th???ng nh???t th??nh Hi???p h???i Quy???n b???u c??? Ph??? n??? Qu???c gia Hoa K???. N??m ????, Wyoming tr??? th??nh ti???u bang ?????u ti??n cho ph??p ph??? n??? ???????c quy???n b???u c???.

V??o ?????u th??? k??? 20, vai tr?? c???a ph??? n??? trong x?? h???i M??? ???? thay ?????i m???nh m???: ph??? n??? l??m vi???c nhi???u h??n, nh???n ???????c m???t n???n gi??o d???c t???t h??n, sinh ??t con h??n v?? c?? th??m ba bang (Colorado, Utah v?? Idaho) ???? ????p ???ng y??u c???u v??? quy???n b???u c??? cho n??? gi???i. N??m 1916, ?????ng Ph??? n??? Qu???c gia (???????c th??nh l???p n??m 1913 t???i Li??n minh Qu???c h???i v?? Quy???n b???u c??? c???a Ph??? n???) ???? quy???t ?????nh ??p d???ng m???t c??ch ti???p c???n tri???t ????? h??n ?????i v???i v???n ????? quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n???. Thay v?? c??c b???ng h???i v?? v???n ?????ng h??nh lang, c??c th??nh vi??n c???a n?? ???? b??? tr?? ng?????i ?????ng v??y quanh Nh?? Tr???ng, di???u h??nh v?? ti???n h??nh c??c h??nh vi b???t tu??n d??n s???.

N??m 1917, n?????c M??? tham gia Th??? chi???n I, v?? ph??? n??? ???? h??? tr??? n??? l???c chi???n tranh trong nhi???u vai tr?? kh??c nhau, ??i???u ???? ???? gi??p ch???m d???t h???u h???t s??? ph???n ?????i c??n l???i ?????i v???i quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n???. ?????n n??m 1918, ph??? n??? ???? gi??nh ???????c quy???n b???u c??? b??nh ?????ng v???i nam gi???i ??? 15 ti???u bang, v?? c??? ?????ng D??n ch??? v?? C???ng h??a ?????u c??ng khai t??n th??nh vi???c trao quy???n b???u c??? cho ph??? n???.

V??o th??ng 01 n??m 1918, tu ch??nh ??n v??? quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n??? ???? ???????c th??ng qua t???i H??? vi???n v???i ??a s??? phi???u hai ph???n ba c???n thi???t. V??o th??ng 06 n??m 1919, n?? ???? ???????c Th?????ng vi???n ch???p thu???n v?? g???i ?????n c??c ti???u bang ????? ph?? chu???n. C??c chi???n d???ch ???? ???????c ti???n h??nh b???i nh???ng ng?????i ?????u tranh v?? quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n??? tr??n kh???p ?????t n?????c ????? b???o ?????m vi???c ph?? chu???n, v?? v??o ng??y 18 th??ng 8 n??m 1920, Tennessee tr??? th??nh ti???u bang th??? 36 ph?? chu???n b???n tu ch??nh ??n, h???p th??nh m???c ??a s??? hai ph???n ba c???n thi???t c??c ti???u bang ph?? chu???n ????? bi???n n?? th??nh lu???t qu???c gia.

Phong b?? ch???a h??? s?? ch???ng nh???n h??nh ?????ng n??y c???a c?? quan l???p ph??p Tennessee ???? ???????c g???i b???ng t??u h???a ?????n th??? ???? c???a ?????t n?????c, t???i n??i v??o ?????u gi??? ng??y 26 th??ng 08. V??o l??c 8 gi??? s??ng h??m ????, Ngo???i tr?????ng Bainbridge Colby ???? k?? n?? m?? kh??ng c???n nghi l??? t???i n??i c?? tr?? c???a ??ng ??? Washington. Kh??ng ai trong s??? c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???a phong tr??o quy???n b???u c??? c???a ph??? n??? c?? m???t khi tuy??n b??? ???????c k??, v?? kh??ng c?? nhi???p ???nh gia ho???c m??y quay phim n??o ghi l???i s??? ki???n n??y. Chi???u h??m ????, Carrie Chapman Catt, ng?????i ?????ng ?????u Hi???p h???i Quy???n b???u c??? Ph??? n??? Qu???c gia Hoa K???, ???? ???????c ????n ti???p t???i Nh?? Tr???ng b???i T???ng th???ng Woodrow Wilson v?? ????? nh???t Phu nh??n Edith Wilson.

21/04/1975: T???ng th???ng Nguy???n V??n Thi???u t??? ch???c

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Ngu???n: ???Thieu flees Saigon as Xuan Loc falls,??? History.com (truy c???p ng??y 19/4/2015).

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

Ng??y 21 th??ng 4 n??m 1975, Xu??n L???c, ti???n ?????n cu???i c??ng c???a Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a c?? th??? ng??n ch???n cu???c t???n c??ng tr???c ti???p c???a qu??n ?????i B???c Vi???t v??o S??i G??n, th???t th??? tr?????c l???c l?????ng c???ng s???n.

T??? th??ng 3, qu??n ?????i B???c Vi???t ???? ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c t???n c??ng l???n ????? chi???m ????ng th??nh ph??? t???nh l??? Ban M?? Thu???t ??? T??y Nguy??n. Qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam ph??ng ng??? r???t y???u ???t v?? nhanh ch??ng b??? ??p ?????o tr?????c qu??n ?????i mi???n B???c. B???t ch???p l???i h???a s??? ti???p t???c vi???n tr??? cho mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam tr?????c ???? n???u xung ?????t leo thang, M??? ???? kh??ng l??m g?? (????? c???i thi???n t??nh h??nh).

Trong n??? l???c t??i ph??n b??? l???c l?????ng ????? ph??ng th??? t???t h??n, T???ng th???ng Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a Nguy???n V??n Thi???u ???? ra l???nh cho qu??n ?????i c???a m??nh ??? T??y Nguy??n r??t v??? ph??a Nam (mi???n duy??n h???i Trung b???). Cu???c r??t qu??n ban ?????u t?????ng ch???ng tr???t t??? ???? ???? s???m tr??? th??nh m???t c??n r???i lo???n lan r???ng kh???p l???c l?????ng qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam. H??? r???i b??? Pleiku v?? Kontum v???i r???t ??t giao tranh v?? b??? qu??n ?????i mi???n B???c d???n d???p t???n c??ng t??? h?????ng T??y v?? h?????ng B???c. Qu???ng Tr???, Hu???, ???? N???ng c??ng nhanh ch??ng li??n ti???p th???t th??? tr?????c c??c ?????t t???n c??ng. Qu??n ?????i B???c Vi???t ti???p t???c ti???n c??ng d???c theo duy??n h???i ph??a Nam, ????nh b???i qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam trong m???i cu???c giao tranh.

M???t tr???n Xu??n L???c 4/1975. Ngu???n: Wikipedia.org

Khi c??c l???c l?????ng B???c Vi???t ti???n g???n t???i c??c c???a ng?? d???n v??o S??i G??n, b??? ch??nh tr??? ??? H?? N???i ???? ch??? ?????o ?????i t?????ng V??n Ti???n D??ng ti???n h??nh ???Chi???n d???ch H??? Ch?? Minh,??? cu???c t???n c??ng cu???i c??ng v??o S??i G??n. ?????i t?????ng D??ng ???? b???t ?????u chu???n b??? l???c l?????ng cho tr???n ????nh cu???i c??ng.

S?? ??o??n 18 c???a Qu??n l???c Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a ???? d??ng c???m ph??ng th??? ??? Xu??n L???c, c??ch S??i G??n h??n 60 km v??? ph??a ????ng B???c, v?? qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam ???? g??y nhi???u t???n th???t cho ba s?? ??o??n (S?? ??o??n 6, 7, v?? 341 thu???c Qu??n ??o??n 4) c???a qu??n ?????i mi???n B???c. Tuy nhi??n, qu??n ?????i mi???n Nam ???? th???t b???i tr?????c s??? ??p ?????o c???a qu??n ?????i mi???n B???c. V???i vi???c Xu??n L???c th???t th???, T???ng th???ng Nguy???n V??n Thi???u ???? t??? ch???c v?? chuy???n giao quy???n l???c cho Ph?? T???ng th???ng Tr???n V??n H????ng. Nguy???n V??n Thi???u sau ???? ???? r???i S??i G??n, bay ?????n ????i Loan v??o ng??y 25 (v???i t?? c??ch l?? ?????c s??? c???a Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a ?????n ph??ng ??i???u T?????ng Gi???i Th???ch, qua ?????i h??m m??ng 5 th??ng 4), sau ???? t???i Anh ?????nh c??, (v?? cu???i c??ng t???i Massachusetts, M??? sinh s???ng cho ?????n khi qua ?????i n??m 2001.)

?????n ng??y 27 th??ng 4, qu??n ?????i B???c Vi???t ???? bao v??y ho??n to??n S??i G??n v?? b???t ?????u ??i???u ?????ng l???c l?????ng cho cu???c t???n c??ng cu???i c??ng c???a h???. S??ng ng??y 30 th??ng 4 n??m 1975, chi???n tranh ch???m d???t. Khi nh???ng chi???c xe t??ng c???a qu??n ?????i mi???n B???c h??c ????? c???ng Dinh ?????c L???p ??? S??i G??n, ch??nh quy???n Vi???t Nam C???ng H??a tuy??n b??? ?????u h??ng, ch???m d???t Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam.

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