21/08/1959: Hawaii tr??? th??nh ti???u bang th??? 50 c???a Hoa K???

Thứ tư - 21/08/2019 06:29
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1959, n?????c M??? hi???n ?????i ti???p nh???n ???????c ng??i sao cu???i c??ng c???a m??nh khi T???ng th???ng Dwight D. Eisenhower k?? tuy??n b??? c??ng nh???n vi???c Hawaii gia nh???p v??o Li??n bang v???i t?? c??ch l?? ti???u bang th??? 50. T???ng th???ng c??ng ban l???nh t???o ra m???t l?? c??? M??? g???m 50 ng??i sao ???????c s???p x???p th??nh c??c h??ng so le: n??m h??ng s??u sao v?? b???n h??ng n??m sao. L?? c??? m???i n??y ch??nh th???c tr??? th??nh qu???c k??? n?????c M??? v??o ng??y 04 th??ng 07 n??m 1960.
21/08/1959: Hawaii tr??? th??nh ti???u bang th??? 50 c???a Hoa K???

21/08/1959: Hawaii tr??? th??nh ti???u bang th??? 50 c???a Hoa K???

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Ngu???n: Hawaii becomes 50th stateHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1959, n?????c M??? hi???n ?????i ti???p nh???n ???????c ng??i sao cu???i c??ng c???a m??nh khi T???ng th???ng Dwight D. Eisenhower k?? tuy??n b??? c??ng nh???n vi???c Hawaii gia nh???p v??o Li??n bang v???i t?? c??ch l?? ti???u bang th??? 50. T???ng th???ng c??ng ban l???nh t???o ra m???t l?? c??? M??? g???m 50 ng??i sao ???????c s???p x???p th??nh c??c h??ng so le: n??m h??ng s??u sao v?? b???n h??ng n??m sao. L?? c??? m???i n??y ch??nh th???c tr??? th??nh qu???c k??? n?????c M??? v??o ng??y 04 th??ng 07 n??m 1960.

Nh???ng ng?????i ?????nh c?? ?????u ti??n ???????c bi???t ?????n c???a Qu???n ?????o Hawaii l?? nh???ng ng?????i Polynesia ?????n ????y v??o th??? k??? th??? t??m. V??o ?????u th??? k??? 18, c??c th????ng nh??n ng?????i M??? ???? ?????n Hawaii ????? khai th??c ngu???n t??i nguy??n g??? ????n h????ng c???a qu???n ?????o n??y, v???n r???t c?? gi?? tr??? ??? Trung Qu???c v??o th???i ??i???m ????.

V??o nh???ng n??m 1830, ng??nh c??ng nghi???p ???????ng ???????c ????a v??o Hawaii v?? ?????n gi???a th??? k??? 19 n?? ???? ???????c thi???t l???p v???ng ch???c. C??c nh?? truy???n gi??o v?? ch??? ?????n ??i???n ng?????i M??? ???? mang l???i nh???ng thay ?????i to l???n trong ?????i s???ng ch??nh tr???, v??n h??a, kinh t??? v?? t??n gi??o c???a Hawaii. N??m 1840, m???t ch??? ????? qu??n ch??? l???p hi???n ???????c th??nh l???p, t?????c b??? ph???n l???n quy???n l???c c???a v????ng tri???u Hawaii.

N??m 1893, m???t nh??m ng?????i n?????c ngo??i v?? ng?????i tr???ng m??a ??? M??? ???????c h??? tr??? b???i m???t s?? ??o??n Th???y qu??n l???c chi???n Hoa K??? ???? ph??? tru???t N??? ho??ng Liliuokalani, v??? qu??n ch??? cu???i c??ng c???a Hawaii. M???t n??m sau, n?????c C???ng h??a Hawaii ???????c th??nh l???p v???i t?? c??ch l?? m???t nh?? n?????c ???????c b???o h??? b???i Hoa K??? v???i Sanford B. Dole, m???t ng?????i sinh ra ??? Hawaii, l??m t???ng th???ng.

Nhi???u ng?????i trong Qu???c h???i M??? ???? ph???n ?????i vi???c s??p nh???p ch??nh th???c Hawaii, v?? m??i ?????n n??m 1898, sau khi c??n c??? h???i qu??n t???i Tr??n Ch??u C???ng ???????c s??? d???ng trong Chi???n tranh M???-T??y Ban Nha, t???m quan tr???ng chi???n l?????c c???a Hawaii ???? tr??? n??n r?? r??ng v?? s??? s??p nh???p ch??nh th???c ???? ???????c ph?? duy???t.

Hai n??m sau, Hawaii ???????c t??? ch???c th??nh m???t l??nh th??? ch??nh th???c c???a Hoa K???. Trong Th??? chi???n II, Hawaii tr??? th??nh m???t ph???n v???ng ch???c trong b???n s???c d??n t???c Hoa K??? sau cu???c t???n c??ng b???t ng??? c???a Nh???t B???n v??o Tr??n Ch??u C???ng v??o th??ng 12 n??m 1941.

V??o th??ng 03 n??m 1959, ch??nh ph??? Hoa K??? ???? ch???p thu???n cho Hawaii tr??? th??nh m???t ti???u bang v?? v??o th??ng 06, ng?????i d??n Hawaii ???? b??? phi???u ??a s??? tuy???t ?????i ????? ch???p nh???n vi???c gia nh???p v??o H???p ch??ng qu???c Hoa K???. Hai th??ng sau, Hawaii ch??nh th???c tr??? th??nh ti???u bang th??? 50.
 

Ba th??ch th???c l???n nh???t ?????i v???i Ch??u ??u hi???n nay

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Map and stethoscope, possible illustration for pandemic of aids,'pig flu', smoking or or maybe for global warming and ozone holes

Ngu???n: Mohamed A. El-erian, ???Shelter from the Storm in Europe???, Project Syndicate, 20/06/2015.

Bi??n d???ch: Tr???n Th??? Thu Hi???n | Hi???u ????nh: Ph???m Th??? Huy???n Trang

M??y ??en ??ang bao ph??? t????ng lai kinh t??? c???a ch??u ??u khi ba c??n b??o ??ang c??ng ???p ?????n: kh???ng ho???ng Hy L???p, Nga x??m ph???m Ukraine v?? s??? n???i l??n c???a c??c ?????ng ch??nh tr??? theo ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y. M???c d?? m???i c??n b??o n??y ?????u ????? l???i h???u qu??? nghi??m tr???ng, nh??ng n???n kinh t??? v???n ???????c ti???p s???c b???i m???t s??? c???i thi???n theo chu k??? g???n ????y cho th???y ch??u ??u c?? kh??? n??ng ?????i ph?? v???i t???ng c??n b??o m???t, v???i nguy c?? ch??? l?? m???t s??? c??c gi??n ??o???n kinh t??? nh???t th???i. Tuy nhi??n, n???u nh???ng c??n b??o n??y c??ng c???ng h?????ng v???i nhau t???o th??nh m???t ???si??u b??o,??? th?? s??? tr??? l???i nh???ng ng??y n???ng ???m s??? r???t kh?? ??o??n ?????nh ???????c trong t????ng lai g???n.

Th???c t??? cho th???y ba c??n b??o n??y ??ang ??? nh???ng giai ??o???n ph??t tri???n kh??c nhau. Cu???c kh???ng ho???ng Hy L???p, v???n nh???c nh???i nhi???u n??m nay, ??ang tr???i qua giai ??o???n kh?? kh??n nh???t. Kh??ng ch??? c?? nguy c?? tr??? th??nh th??nh vi??n ?????u ti??n b??? lo???i kh???i khu v???c ?????ng Euro, Hy L???p c??n ?????ng tr?????c nguy c?? r??i v??o tr???ng th??i qu???c gia th???t b???i (failed state) ??? m???t k???t qu??? c?? th??? k??o theo h??? l???y ??a chi???u ?????i v???i c??c qu???c gia c??n l???i ??? ch??u ??u. Vi???c gi???m thi???u nh???ng h??? qu??? nh??n ?????o b???t l???i (li??n quan ?????n vi???c di c?? qua bi??n gi???i) v?? ???nh h?????ng ?????a ch??nh tr??? c???a c??n b??o n??y s??? kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t vi???c d??? d??ng.

C??n b??o th??? hai, ?????n t??? khu v???c ????ng ??u, ch??nh l?? cu???c xung ?????t qu??n s??? ??? v??ng Donbas c???a Ukraine. M???c d?? ???? ???????c ki???m so??t ph???n n??o b???ng th???a thu???n ng???ng b???n Minsk II, cu???c kh???ng ho???ng ??? ????ng Ukraine ????nh d???u s??? ????? v??? nghi??m tr???ng nh???t trong quan h??? gi???a ph????ng T??y v?? Nga k??? t??? khi Li??n X?? s???p ?????.

S??? can thi???p s??u r???ng h??n c???a Nga v??o Ukraine ??? m???t c??ch tr???c ti???p v??/ho???c th??ng qua nh???ng phi???n qu??n ly khai ??? Donbas ??? s??? ?????t ph????ng T??y tr?????c m???t l???a ch???n kh?? kh??n. Ho???c l?? ph???i th???t ch???t l???nh tr???ng ph???t ?????i v???i Nga m???c d?? s??? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i nguy c?? ?????y ch??u ??u l??m v??o kh???ng ho???ng b???i nh???ng l???nh tr???ng ph???t ????p tr??? t??? ph??a Nga, ho???c l?? ph???i chi???u theo tham v???ng b??nh tr?????ng c???a Nga, v?? ?????ng ngh??a v???i vi???c ?????t c??c qu???c gia kh??c c?? c???ng ?????ng n??i ti???ng Nga sinh s???ng v??o th??? nguy hi???m (bao g???m c??c th??nh vi??n Baltic c???a Li??n minh ch??u ??u).

C??n b??o th??? ba ??? b???t ???n ch??nh tr??? g??y ra b???i s??? n???i l??n c???a c??c phong tr??o ch??nh tr??? d??n t??y ??? ti???p t???c l?? m???t m???i ??e d???a nghi??m tr???ng kh??c n???a. ???????c th??c ?????y b???i nh???ng b???t m??n c???a c??c c??? tri, ?????c bi???t l?? ??? c??c n???n kinh t??? kh?? kh??n, nh???ng phong tr??o ch??nh tr??? n??y c?? xu h?????ng t???p trung v??o m???t v??i v???n ?????, c??? th??? nh?? d??n di c??, ngh??o ????i, ho???c Li??n minh ch??u ??u ??? ?????c bi???t l?? b???t c??? v???n ????? n??o m?? h??? c?? th??? ????? l???i l?? g??y n??n nh???ng kh?? kh??n trong n?????c.

??? Hy L???p, c??? tri ???? gi??p mang l???i m???t chi???n th???ng l???n cho ?????ng Syriza ??? ?????ng c???c t??? ?????u tranh ch???ng c??c bi???n ph??p th???t l??ng bu???c b???ng (m?? c??c ch??? n??? ??p ?????t). ??? Ph??p, ?????ng c???c h???u M???t tr???n Qu???c gia (National Front) hi???n ?????ng th??? hai trong c??c cu???c tr??ng c???u d??n ??. ?????ng Nh??n D??n ??an M???ch (Danish People???s Party) ch??? tr????ng ch???ng nh???p c?? c??ng x???p th??? hai theo k???t qu??? b???u c??? g???n ????y v???i 22% s??? phi???u b???u. V?? ??? T??y Ban Nha, ?????ng c??nh t??? ch???ng th???t l??ng bu???c b???ng Podemos c??ng ??ang gi??nh ???????c t??? l??? ???ng h??? hai con s???.

Xu h?????ng c???c ??oan v?? c????ng l??nh ch??nh tr??? h???n h???p c???a nh???ng ?????ng n??y ??ang l??m h???n ch??? t??nh linh ?????ng trong ch??nh s??ch c???a c??c ch??nh quy???n b???ng khi???n c??c ?????ng v?? c??c ch??nh tr??? gia ??n h??a ch???p nh???n nh???ng quan ??i???m c???p ti???n. Ch??nh nh???ng lo ng???i r???ng ?????ng ?????c l???p ??? Anh (m???t ?????ng c???c h???u, ???ng h??? Anh ra kh???i EU ??? NBT) c?? kh??? n??ng h???y ho???i n???n t???ng ch??nh tr??? c???a ?????ng B???o Th??? ???? khi???n th??? t?????ng David Cameron ph???i ti???n h??nh tr??ng c???u ?? d??n v??? vi???c ?????t n?????c c?? n??n ti???p t???c l?? th??nh vi??n c???a EU hay kh??ng.

V???i c??? ba c??n b??o c??ng ???p ?????n, c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ch??u ??u c???n ph???i h??nh ?????ng nhanh ch??ng ????? ?????m b???o r???ng h??? c?? th??? l??m ????nh tan t???ng c??n b??o m???t tr?????c khi ch??ng c???ng h?????ng l???i v???i nhau v?? c???n ph???i x??? l?? b???t k??? ????? v??? n??o m?? ch??ng g??y ra m???t c??ch hi???u qu???. M???t tin t???t l?? nh???ng c??ng c??? ki???m so??t kh???ng ho???ng trong khu v???c ???? ???????c c???ng c??? ????ng k??? th???i gian qua, ?????c bi???t l?? t??? m??a h?? n??m 2012, khi ?????ng Euro ?????ng tr??n b??? v???c s???p ?????.

Tr??n th???c t???, kh??ng ch??? c?? c??c c?? ch??? ki???m so??t m???i nh?? C?? quan H??? tr??? ???n ?????nh T??i ch??nh Ch??u ??u (European Financial Stability Facility) ho???t ?????ng hi???u qu???, m?? nh???ng c?? ch??? ???? t???n t???i c??ng ???????c c???i ti???n linh ho???t v?? hi???u qu??? h??n. Ngo??i ra, Ng??n h??ng Trung ????ng Ch??u ??u (ECB) ??ang tham gia v??o m???t s??ng ki???n thu mua t??i s???n quy m?? l???n ??? ????y l?? ch????ng tr??nh c?? th??? ???????c m??? r???ng d??? d??ng v?? nhanh ch??ng. ?????ng th???i, b???ng n??? l???c c???a m??nh, nh???ng qu???c gia nh?? Ireland, T??y Ban Nha, B??? ????o Nha ???? gi???m thi???u ???????c nguy c?? b??? t??c ?????ng tr?????c nh???ng ???nh h?????ng t??? c??c cu???c kh???ng ho???ng l??n c???n.

Tuy nhi??n, nh???ng bi???n ph??p ch???ng ????? n??y c?? th??? s??? b??? ???nh h?????ng m???t c??ch nghi??m tr???ng n???u nh?? nh???ng c??n b??o n??y h??a nh???p v???i nhau th??nh m???t tr???n cu???ng phong. Ch??nh b???i t??nh ph??? thu???c l???n nhau r???t ?????c th?? c???a EU gi???a c??c l??nh v???c kinh t???, t??i ch??nh, ?????a ch??nh tr??? v?? x?? h???i, nh???ng ???nh h?????ng c?? s???c t??n ph?? c???a m???i c?? s???c c?? th??? c??ng l??m kh???ch ?????i c??c c?? s???c kh??c, v?????t qu?? s???c ki???m so??t c???a c??c c?? ch???, d???n ?????n suy tho??i kinh t???, l??m s???ng l???i s??? b???t ???n t??i ch??nh v?? t???o ra nh???ng ??i???m c??ng th???ng x?? h???i. ??i???u n??y s??? l??m t??ng t??? l??? th???t nghi???p v???n ???? cao, t???o ra qu?? nhi???u s??? m???o hi???m t??i ch??nh, c??ng nh?? khuy???n kh??ch th??m nh???ng toan t??nh c???a Nga v?? th??c ?????y phong tr??o ch??nh tr??? d??n t??y ??i xa h??n, do v???y c??ng g??y tr??? ng???i cho nh???ng ch??nh s??ch ?????i ph?? to??n di???n.

May m???n thay, kh??? n??ng x???y ra m???t tr???n cu???ng phong nh?? v???y trong th???i ??i???m hi???n nay m???i ch??? l?? nguy c??, ch??? kh??ng h???n l?? th???c t???. Tuy nhi??n, c??c nh?? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch v???n ph???i ?????c bi???t ch?? ?? ?????n tr???n cu???ng phong n??y b???i h???u qu??? kh???ng khi???p m?? n?? c?? th??? mang l???i.

Trong ho??n c???nh n??y, ?????m b???o t????ng lai kinh t??? c???a ch??u ??u c???n tr?????c nh???t l?? m???t cam k???t m???i v??? n??? l???c h???i nh???p khu v???c ??? ho??n thi???n li??n minh ng??n h??ng, c???ng c??? li??n minh t??i kh??a v?? h?????ng t???i m???t li??n minh ch??nh tr???, nh???ng th??? ???? m???t ??i s??? ??u ti??n do m???t chu???i c??c cu???c g???p m???t v?? h???p th?????ng ?????nh kh??ng h???i k???t v??? v???n ????? Hy L???p. T????ng t???, c??c qu???c gia c???n ph???i h???i sinh nh???ng s??ng ki???n c???i c??ch kinh t??? ??? th??? c?? v??? nh?? g???n ????y ???? b??? m???t ??i t??nh c???p thi???t tr?????c m???t th??? tr?????ng t??i ch??nh qu?? m???c t??? m??n v?? d??? d??i. ??i???u n??y s??? gi??p gi???m b???t g??nh n???ng ch??nh s??ch ?????i v???i ECB, t??? ch???c hi???n nay ??ang b??? bu???c ph???i theo ??u???i qu?? nhi???u m???c ti??u tham v???ng, v?????t qu?? kh??? n??ng ??em l???i nh???ng k???t qu??? b???n v???ng v??? ph??t tri???n, vi???c l??m, l???m ph??t v?? ???n ?????nh t??i ch??nh.

S??? t???p trung hi???n nay v??o c??n b??o ??? Hy L???p l?? ??i???u d??? hi???u. Tuy nhi??n, c??c nh?? ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch kh??ng n??n qu?? b??? ph??n t??m b???i v???n ????? n??y m?? b??? qu??n hai c??n b??o ti???m t??ng c??n l???i ??? v?? kh??? n??ng c??? ba c??n b??o h???i t??? l???i th??nh m???t tr???n cu???ng phong c?? s???c t??n ph?? kh???ng khi???p c??n ????ng quan ng???i h??n r???t nhi???u. C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ch??u ??u c???n ph???i h??nh ?????ng ngay b??y gi??? ????? gi???m thi???u t???i ??a c??c nguy c?? v?? tr??nh tr?????ng h???p h??? nh???n ra r???ng nh???ng gi???i ph??p c???a m??nh l?? kh??ng c??n ph?? h???p v???i t??nh h??nh kh???c nghi???t c?? th??? x???y ra ph??a tr?????c.

Mohamed A. El-Erian  hi???n ??ang ?????m nhi???m vai tr?? Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng Ph??t tri???n To??n c???u c???a T???ng th???ng Barack Obama. Tr?????c ????y ??ng t???ng gi??? ch???c v??? T???ng gi??m ?????c ??i???u h??nh c???a PIMCO. ??ng ???????c t???p ch?? Foreign Policy vinh danh l?? m???t trong 100 Nh?? t?? t?????ng To??n c???u n??m 2009, 2010, 2011 v?? 2012. Cu???n When Markets Collide c???a ??ng ???? ???????c t??? Financial Times/Goldman Sachs b??nh ch???n l?? Cu???n s??ch c???a N??m v?? ???????c t??? The Economist b??nh ch???n l?? cu???n s??ch hay nh???t n??m 2008.

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