16/08/1896: Ph??t hi???n v??ng ??? Yukon, Canada

Thứ sáu - 16/08/2019 21:57
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1896, trong khi c??u c?? h???i g???n s??ng Klondike thu???c L??nh th??? Yukon c???a Canada, George Carmack ???????c cho l?? ???? ph??t hi???n ra qu???ng v??ng tr??n m???t ????y s??ng nh???. Ph??t hi???n may m???n c???a ??ng ???? g??y ra c??n s???t v??ng l???n cu???i c??ng ??? mi???n T??y n?????c M???
16/08/1896: Ph??t hi???n v??ng ??? Yukon, Canada

16/08/1896: Ph??t hi???n v??ng ??? Yukon, Canada

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Ngu???n: Gold discovered in the YukonHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1896, trong khi c??u c?? h???i g???n s??ng Klondike thu???c L??nh th??? Yukon c???a Canada, George Carmack ???????c cho l?? ???? ph??t hi???n ra qu???ng v??ng tr??n m???t ????y s??ng nh???. Ph??t hi???n may m???n c???a ??ng ???? g??y ra c??n s???t v??ng l???n cu???i c??ng ??? mi???n T??y n?????c M???.

Hy v???ng ki???m ???????c ti???n t??? c??c v??? ph??t hi???n v??ng ???????c ?????n th???i ??? Alaska, Carmack ???? ??i t???i khu v???c n??y t??? California v??o n??m 1881. Sau khi kh??ng t??m ???????c g??, ??ng ??i v??? ph??a b???c t???i v??ng L??nh th??? Yukon bi???t l???p, ngay b??n kia bi??n gi???i Canada. V??o n??m 1896, m???t nh?? th??m hi???m kh??c, Robert Henderson, ???? n??i v???i Carmack v??? vi???c t??m th???y v??ng ??? m???t nh??nh c???a s??ng Klondike. Carmack ??i t???i khu v???c n??y v???i hai ng?????i b???n ?????ng h??nh l?? ng?????i M??? b???n ?????a, ???????c bi???t ?????n v???i t??n g???i Skookum Jim v?? Tagish Charlie.

V??o ng??y 16 th??ng 08, khi ??ang c???m tr???i g???n s??ng Rabbit, Carmack ???????c cho l?? ???? ph??t hi???n ra m???t c???c v??ng nh?? ra t??? b??? s??ng. Hai ng?????i b???n ?????ng h??nh c???a ??ng sau ???? ???? ?????ng ?? r???ng Skookum Jim ??? anh r??? c???a Carmack ??? m???i l?? ng?????i th???c s??? ???? kh??m ph?? ra ??i???u ????.

B???t k??? ai l?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n ph??t hi???n ra v??ng, ba ng?????i ????n ??ng ???? s???m ph??t hi???n ra r???ng l???p ???? g???n ????y s??ng c?? ?????y c??c m??? v??ng. H??? ???? khoanh c???c khu v???c c???a m??nh v??o ng??y h??m sau. Tin t???c v??? vi???c ph??t hi???n v??ng nhanh ch??ng lan truy???n tr??n kh???p Canada v?? Hoa K???, v?? trong hai n??m ti???p theo, c?? t???i 50.000 th??? m??? s??? ?????n khu v???c n??y. S??ng Rabbit ???????c ?????i t??n th??nh Bonanza, v?? th???m ch?? nhi???u v??ng h??n ???? ???????c ph??t hi???n trong m???t nh??nh kh??c c???a s??ng Klondike, ???????c ?????t t??n l?? Eldorado.

???C??n s???t Klondike??? ???? ?????t ?????n ?????nh ??i???m t???i Hoa K??? v??o gi???a th??ng 07 n??m 1897 khi hai t??u h??i n?????c t??? Yukon t???i San Francisco v?? Seattle, mang theo t???ng c???ng h??n hai t???n v??ng. H??ng ng??n thanh ni??n h??o h???c ???? mua nh???ng ???b??? ????? ngh??? Yukon??? ph???c t???p (c??c b??? d???ng c??? ???????c t???p h???p b???i nh???ng ng?????i ti???p th??? th??ng minh bao g???m th???c ph???m, qu???n ??o, c??ng c??? v?? c??c thi???t b??? c???n thi???t kh??c) v?? l??n ???????ng ??i v??? ph??a b???c. Ch??? m???t v??i trong s??? nh???ng ng?????i n??y t??m th???y v??ng, v?? ph???n l???n ?????t ??ai trong khu v???c ???? b??? ng?????i kh??c khoanh gi???. M???t trong s??? nh???ng ng?????i t??m v??ng kh??ng th??nh c??ng l?? Jack London, l??c b???y gi??? m???i 21 tu???i, m?? nh???ng truy???n ng???n d???a tr??n tr???i nghi???m t???i Klondike ???? tr??? th??nh cu???n s??ch ?????u ti??n c???a ??ng, cu???n The Son of the Wolf (Con trai c???a S??i ??? 1900).

V??? ph???n m??nh, Carmack tr??? n??n gi??u c?? nh??? ph??t hi???n c???a m??nh, ??ng r???i Yukon v???i s??? v??ng tr??? gi?? 1 tri???u ???? la. Nhi???u ng?????i khai th??c v??ng ri??ng l??? ??? Klondike cu???i c??ng ???? b??n ph???n c???a h??? cho c??c c??ng ty khai th??c, nh???ng ng?????i c?? t??i nguy??n v?? m??y m??c ????? ti???p c???n nhi???u v??ng h??n. Vi???c khai th??c v??ng quy m?? l???n ??? L??nh th??? Yukon ???? kh??ng k???t th??c cho ?????n n??m 1966, v?? t???i th???i ??i???m ????, khu v???c n??y ???? mang l???i kho???ng 250 tri???u ???? la v??ng. Ng??y nay, kho???ng 200 m??? v??ng nh??? v???n ho???t ?????ng trong khu v???c n??y.
 

?? ?????nh chi???n l?????c ?????ng sau cu???c g???p T???p ??? M??

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Ngu???n: Jonathan Sullivan, ???The strategic intentions behind Xi Jinping???s meeting with Ma Ying-jeou???, South China Morning Post, 06/11/2015.

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Khi T???p C???n B??nh v?? M?? Anh C???u (Ma Ying-jeou) b???t tay v??o ng??y th??? B???y t???i Singapore, ???? s??? l?? l???n ?????u ti??n trong l???ch s??? ch??? t???ch n?????c v?? t???ng th???ng ??????ng nhi???m c???a C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa v?? Trung Hoa D??n qu???c tr???c ti???p g???p nhau, d?? h??? s??? kh??ng g???i nhau b???ng nh???ng ch???c danh nh?? v???y. ?? ngh??a bi???u t?????ng n??y l?? r???t l???n, ?????c bi???t l?? v??? ph??a Trung Qu???c, n??i m?? h??nh ???nh c???a m???t ????i Loan tr??? v??? v???i ?????t m??? lu??n t???o ???n t?????ng m???nh m??? h??n c??? c???nh ??ng T???p ?????ng c???nh T???ng th???ng M??? Barack Obama hay ???????c ????n ti???p trang tr???ng b???i n??? ho??ng Anh. Cu???c g???p r?? r??ng l?? m???t th??nh t??ch ?????i v???i ??ng M??, ng?????i ???????c th??c ?????y b???i m???t c???m nh???n v??? m???t d??n t???c Trung Hoa v?? vai tr?? c???a c?? nh??n ??ng trong vi???c b???o t???n n??. ???? c??ng s??? l?? m???t tin tuy???t v???i ?????i v???i B???c Kinh ????? ph??? bi???n cho ng?????i d??n trong n?????c, khi t??? Ho??n c???u Th???i b??o tuy??n b??? r???ng ???v???n ????? ????i Loan kh??ng c??n l?? m???t v???n ????? n???a???.

Ngo??i vi???c ????a tin ???n ?? v?? nhi???t t??nh c???a c??c ph????ng ti???n truy???n th??ng nh?? n?????c, th???i gian c???a cu???c h???p ti???t l??? r???t nhi???u ??i???u v??? nh???ng ?? ?????nh ?????ng sau n??. Ch??? c??n hai th??ng n???a l?? di???n ra cu???c b???u c??? ??? ????i Loan n??i g???n nh?? ch???c ch???n ?????ng D??n Ti???n (DPP) s??? gi??nh gh??? t???ng th???ng v?? l???n ?????u ti??n chi???m ???????c ??a s??? trong c?? quan l???p ph??p. ?????i v???i B???c Kinh, v???n nghi ng??? ????? ?????nh th???c s?????? ch??? t???ch DPP Th??i Anh V??n (Tsai Ing-wen) v?? n??ng l???c c???a b?? trong vi???c ki???m so??t ???khuynh h?????ng ly khai??? c???a c??c phe ph??i trong ?????ng c???a m??nh, ????y l?? m???t ??i???u ????ng s???.

L???n cu???i c??ng DPP ki???m so??t nhi???m k??? t???ng th???ng, m???c d?? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i m???t phe ??a s??? ?????i l???p t??? li??n minh Qu???c D??n ?????ng/?????ng Nh??n d??n trong qu???c h???i nh??ng Tr???n Th???y Bi???n ???? c?? th??? c???ng c??? r???ng r??i c??c ?? t?????ng v??? m???t ????i Loan kh??c bi???t v?? t??ch bi???t so v???i ph???n c??n l???i c???a Trung Qu???c. Gi??? ????y, sau t??m n??m d?????i m???t v??? t???ng th???ng g???n g??i m???t c??ch b???t th?????ng v???i ?????i l???c, v?? ????? quy???n l???c ????? th??c ?????y nh???ng b?????c ??i quan tr???ng h?????ng t???i h???i nh???p kinh t??? v???i ?????i l???c ??t nh???t l?? trong nhi???m k??? ?????u ti??n c???a m??nh, c??c xu h?????ng trong d?? lu???n ????i Loan ??ang b???t l???i ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? quan h??? g???n g??i h??n v???i B???c Kinh. C??c cu???c th??m d?? d?? lu???n trong nhi???u th???p ni??n cho th???y ng?????i ????i Loan ch??a bao gi??? ch???c ch???n nh?? v???y v??? b???n s???c c???a h???, v?? ???ng h??? b???n s???c ????i Loan l?? r?? r??ng trong gi???i tr???. T???i th???i ??i???m ????, B???c Kinh ???? quy???t ?????nh can thi???p.

Trong ng???n h???n, tri???n v???ng s??? can thi???p c???a B???c Kinh c?? th??? c???u gi??p ???????c Qu???c D??n ?????ng ??? v???n nhi???u th??ng nay ??ang h?????ng t???i m???t th???t b???i b???u c??? l???n ??? l?? r???t th???p. M???c d?? Qu???c D??n ?????ng g???n ????y ???? lo???i b??? ???ng vi??n t???ng th???ng ???????c b???u h???p l??? c???a m??nh v?? v???n l?? ng?????i ???ng h??? th???ng nh???t v???i ?????i l???c H???ng T?? Tr??? (Hung Hsiu-chu), nh???ng bi???n ph??p c???n thi???t ????? thay th??? b?? H???ng b???ng ch??? t???ch Qu???c D??n ?????ng Chu L???p Lu??n (Eric Chu) d?????ng nh?? l?? m???t n??? l???c v?? ??ch. B??? ???nh h?????ng uy t??n b???i m???i quan h??? v???i ??ng M?? c??ng nh?? do quy???t ?????nh ch???n ch??? c???a ??ng trong vi???c tranh c???, k???t qu??? th??m d?? c??? tri ??????c???a Chu c??ng kh??ng kh?? h??n b?? H???ng l?? m???y.

Ph??t huy th???ng l???i l???ch s??? trong cu???c b???u c??? ?????a ph????ng cu???i th??ng 11 n??m ngo??i, c??c chi???n d???ch tranh c??? qu???c gia c???a DPP ?????n nay r???t thu???n bu???m xu??i gi??. B?? Th??i ???? ????a ra nh???ng l???p tr?????ng h???p l??ng d??n v??? v???n ????? Trung Qu???c v?? n???n kinh t???, ?????ng th???i c?? m???t chuy???n ??i th??nh c??ng t???i M???. Hi???n b?? ??ang d???n tr?????c ?????i th??? v???i m???t kho???ng c??ch t??? l??? hai con s???. Do s??? m???t l??ng d??n c???a ??ng M?? ch??? y???u l?? do v???i v??ng ng?? v??o l??ng Trung Qu???c, k???t h???p v???i c?? ch??? ra quy???t ?????nh thi???u minh b???ch c???a ??ng (th??? hi???n qua vi???c Phong tr??o bi???u t??nh Hoa h?????ng d????ng t???p trung v??o s??? minh b???ch trong ch??nh tr?????ng), s??? th???t kh?? t?????ng t?????ng vi???c m???t cu???c g???p ???????c d??n x???p b?? m???t v???i Ch??? t???ch Trung Qu???c c?? th??? gi??p ??ch cho Qu???c D??n ?????ng trong cu???c b???u c??? s???p t???i.

Tuy nhi??n, n???u nh??n r???ng ra v?? d??i h???n h??n, cu???c h???p ph???c v??? nhi???u m???c ????ch cho c??? hai b??n. ??ng M?? s??? ?????t ???????c c???t m???c ???p ??? l??u nay c???a m??nh v?? c?? th??? chuy???n ?????i n?? th??nh ???nh h?????ng k??o d??i sau khi ??ng h???t nhi???m k???. Quan tr???ng h??n ?????i v???i ?????ng C???ng s???n Trung Qu???c, cu???c h???p s??? g??p ph???n gi???i h???n nh???ng g?? DPP c?? th??? l??m b???ng c??ch t??ng c?????ng v?? c???ng c??? nh???n th???c c???a ???x?? h???i qu???c t?????? v??? hi???n tr???ng trong quan h??? hai b??? eo bi???n ????i Loan. Do gi??? ????y h???u nh?? b??i b??o n??o v??? ????i Loan (??? n?????c ngo??i) c??ng ????? c???p t???i nh???ng t??? nh?? ???t???nh n???i lo???n??? hay ???m???t t???nh c???a Trung Qu???c???, ng?????i ta c?? th??? n??i r???ng Trung Qu???c ???? th???ng trong cu???c chi???n v??? ?????nh khung m???i quan h???.

?????i l???c s??? coi cu???c h???p T???p ???M?? l?? hi???n th??n c???a ???t??nh h??nh nguy??n tr???ng???: quan h??? h???u ngh???, ?????i tho???i v?? ?????i t??c, h?????ng t???i vi???c th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c. Th???c t??? c??n l??u m???i ???????c nh?? v???y, nh??ng ??i???u ???? kh??ng quan tr???ng b???ng h??nh ???nh v?? c??u chuy???n s??? ???????c x??y d???ng xung quanh n??. Vi???c ????? c???p t???i m???t ???hi???n tr???ng ???????c t??ng c?????ng??? s??? g??y kh?? d??? cho l???p tr?????ng c???a b?? Th??i trong chi???n d???ch tranh c??? v?? nh???t l?? sau khi b?? gi??nh chi???n th???ng. H???n ch??? DPP, h???n ch??? tr?????c d?? ?????a h??nh ?????ng c???a ?????ng n??y v?? h???n ch??? nh???ng ???thi???t h???i??? m?? m???t ch??nh quy???n DPP c?? th??? g??y ra ?????i v???i d??? ??n th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c l?? m???c ????ch c???a cu???c h???p n??y.

????ng ng???c nhi??n l?? nh???ng ng?????i thua cu???c trong t???t c??? c??u chuy???n n??y l?? ng?????i d??n ????i Loan. Tuy nhi??n, tr??i ng?????c v???i ph???n ???ng c???a c??c ph????ng ti???n truy???n th??ng ???????c ch??nh tr??? h??a cao ?????, x?? h???i ????i Loan c?? v??? kh?? tho???i m??i ti???p nh???n cu???c h???p n??y. Th???t v???y, ????i Loan ???? ph???n ???ng v???i s??? thanh th???n tr?????c ??i???u m?? nhi???u ng?????i coi l?? c???nh t?????ng tr?? tr???n c???a m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o b??? ch???i r???a theo ??u???i m???c ti??u c?? nh??n c???a m??nh ch???ng l???i nh???ng mong mu???n c???a ??a s???, v?? ch???ng ki???n ??????m???t th??? l???c b??n ngo??i ??m m??u g??y ???nh h?????ng l??n k???t qu??? c???a m???t qu?? tr??nh d??n ch??? m?? h??? ???? r???t kh?? kh??n m???i gi??nh ???????c.

C??c c???a ph???n ???ng ch??n ch???n n??y l?? m???t s??? b??c b??? vang d???i ?????i v???i Trung Qu???c c??ng nh?? m???t s??? c??c l??nh ?????o Qu???c D??n ?????ng, nh???ng ng?????i ph??n n??n r???ng n???n d??n ch??? ????i Loan b??? l??m cho suy y???u b???i t??nh ch???t c???m t??nh v?? ch??a tr?????ng th??nh c???a ng?????i d??n. B???t ch???p s??? c???nh tranh ch??nh tr??? r???t r??o v?? s??? k???ch t??nh cao ????? ??i k??m v???i c??c cu???c b???u c??? gay c???n c???a ????i Loan, th???c t??? c?? m???t m???c ????? ?????ng thu???n cao v??? t??nh tr???ng c???a ????i Loan: m???t n???n t??? tr??? ho???t ?????ng t???t trong khu??n kh??? c???a m???t nh?? n?????c Trung Hoa D??n qu???c, v???i k???t c???c t????ng lai v???n ch??a ???????c quy???t ?????nh r?? r??ng.

??a s??? ng?????i ????i Loan t??? nh???n m??nh l?? ng?????i ????i Loan, ???ng h??? th??? ch??? d??n ch??? c???a ????i Loan, t???n h?????ng c??c quy???n t??? do c???a x?? h???i ????i Loan, v?? ph??n bi???t r???t r?? r??ng gi???a ????i Loan v?? ?????i l???c. Ng?????i ????i Loan ??ang t???c gi???n, nh??ng h??? c??ng c?? ????? ni???m tin v??o s??? v???ng m???nh c???a n???n d??n ch??? ????? cho l?? phi???u n??i l??n ti???ng n??i c???a m??nh. H??? bi???t r???ng, v??o ng??y 16 th??ng 1 t???i, c?? h???i c???a h??? s??? ?????n ????? h??? b??? ??ng M?? v?? ch???m d???t t??m n??m c???m quy???n c???a Qu???c D??n ?????ng. ??i???u ????ng lo ng???i l?? quy???n ???????c tr???ng ph???t Qu???c D??n ?????ng tr??? th??nh m???t ???chi???n th???ng v???i th????ng vong qu?? l???n??? n???u t????ng lai c???a ????i Loan ???? b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i m???t th??? r?? r??ng phi d??n ch??? nh?? l?? cu???c h???p b???t ng??? gi???a ??ng T???p v?? ??ng M??.

Jonathan Sullivan l?? gi??o s?? v??? nghi??n c???u Trung Qu???c ??????ng ?????i t???i ?????i h???c Nottingham.
 

09/02/1825: K????t qua?? b???u c??? T???ng th???ng My?? ????????c H??? vi???n quy???t ?????nh

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Ngu???n: Presidential election decided in the HouseHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

Va??o nga??y na??y n??m 1825, v?? kh??ng c?? ???ng c??? vi??n T???ng th???ng n??o nh???n ???????c ??a s??? phi???u b???u trong cu???c b???u c??? n??m 1824, H??? vi???n My?? ??a?? bo?? phi???u b???u cho??n John Quincy Adams, ng?????i gi??nh ???????c ??t phi???u h??n Andrew Jackson trong ??????t b???u c??? ph??? th??ng, tr???? tha??nh T???ng th???ng c???a Hoa K???. John Quincy Adams l?? con trai c???a John Adams, v??? T???ng th???ng th??? hai c???a My??.

Trong cu???c b???u c??? n??m 1824, m???t ???ng vi??n mu????n tr???? tha??nh T???ng th???ng c????n ??a??t ????????c 131 phi???u ?????i c??? tri, nhi??nh h??n m???t n???a so v????i t???ng s??? 261 phi????u. D?? chu??ng kh??ng a??nh h??????ng ??????n k???t qu??? chung cu????c, nh??ng l????n ??????u ti??n ca??c phi???u ph??? th??ng ???????c t??nh trong cu???c b???u c??? n??y.

Nga??y 01/12/1824, k???t qu??? ???????c c??ng b???. Andrew Jackson ?????n t??? Tennessee ???? gi??nh ???????c 99 phi???u ?????i c??? tri v?? 153.544 phi???u ph??? th??ng; John Quincy Adams ?????n t??? Massachusetts ???? nh???n ???????c 84 phi???u ?????i c??? tri v?? 108.740 phi???u ph??? th??ng; Ngo???i tr?????ng William H. Crawford, ng?????i b??? ?????t qu??y ngay tr?????c cu???c b???u c???, ???? nh???n ???????c 41 phi???u ?????i c??? tri; v?? Ha?? nghi?? si?? Henry Clay cu??a Kentucky ???? gi??nh ???????c 37 phi???u ?????i c??? tri.

Theo Hi???n ph??p My??, cu???c b???u c??? t???ng th???ng sau ???? ???????c chuy???n sang H??? vi???n. Tu chi??nh a??n th???? 12 vi????t r???ng n???u kh??ng co?? ????ng vi??n na??o gia??nh ????????c ??a s??? phi????u ?????i c??? tri th?? ch??? c?? ba ???ng vi??n v????i s???? phi???u b???u ph??? th??ng cao nh???t s??? ???????c xem x??t l????a cho??n ta??i H??? vi???n.

Ha?? nghi?? si?? Henry Clay, ng?????i b??? lo???i ra kh???i cu???c b???u c??? ta??i H??? vi???n l?? ???ng vi??n ??????ng v??? tr?? th??? t??, ???? ?????ng ?? s??? d???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a m??nh ????? b???u cho??n cho John Quincy Adams. Clay v?? Adams ?????u l?? th??nh vi??n c???a m???t li??n minh l???ng l???o trong Qu???c H???i m?? ?????n n??m 1828 ???????c bi???t ?????n v???i t??n g???i ?????ng C???ng h??a Qu???c gia, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? c???a Jackson sau ???? ???? ???????c t??? ch???c th??nh ?????ng D??n ch???.

Nh??? s??? h??? tr??? c???a Clay, v??o ng??y 09/02/1825, H??? vi???n b???u Adams l??m T???ng th???ng My??. Khi Adams b??? nhi???m Clay l??m Ngoa??i tr??????ng ??? m???t trong nh???ng vi?? tri?? quan tr???ng nh???t n???i c??c, Jackson v?? nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ??ng ???? nha??o ba??ng vi????c b???? nhi????m na??y chi?? la?? m???t ???cu???c ?????i ch??c b???t ch??nh??? (corrupt bargain).

V???i r????t i??t ng??????i u??ng h????, nhi????m ky?? cu??a Adams ta??i Nh?? Tr???ng h???u nh?? kh??ng c?? hi???u qu???, v?? c??i g???i l?? Cu???c ?????i ch??c b???t ch??nh ti???p t???c ??m ???nh ch??nh quy???n c???a ??ng. N??m 1828, trong l????n ta??i tranh c????, ??ng b??? ????nh b???i b????i Andrew Jackson, ng?????i ???? nh???n ???????c g???p h??n hai l???n s??? phi???u ?????i c??? tri so v???i Adams.

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