15/07/1806: ??o??n th??m hi???m c???a Zebulon Pike kh???i h??nh

Thứ ba - 16/07/2019 21:19
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1806, Zebulon Pike, s?? quan qu??n ?????i Hoa K???, ng?????i v??o n??m 1805 ???? l??nh ?????o m???t nh??m th??m hi???m ??i t??m ki???m ?????u ngu???n s??ng Mississippi, ???? b???t ?????u m???t cu???c th??m hi???m m???i ????? kh??m ph?? khu v???c T??y Nam n?????c M???. Pike ???????c h?????ng d???n t??m ki???m ?????u ngu???n c??c s??ng Arkansas v?? s??ng Red, ?????ng th???i ??i???u tra c??c khu ?????nh c?? T??y Ban Nha ??? New Mexico
15/07/1806: ??o??n th??m hi???m c???a Zebulon Pike kh???i h??nh
15/07/1806: ??o??n th??m hi???m c???a Zebulon Pike kh???i h??nh
Ngu???n: Pike expedition sets outHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1806, Zebulon Pike, s?? quan qu??n ?????i Hoa K???, ng?????i v??o n??m 1805 ???? l??nh ?????o m???t nh??m th??m hi???m ??i t??m ki???m ?????u ngu???n s??ng Mississippi, ???? b???t ?????u m???t cu???c th??m hi???m m???i ????? kh??m ph?? khu v???c T??y Nam n?????c M???. Pike ???????c h?????ng d???n t??m ki???m ?????u ngu???n c??c s??ng Arkansas v?? s??ng Red, ?????ng th???i ??i???u tra c??c khu ?????nh c?? T??y Ban Nha ??? New Mexico.
Pike v?? nh??m c???a ??ng r???i Missouri v?? ??i qua c??c ti???u bang Kansas v?? Nebraska ng??y nay tr?????c khi ?????n Colorado, n??i ??ng ph??t hi???n ra ng???n n??i n???i ti???ng m?? sau n??y ???????c ?????t theo t??n ??ng ????? vinh danh. T??? ????, h??? ??i xu???ng New Mexico, n??i h??? b??? c??c quan ch???c T??y Ban Nha ch???n l???i v?? bu???c t???i x??m nh???p b???t h???p ph??p v??o l??nh th??? thu???c T??y Ban Nha.
Nh??m c???a ??ng ???????c h??? t???ng ?????n Santa Fe, sau ???? xu???ng Chihuahua, quay tr??? l???i Texas v?? cu???i c??ng ?????n bi??n gi???i c???a L??nh th??? Louisiana, n??i h??? ???????c ph??ng th??ch. Ngay sau khi tr??? v??? ph??a ????ng, Pike ???? b??? d??nh v??o m???t ??m m??u c??ng v???i c???u Ph?? T???ng th???ng Aaron Burr ????? chi???m gi??? l??nh th??? ??? ph??a T??y Nam v?? nh???ng m???c ????ch b?? ???n. Tuy nhi??n, sau m???t cu???c ??i???u tra, Ngo???i tr?????ng James Madison ???? ho??n to??n mi???n t???i cho ??ng.
Th??ng tin m?? ??ng cung c???p v??? l??nh th??? Hoa K??? ??? Kansas v?? Colorado l?? m???t ?????ng l???c l???n cho ch??nh s??ch ?????nh c?? c???a n?????c M??? trong t????ng lai, v?? c??c b??o c??o c???a ??ng v??? ??i???m y???u c???a ch??nh quy???n T??y Ban Nha ??? T??y Nam ???? l??m d???y l??n th???o lu???n v??? kh??? n??ng s??p nh???p trong t????ng lai v???i Hoa K???. Pike sau ???? ph???c v??? trong vai tr?? m???t thi???u t?????ng trong Chi???n tranh n??m 1812, v?? v??o th??ng T?? n??m 1813, ??ng ???? b??? gi???t b???i m???t qu??? bom thu???c s??ng c???a Anh sau khi d???n ?????u m???t cu???c t???n c??ng th??nh c??ng v??o York, Canada.
14/06/1954: M??? l???n ?????u di???n t???p ph??ng th??? d??n s??? to??n qu???c
Ngu???n: First nationwide civil defense drill heldHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1954, h??n 12 tri???u ng?????i M??? ???? ???ch???t??? trong m???t cu???c t???n c??ng h???t nh??n m?? ph???ng, khi Hoa K??? tr???i qua cu???c di???n t???p ph??ng th??? d??n s??? to??n qu???c ?????u ti??n. M???c d?? c??c quan ch???c Hoa K??? h??i l??ng v???i k???t qu??? c???a cu???c di???n t???p, s??? ki???n n??y di???n ra nh?? m???t l???i nh???c nh??? nghi??m t??c r???ng Hoa K??? ??? v?? th??? gi???i ??? hi???n ??ang s???ng d?????i m???t c??i b??ng h???t nh??n.
Cu???c di???n t???p ph??ng th??? d??n s??? th??ng 06 n??m 1954 ???????c t??? ch???c v?? ????nh gi?? b???i C???c Qu???n l?? Ph??ng th??? D??n s???, v?? bao g???m c??c ho???t ?????ng t???i 54 th??nh ph??? ??? Hoa K???, Puerto Rico, Qu???n ?????o Virgin, Alaska v?? Hawaii. Canada c??ng tham gia ?????t di???n t???p n??y. Ti???n ????? c?? b???n c???a cu???c di???n t???p l?? Hoa K??? ph???i ??????ng ?????u v???i m???t cu???c t???n c??ng h???t nh??n l???n t??? c??? m??y bay v?? t??u ng???m, v?? h???u h???t c??c khu v???c ???? th??? l???n ???? b??? nh???m m???c ti??u.
V??o l??c 10 gi??? s??ng, ti???ng chu??ng b??o ?????ng ???? vang l??n ??? c??c th??nh ph??? ???????c ch???n, l??c ???? t???t c??? c??ng d??n ph???i r???i ???????ng ph???, t??m n??i tr?? ???n v?? chu???n b??? cho cu???c t???n c??ng. M???i c??ng d??n ph???i bi???t h???m tr??nh m??a ph??ng x??? g???n nh???t n???m ??? ????u; c??c ?????a ??i???m n??y bao g???m c??c t???ng h???m c???a c??c t??a nh?? ch??nh ph??? v?? tr?????ng h???c, ???????ng h???m t??u ????????i???n ng???m v?? h???m tr?? ???n t?? nh??n. Ngay c??? T???ng th???ng Dwight D. Eisenhower c??ng tham gia ch????ng tr??nh n??y, ??ng h?????ng ?????n m???t h???m ng???m ??? Washington, D.C.
To??n b??? cu???c di???n t???p ch??? k??o d??i kho???ng 10 ph??t, khi ???? m???t t??n hi???u an to??n ???????c ph??t ra v?? cu???c s???ng tr??? l???i b??nh th?????ng. C??c quan ch???c thu???c C???c Qu???n l?? Ph??ng th??? D??n s??? ?????c t??nh r???ng Th??nh ph??? New York s??? ph???i ch???u thi???t h???i nhi???u nh???t trong m???t cu???c t???n c??ng nh?? v???y, v???i h??n 2 tri???u ng?????i thi???t m???ng. C??c th??nh ph??? kh??c, bao g???m Washington, D.C., c??ng s??? ch???u s??? m???t m??t l???n v??? nh??n m???ng. T???ng c???ng, ?????c t??nh c?? h??n 12 tri???u ng?????i M??? s??? ch???t trong m???t cu???c t???n c??ng h???t nh??n.
M???c d?? c??c con s??? kh?? ????ng s???, c??c quan ch???c ch??nh ph??? tuy??n b??? h??? r???t h??i l??ng v???i cu???c di???n t???p. Nh???ng v???n ????? nh??? trong giao ti???p ???? x???y ra, v?? m???t ng?????i ph??? n??? ??? th??nh ph??? New York ???? t???o ra m???t v??? t???c ???????ng l???n b???ng c??ch d???ng xe gi???a ???????ng, nh???y ra kh???i xe v?? ch???y ??i t??m ch??? tr?? ???n. Tuy nhi??n, t???i h???u h???t c??c th??nh ph???, ???????ng ph??? v???ng tanh ch??? trong ch???c l??t sau khi ti???ng chu??ng c???nh b??o vang l??n v?? kh??ng c?? d???u hi???u ho???ng lo???n hay h??nh vi t???i ph???m. M???t ????nh gi?? th???n tr???ng h??n ?????n t??? m???t s?? quan qu??n ?????i ???? ngh??? h??u, ng?????i ???? b??nh lu???n r???ng s??? ph??t tri???n bom hydro g???n ????y c???a Li??n X?? ???? ???v?????t xa nh???ng ti???n b??? ?????t ???????c trong vi???c ph??ng th??? d??n s??? ch???ng l???i n??.???

16/07/1951: ???B???t Tr??? ?????ng Xanh??? xu???t b???n l???n ?????u ti??n
Ngu???n: Catcher in the Rye is publishedHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1951, ti???u thuy???t duy nh???t c???a J.D. Salinger, B???t Tr??? ?????ng Xanh (The Catcher in the Rye) ???? ???????c xu???t b???n b???i Little, Brown. Cu???n s??ch v??? c???u thi???u ni??n v??? m???ng tr?????c th??? gi???i ng?????i l???n nhanh ch??ng tr??? th??nh t??c ph???m n???i ti???ng v?? s??? ???????c gi???ng d???y trong c??c tr?????ng trung h???c su???t n???a th??? k??? ti???p theo.
Salinger 31 tu???i ???? s??ng t??c cu???n ti???u thuy???t c???a m??nh trong v??ng m???t th???p ni??n. Nh???ng m???u chuy???n c???a ??ng ???? b???t ?????u xu???t hi???n v??o nh???ng n??m 1940, nhi???u trong s??? ch??ng l?? tr??n t??? The New Yorker.
Cu???n s??ch s???m g??y ???b??o??? tr??n kh???p n?????c M???, li??n t???c ch??y h??ng v?? tr??? th??nh Cu???n s??ch c???a th??ng (Book of the Month Club selection). D?? v???y, danh ti???ng kh??ng h???n l?? th??? Salinger mong ?????i; ??ng lui v??? s???ng trong m???t c??n nh?? tr??n ?????nh ?????i ??? Cornish, New York, nh??ng v???n ti???p t???c xu???t b???n nh???ng c??u chuy???n ?????nh k??? tr??n The New Yorker. ??ng ???? xu???t b???n Franny and Zooey (1963) ??? k???t h???p hai c??u chuy???n l???n l?????t v??? Franny v?? Zooey, t???ng ???????c in tr??n t??? The New Yorker.
Salinger ng???ng c??ng vi???c xu???t b???n s??ch v??o n??m 1965, c??ng n??m ????, ??ng ly d??? ng?????i v??? 12 n??m, ng?????i m?? ??ng ???? k???t h??n khi ??ng 32 tu???i. N??m 1999, nh?? b??o Joyce Maynard ???? xu???t b???n m???t cu???n s??ch v??? m???i quan h??? c???a b?? v???i Salinger, di???n ra h??n hai m????i n??m tr?????c ????. L?? m???t ng?????i y??u ?????i s???ng ???n d???t, Salinger qua ?????i t???i nh?? ri??ng ??? New Hampsire v??o ng??y 27/01/2010 khi 91 tu???i.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o.
P/v
L?????c s??? Chi???n tranh L???nh v?? s??? tham gia c???a M??ng C???
Bi??n d???ch: Ho??ng Tu???n Th???nh
Nhi???u l???n nghe c??c th???y gi??o cao ni??n c???a tr?????ng ?????i h???c ph??n n??n thanh ni??n th???i nay kh??ng bi???t, kh??ng quan t??m ?????n l???ch s???, kh??ng c?? nh???ng ki???n th???c s?? ?????ng nh???t v??? l???ch s??? th??? gi???i. B???n th??n t??i, l??c ?????u l?? gi??o vi??n d???y m??n L???ch s??? Quan h??? qu???c t??? n??n t??i nh???t tr?? v???i nh???n x??t n??y. ????? s??? chia l???i ph??n n??n ????, t??i quy???t ?????nh tr??? l???i c??u h???i c???a nhi???u ng?????i th?????ng n??u ra. T??i mu???n l??m r?? v??? ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? l?? g??, t???i sao n?? xu???t hi???n, di???n bi???n ra sao v?? k???t th??c l??c n??o. T??i mu???n t??m l?????c c??c s??? ki???n m???t c??ch gi???n ????n nh???t c?? th??? v?? c??ng mu???n ??i???m l???i s??? tham gia c???a M??ng C??? trong cu???c chi???n n??y.
???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? c?? th??? ph??n ra m???t s??? th???i k???. Th???i k??? ?????u (1) t??? n??m 1947 ?????n n??m 1953. Ng??y 5 th??ng Ba n??m 1946 t???i th??nh ph??? Fultol, Hoa K???, ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? ???????c coi l?? b???t ?????u khi nguy??n Th??? t?????ng Anh Winston Churchill tuy??n b??? B???c m??n s???t (??m ch??? s??? ???nh h?????ng c???a Li??n X?? t???i ????ng ??u) chia ????i ch??u ??u. Th??? chi???n II k???t th??c, ????ng ??u ???????c H???ng qu??n Li??n X?? gi???i ph??ng, h??nh th??nh kh???i ph????ng ????ng th??n Moskva v?? b???t ?????u t???o ra l???ch s??? kh?? d??i c???a ch??? ????? c???ng s???n. Binh l??nh ?????ng minh gi???i ph??ng T??y ??u, K??? ho???ch Marshall, tr???t t??? m???i v??? kinh t??? c???a Morgenthau (nh?? Qu??? ti???n t??? Qu???c t???, Ng??n h??ng th??? gi???i, Hi???p ?????nh chung v??? Thu??? quan v?? M???u d???ch, t??? gi?? h???i ??o??i c??? ?????nh ???????c x??y d???ng quanh ?????ng ???? la M??? ??? v??ng) ???????c ??p d???ng ????? ph???c h???i n???n kinh t??? c??c n?????c T??y ??u b??? ki???t qu??? trong chi???n tranh. ????p l???i, n??m 1949, Li??n X?? v?? ????ng ??u c??ng th??nh l???p H???i ?????ng T????ng tr??? kinh t??? (SEV). N???i chi???n b??ng n??? ??? Hy l???p, nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n n???m quy???n, qu???c gia n??y g???n nh?? s???p gia nh???p kh???i Li??n X?? ?????n n??i th?? T???ng th???ng Hoa K??? Truman ????a ra h???c thuy???t, k??u g???i ng??n ng???a s??? can thi???p c???a Li??n X?? v??o qu???c gia n??y. Kh???i ph????ng ????ng x???y ra m??u thu???n n???i b???, ?????nh ??i???m l?? m??u thu???n Tito ??? Stalin (Nam T?? v?? Li??n X??), Nam T?? b??? tr???c xu???t kh???i kh???i c???ng s???n. Nh???m ng??n ng???a s??? ???nh h?????ng c???a Li??n X??, theo h???c thuy???t c???a Truman, NATO ???????c th??nh l???p, ch??u ??u l???i b???t ?????u ???????c v?? trang. N???u n??m 1945, Hoa K??? th??? v?? kh?? h???t nh??n c???a m??nh t???i Nh???t B???n th?? n??m 1949 Li??n X?? c??ng th??? v?? kh?? h???t nh??n, sau ???? ch??? t???o ???????c bom nhi???t h???ch (bom H). T???i ch??u ??, c??ch m???ng nh??n d??n Trung Qu???c th???ng l???i. Chi???n tranh b??ng n??? tr??n b??n ?????o Tri???u Ti??n.
Trong th???i k??? n??y, CHND M??ng C??? b???t ?????u ???????c c??ng nh???n tr??n th??? gi???i. Nh??? Trung Hoa d??n qu???c c??ng nh???n v?? thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao, M??ng C??? tr??? th??nh quy ch??? qu???c gia ??? d??n t???c (nation-state) v?? ?????t ph?? m??? r???ng quan h??? ngo???i giao. M??ng C??? thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i Tri???u Ti??n (1948), v???i CHND Trung Hoa (1950), c??ng v???i Li??n X??, hai b??n m??? ?????i s??? qu??n t???i Ulan Bato v?? Moskva. Ng??y 06 th??ng 4 n??m 1950, B??? Ch??nh tr??? c???a ?????ng NDCM M??ng C??? ra ngh??? quy???t s??? 13 v?? s??? 29 quy???t ?????nh thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i C???ng h??a D??n ch??? ?????c, Ti???p Kh???c, Rumani, Bungary, Hungary v?? Ba Lan. B???t ?????u x??y d???ng ?????t n?????c sau chi???n tranh. Nguy??n so??i Choibalsan t??? tr???n. Quy ch??? l??nh ?????o t???p th??? ???????c thi???t l???p sau khi Choibalsan m???t.
Th???i k??? ti???p theo (2) c???a ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? t??? n??m 1953 ?????n n??m 1962. T??c gi??? ????ch th???c c???a ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? l?? Salin t??? tr???n. T???i Hoa K???, Truman r???i kh???i ch??nh tr?????ng. Chi???n tranh Tri???u Ti??n k???t th??c. T???i Li??n X??, sau khi Stalin m???t, t??nh h??nh ch??nh tr??? b???t ?????u n??ng l??n. Khrushchev v?? Eisenhower b???t ?????u ho???ch ?????nh ch??nh s??ch cho th??? gi???i. ?????i h???i l???n th??? 20 c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? ph?? ph??n Stalin, tuy??n b??? nguy??n t???c c??ng chung s???ng h??a b??nh. Nh??ng kh???i ph????ng ????ng kh??ng b??nh y??n. H???ng qu??n Li??n X?? tr???n ??p c??c cu???c b???o lo???n x???y ra ??? ????ng ?????c n??m 1953, ??? Hungari v?? Ba Lan n??m 1956. Nh??n s??? ki???n T??y ?????c ???????c gia nh???p NATO, kh???i qu??n s??? Warsawa ???????c th??nh l???p n??m 1955. Cu???c kh???ng ho???ng k??nh ????o Suez b??ng ph??t. Cu???c chi???n tranh c???a Ph??p t???i Vi???t Nam k???t th??c. M??y bay do th??m U-2 c???a M??? b??? b???t r??i tr??n b???u tr???i X?? vi???t. N??m 1961, kh???ng ho???ng Berlin n??? ra, b???c t?????ng ???????c d???ng l??n ????? bao v??y T??y Berlin. Cu???c ch???y ??ua v??o v?? tr??? b???t ?????u. Li??n X?? ph??ng v??? tinh nh??n t???o v?? l???n ?????u ti??n ph??ng con t??u c?? ng?????i l??i bay v??ng quanh tr??i ?????t. Sau ????, Hoa K??? b???t ?????u c???nh tranh l??nh v???c n??y v???i Li??n X??. C??ch m???ng n??? ra t???i Cuba, vi???c tuy??n b??? x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n s??t n??ch M??? tr??? th??nh s??? kh???i ?????u c???a th???i k??? ti???p theo c???a ???Chi???n tranh L???nh???.
Trong th???i k??? n??y, ho???t ?????ng ?????i ngo???i c???a CHND M??ng C??? kh??ng ng???ng c???ng c???. M??ng C??? ch??nh th???c c?? gh??? t???i Li??n Hi???p Qu???c, gia nh???p H???i ?????ng t????ng tr??? kinh t???, t??? n??m 1960 vi???c thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao ng??y c??ng m??? r???ng xu???t ph??t t??? nguy??n t???c c??ng chung s???ng h??a b??nh kh??ng ph??n bi???t ch??? ????? ch??nh tr??? ??? x?? h???i.
N??m 1959, Li??n Hi???p Qu???c tuy??n b??? l???y n??m 1960 l?? ???n??m c???a ch??u Phi???. C??ng trong n??m ????, M??ng C??? thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i Guinea, Campuchia v?? Cuba, n??m ti???p theo thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i Nepal, Mali v?? Angieri. T???i ?????i h???i l???n th??? 14 c???a ?????ng NDCM M??ng C??? (03/7/1961), b??o c??o ch??nh tr??? th??ng b??o, M??ng C??? c?? quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i 21 qu???c gia. M??ng C??? m???i T???ng th???ng Guinea v?? Mali sang th??m, m??? ?????i s??? qu??n c???a m??nh t???i Guinea, th??? hi???n s??? t??ch c???c m???nh m??? trong ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i. Trong n?????c M??ng C??? r???p khu??n b???u kh??ng kh?? ch??nh tr??? n??ng l??n t??? Li??n X??, ph?? ph??n s??? ????n ??p d?????i th???i Choibalsan, b???t ?????u minh oan cho nh???ng ng?????i b??? ??n oan, kh??ng ch???p nh???n s??? h???u t?? nh??n t???i n??ng th??ng, m???i gia ????nh ch??n nu??i ph???i v??o h???p t??c x?? n??ng nghi???p, tri???n khai c??ng vi???c khai hoang, th??? ???? Ulan Bato ???????c m??? r???ng v?? x??y d???ng ??? ???t, ngu???n vi???n tr??? c???a Trung Qu???c ???????c ????? v??o M??ng C???, c??c c??ng tr??nh nh?? ???, c???u ???????ng ???????c x??y d???ng theo ki???u Trung Qu???c. M??ng C??? c???ng c??? v???ng ch???c quan h??? v???i c??c n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a.
Th???i k??? ti???p theo (3) c???a ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? t??? n??m 1962 ?????n n??m 1979. Th???i k??? n??y c?? th??? chia th??nh hai giai ??o???n: 1962 ??? 1972 v?? 1972 ??? 1979. S???c m???nh c???a th??? gi???i th??? ba tr??? th??nh hi???n th???c tr??n th??? gi???i. C??c ch??? ????? th???c d??n s???p ?????. C??c n?????c ch??? ch???t c???a ch??u Phi gi??nh ???????c ?????c l???p. Cu???c ?????u tranh ch???ng ch??? ngh??a th???c d??n l?? ch??? y???u nh??ng lu??n k??m theo s??? xung ?????t t??n gi??o, ch??nh tr??? v?? tranh gi??nh t??i nguy??n. Kh???ng ho???ng ??? Congo, T???ng Th?? k?? Li??n hi???p qu???c b??? thi???t m???ng trong cu???c xung ?????t v?? trang n??y. Ng???n l???a c??ch m???ng b??ng ph??t t???i M??? Latinh. Cu???c c??ch m???ng ??? Guatemala v?? Cuba, kh???ng ho???ng v???nh Caribe, g???n nh?? ?????i m???t v???i nguy c?? Th??? chi???n III. Hoa K??? b??? l??i k??o v??o cu???c chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam. T???i Iran, v???i s??? tham gia c???a CIA, ch??nh ph??? c???a Mossadegh b??? l???t ?????, Hoa K??? v???ng v??ng th???ng tr??? v???nh P??c-x??ch. ???C??ch m???ng v??n h??a??? b??ng ph??t ??? Trung Qu???c, thi??u ch??y c?????ng qu???c n??y. Li??n X?? v?? Trung Qu???c x???y ra m??u thu???n l???n; ?????ng ????? x???y ra t???i bi??n gi???i. C??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n th??nh l???p Phong tr??o kh??ng li??n k???t, tr??? th??nh l???c l?????ng l???n th??? ba tr??n th??? gi???i. N??m 1968, H???ng qu??n Li??n X?? ????a qu??n v??o Ti???p Kh???c. T???i Hoa K???, Nixon n???m quy???n, ????a ra h???c thuy???t c???a m??nh. Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam k???t th??c. N??m 1972, Nixon th??m Trung Qu???c; sau ???? th??m Li??n X??, hai b??n k?? hi???p ?????c SALT ??? 1 v?? SALT ??? 2  v??? t??n l???a v?? h???t nh??n. T???i Trung ????ng, chi???n tranh n??? ra trong n??m 1967 v?? n??m 1973, cu???i c??ng Hoa K??? d??ng ti???n d??n x???p ????? ?????i l???y h??a b??nh; c??ch m???ng n??? ra t???i Iran, tri???u ????nh Shah th??n M??? s???p ?????. Sau cu???c xung ?????t ??? r???p ??? Israel, th??? gi???i th???m ????n c?? s???c d???u m??? ?????u ti??n. T??? gi?? h???i ??o??i c??? ?????nh ???????c x??y d???ng quanh ?????ng ???? la M??? ??? v??ng kh??ng c??n gi?? tr???, kinh t??? ph????ng T??y b??? kh???ng ho???ng, v?? v???y n??m 1975, nh??m n?????c G -7 ???????c th??nh l???p.
Trong th???i k??? n??y, M??ng C??? kh??ng ch???m ch??n so v???i c??c s??? ki???n th??? gi???i. Theo Hi???p ?????c n??m 1966, binh s??? X?? vi???t ???????c ????a ?????n M??ng C???, trong m??u thu???n X?? ??? Trung, M??ng C??? ki??n ?????nh ???ng h??? Li??n X??, quan h??? M??ng ??? Trung x???u th??m, chu???n b??? cu???c chi???n ch???ng Trung Qu???c, lu??n c?? ti???ng n??i chung v???i Li??n X?? t???i Li??n Hi???p Qu???c v?? c??c di???n ????n qu???c t???, tham gia t??ch c???c v??o phong tr??o c???ng s???n qu???c t???. Trong n?????c, Tsedenbal c???ng c??? quy???n l???c, lo???i b??? nh???ng ng?????i c?? quan ??i???m kh??c m??nh.  Nh??? l??ng h???o t??m c???a H???i ?????ng t????ng tr??? kinh t??? v?? Li??n X??, d??ng vi???n tr??? ??? ???t ch???y v??o M??ng C???. Nh??? vi???n tr??? c???a Li??n X??, c??c th??nh ph??? h???u ngh???, nh?? Darkhan v?? Erdenet c??ng nh?? c??c khu d??n c?? t???i th??? ???? Ulan Bato ????? s??? m???c l??n. Quan h??? X?? ??? M??ng c???a th???i k??? Brezhnev ??? Tsedenbal ????ng v???i ?? ngh??a c???a hai t??? ???h???u ngh?????? .
Li??n X?? ng??y c??ng th???c s??? g???n b?? v???i ch??u ?? do quan h??? c???a m??nh v???i Trung Qu???c ???? tr??? n??n c??ng th???ng, v?? v???y, vi???c ph??t tri???n t??nh h???u ngh??? anh em M??ng ??? X?? ???? tr??? th??nh m???nh ?????t ?????a ch??nh tr??? m??u m???. L??c n??y, M??ng C??? kh??ng ng???ng ti???n qu??n tr??n ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao. N??m 1963 ???????c coi l?? n??m bi???u t?????ng c???a s??? kh???i ?????u th???i k??? m???i trong l???ch s??? ngo???i giao c???a M??ng C???. Trong n??m ????, M??ng C??? thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i V????ng qu???c Anh, ??o, Ph???n Lan v?? Ai C???p, n??m 1964 thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i Th???y S??? v?? Th???y ??i???n, n??m 1965 Ph??p c??ng nh???n v?? thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i M??ng C???. C?? 6 n?????c ph????ng T??y, trong ???? c?? 4 n?????c trung l???p ???? ch??a b??n tay h???u ngh??? c???a m??nh ra ph??a M??ng C???. N??m 1966, khi ?????ng NDCM M??ng C??? ti???n h??nh ?????i h???i l???n th??? 15, s??? n?????c c?? quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i M??ng C??? ???? v?????t xa con s??? 30. Quan h??? ?????i ngo???i c???a CHND M??ng C??? m??? r???ng c?? hi???u qu???, v??? tr?? qu???c t??? c???a M??ng C??? kh??ng ng???ng ???????c c???ng c???, uy t??n tr??n th??? gi???i ???????c n??ng cao, c?? quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i 33 qu???c gia tr??n 4 ch??u l???c, c?? quan h??? th????ng m???i v???i tr??n 20 qu???c gia. ?????n n??m 1971, theo b??o c??o ch??nh tr??? t???i ?????i h???i l???n th??? 16 c???a ?????ng NDCM M??ng C???, CHND M??ng C??? thi???t l???p th??m quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i tr??n 20 qu???c gia, ????a t???ng s??? n?????c quan h??? ngo???i giao l??n 53 n?????c. ?????n n??m 1976, khi ?????ng NDCM M??ng C??? ti???n h??nh ?????i h???i l???n th??? 17, M??ng C??? ch??nh th???c thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i 79 n?????c tr??n th??? gi???i.
Th???i k??? ti???p theo (4) t??? n??m 1979 ?????n n??m 1985: c??c s??? ki???n di???n ra d???n d???p v?? mang t??nh c??? x??t. N??m 1979, Li??n X?? ????a qu??n v??o qu???c gia l??ng gi???ng nh??? b?? Afghanistan, khi???n c??c th??nh t???u h??a gi???i c???a Li??n X?? b??? ph?? v???. Ph????ng T??y t???y chay Th??? v???n h???i Olimpic Moskva n??m 1980, l???n ?????u ti??n l??? h???i th??? thao l???n nh???t to??n c???u di???n ra kh??ng c?? s??? tham gia c???a c??c v???n ?????ng vi??n c???a H??a K???, Nh???t B???n v?? T??y ?????c. N??m 1980, t???i Hoa K???, ???ng c??? vi??n T???ng th???ng di???u h??u Reagan ?????c c???, tuy??n b??? ch??n v??i ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n th??? gi???i. Chi???n tranh gi???a Trung Qu???c v?? Vi???t Nam b??ng n???, phe x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a th??? gi???i b??? chia r??? kh??ng th??? h??n g???n. C??i g???i l?? ch??? ????? c???ng s???n kh??t m??u Polpot th???ng tr??? Campuchia t??n s??t g???n 3 tri???u ng?????i d??n, nh??ng nh??? c??c binh s??? c???a Vi???t Nam ????nh ??u???i, ?????p tan ch??? ????? Polpot, ???v???n ????? Campuchia??? xu???t hi???n tr??n th??? gi???i. S??? tan r?? c???a phong tr??o c???ng s???n qu???c t??? b???t ?????u do kh???ng ho???ng c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ch??u ??u. Kh???i c???ng s???n th??? gi???i b???t ?????u tan r?? t??? b??n trong. Ch??? ????? qu??n s??? t???i Ba Lan t???m th???i l???p ???????c tr???t t??? x?? h???i. T???i Hoa K???, trong khi Reagan n??ng ?????ng th?? nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? Brezhnev ???????c coi l?? ki???n tr??c s?? h??a gi???i l???i b??? b???nh t???t, t??? th??? n??m 1982. S??? h??a gi???i c??ng bi???n m???t c??ng v???i ??ng. Thay th??? Brezhnev l?? Andropov, ng?????i c?? th??i ????? c???ng r???n v???i Hoa K???, s??? n??ng l??n c???a ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? l???i b???t ?????u. Th??? gi???i ???? ?????ng b??n b??? v???c cu???c chi???n tranh m???i, do kh???ng ho???ng t??n l???a ??? ch??u ??u, m??y bay d??n s??? H??n Qu???c b??? b???n r??i trong n??m 1983. Thay th??? Brezhnev, v???i b??n tay s???t nh??ng Andropov c??ng kh??ng th??? chi???n th???ng ???????c b???nh t???t, ??ng t??? tr???n trong n??m 1984. Ng?????i thay th??? ??ng l?? Chernenko l???i c??n ???m y???u h??n c??? nh???ng ng?????i ti???n nhi???m, ch??? n???m quy???n ???????c m???t n??m. T???i Trung Qu???c, l???ch s??? x???y ra c??n k??? qu???c h??n. Mao ch???t v?? nh??? ?????p tan ???????c ???b?? l?? b???n t??n???, ???cu???c c??ch m???ng v??n h??a??? ???? k???t th??c sau 10 n??m h???n lo???n. C???i c??ch v?? ?????i c???a ?????ng Ti???u B??nh b???t ?????u tri???n khai. C???ng s???n c??nh t??? Trung Qu???c tr??? th??nh ?????a b??n th???c hi???n s??? th??? nghi???m kinh t??? t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a v?? ???? r???t th??nh c??ng.
Ch??? ????? ph??t x??t ??? B??? ????o Nha s???p ?????, c??c n?????c thu???c ?????a ch???n con ???????ng ph??t tri???n ?????nh h?????ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a, M??ng C??? th???c hi???n s??? nghi???p thi??ng li??ng c???a m??nh trong vi???c truy???n b?? kinh nghi???m t??? ch??? ????? phong ki???n ti???n l??n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i b??? qua giai ??o???n ph??t tri???n t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a cho c??c n?????c ch??u Phi, M??? Latinh v?? Afghanistan, tr??? th??nh ph????ng h?????ng h??ng ?????u trong ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a CHND M??ng C???. Trong n?????c, t??? s??ng b??i c?? nh??n c???a Tsedenbal ?????t ?????n c???c ?????nh, n??m 1984, nh???ng ng?????i X?? vi???t g??y ??p l???c bu???c Tsedenbal ph???i t??? ch???c, sang ??i???u tr??? b???nh t???i Moskva. Tsedenbal b??? coi l?? l???c c???n ch??nh c???a quan h??? X?? ??? Trung, l?? k??? t??m th???n th???i ???Chi???n tranh L???nh???, khi kh??ng c??n Tsedenbal, Kremlin d??? d??ng quan h??? v???i Trung Qu???c. Ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a CHND M??ng C??? kh??ng ng???ng m??? r???ng. N??m 1981, ?????i h???i l???n th??? 18 c???a ?????ng NDCM M??ng C??? n??u r??, quan h??? ?????i ngo???i c???a CHND M??ng C??? r???t r???ng m???, ng??y c??ng tham gia c?? hi???u qu??? v??o c??c ho???t ?????ng qu???c t???, ???? thi???t l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i 91 qu???c gia, l?? th??nh vi??n c???a nhi???u t??? ch???c qu???c t??? c?? uy t??n. N??m 1986, khi ?????ng NDCM M??ng C??? ti???n h??nh ?????i h???i l???n th??? 19, s??? n?????c quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i M??ng C??? l?? 99 n?????c (hi???n t???i M??ng C??? c?? quan h??? v???i 192 n?????c).
Th???i k??? k???t th??c ???Chi???n tranh l???nh??? (5) t??? n??m 1985 ?????n n??m 1991. S??? nghi???p c???i t??? di???n ra ??? Li??n X??, qu???c gia g???n g??i nh???t v?? r???t hi???u bi???t M??ng C???. Ba T???ng B?? th?? ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? b??? b???nh l???n l?????t t??? th??? ????? l???i kho???ng tr???ng ch??nh tr??? l???n cho Moskva. L??c ????, Gorbachev ???????c coi l?? nh?? c???i c??ch tr??? tu???i, nh?? ch??nh tr??? sung s???c xu???t hi???n, t???a s??ng tr??n th??? gi???i. Trong n?????c, Gorbachev gi??nh ???????c chi???n th???ng trong cu???c ?????u tranh kh???c li???t v???i t??? tham nh??ng, ch???ng nghi???n r?????u v?? ????????i ng?? gi?????. Cu???c chi???n c??n ?????ng ch???m t???i c??? l??nh ?????o cao nh???t v?? t??? h???p c??ng nghi???p ??? qu??n s???. Ngo??i c???i t??? c??n xu???t hi???n th??m t??nh c??ng khai v?? t?? duy ch??nh tr??? m???i. Gorbachev tuy??n b??? nguy??n t???c kh??ng s??? d???ng ?????i ng?? c??n b??? c?? v??o c??c v??? tr?? c???p cao m???i. T???ng b?????c kh??i ph???c s??? th???t l???ch s???, v???ch tr???n s??? t??n b???o c???a Stalin, ????a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? quay tr??? v??? v???i ch??? ngh??a M??c ??? Lenin ????ch th???c. T??? ch???i vi???c x??y d???ng ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n kh??ng t?????ng ???????c n??u ra t??? ?????i h???i l???n th??? 22 v?? l???n th??? 27 c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X??, n??i chung Gorbachev t??m th???y s???c m???nh tinh th???n cho m??nh ????? v???t b??? h???c thuy???t v??? c??ch m???ng th??? gi???i. L???n ?????u ti??n tr??n th??? gi???i, Gorbachev t??? cho r???ng, nh??n lo???i kh??ng ph???i t???t c??? c??ng ??i l??n ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n t??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, kh??ng c?? chuy???n b??? qua con ???????ng ph??t tri???n t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a, l??m g?? c?? phong tr??o c???ng s???n ??? c??ng nh??n, Gorbachev t??? cho m??nh l?? ng?????i c???ng s???n duy nh???t trong l???ch s???. Tuy??n b??? trong ch??nh s??ch ngo???i giao c???a m??nh, t?? duy ch??nh tr??? m???i c???a Gorbachev l?? ?????u h??ng Hoa K??? trong ????m ph??n v??? t??n l???a t???m trung v?? t???m ng???n, r??t binh l??nh X?? vi???t ra kh???i Afghanistan, ?????u h??ng Trung Qu???c trong v???n ????? ???x??a b??? ba tr??? ng???i???, g??y s???c ??p trong v???n ????? r??t binh s??? Vi???t Nam ra kh???i Campuchia. Gorbachev kh??ng mu???n nh??n c??c s??? ki???n x???y ra ??? ????ng ??u trong nh???ng n??m 1953, 1956, 1968 v?? 1980 (t???i CHDC ?????c, Hungary, Ti???p Kh???c v?? Ba Lan) b???ng con m???t c??. Gorbachev th???c hi???n chuy???n th??m l???ch s??? t???i CHND Trung Hoa, ???n ?????nh th???i gian r??t qu??n X?? vi???t ra kh???i M??ng C???. Cu???i n??m 1989, c??ch m???ng d??n ch??? t???i Rumani, ti??u ??i???m cu???i c??ng c???a ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i ??? ch??u ??u, gi??nh ???????c th???ng l???i. Gorbachev ???ng h??? t???t c??? c??c s??? ki???n tr??n. L??c ????, ph???m vi ???nh h?????ng c???a Li??n X?? ?????i v???i qu???c t??? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a qu?? y???u k??m, ?????i v???i M??ng C??? c??ng kh??ng kh??c bi???t. Sau Th??? chi???n II, n???u c???u tr??c th??? gi???i hai c???c ???????c h??nh th??nh trong quan h??? qu???c t??? v?? c??c th???a thu???n ba b??n ?????t ???????c gi???a Stalin, Roosevelt v?? Churchill t???i Yalta th?? th??ng 12 n??m 1989 ch??nh Gorbachev v?? Bush ???? x??a b??? c??c ?????nh ch??? ???? t???i Malta. V???i c??ng th???c ???t??? Yalta ?????n Malta???, ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? coi nh?? k???t th??c!
Sau cu???c g???p th?????ng ?????nh Malta m???i vi???c ???? r?? r??ng. T???i M??ng C???, cu???c c??ch m???ng d??n ch??? ???n??m Canh Ng?????? (n??m 1990) gi??nh th???ng l???i. Ti???n h??nh b???u c??? t??? do, theo con ???????ng ngh??? tr?????ng bao g???m ?????i di???n c???a c??c ?????ng ch??nh tr???.
Nh??ng t???i Li??n X??, b???u c??? c?? nhi???u ???ng c??? vi??n ???????c ti???n h??nh c??ng khai, th??nh l???p ?????i h???i ?????i bi???u nh??n. Gorbachev ???????c b???u l??m T???ng th???ng ?????u ti??n c???a Li??n X??, s??? ki???n ch??a bao gi??? c?? trong l???ch s??? th???i X?? vi???t. Tuy nhi??n, v???n kh??ng th??? c???n tr??? ???????c s??? tan r?? c?????ng qu???c Li??n X??. Gorbachev ????a ra s??ng ki???n th??nh l???p Li??n bang c???a c??c qu???c gia to??n quy???n trong b???i c???nh Li??n bang X?? vi???t s???p tan r?? v?? nh???n ???????c s??? ???ng h??? c???a m???t s??? n?????c c???ng h??a. Ng?????i ???ng h??? th??n c???n nh???t c???a Gorbachev l??c ???? l?? Yeltsin (Nga), Nazarbaev (Kazakhstan), Kravchuk (Ucraina) v?? Shushkevich (Belarus), nh??ng sau n??y ch??nh nh???ng ng?????i ???? (tr??? Nazarbaev) ???? ?????c th??ng c??o khai t??? Li??n bang C???ng h??a x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a X?? vi???t v?? l???ch s??? c???a ???Chi???n tranh L???nh??? k???t th??c ho??n to??n!
Gi??o s?? ??. Bayarkhuu l?? nh?? nghi??n c???u quan h??? qu???c t???, nh?? b??nh lu???n n???i ti???ng ??? M??ng C???; t???t nghi???p ?????i h???c T???ng h???p qu???c gia M??ng C???, H???c vi???n Ngo???i giao tr???c thu???c B??? Ngo???i giao Li??n X??.
Ho??ng Tu???n Th???nh d???ch t??? b???n ti???ng M??ng C???  ??????????????? ??????????? ??? ?? ??????????????????????.
B???u c??? gi???a k??? 2018: Kho???nh kh???c xoay tr???c cho n?????c M??? v?? th??? gi???i?


T??c gi???: Vy Xu??n
N?????c M??? b?????c v??o cu???c b???u c??? gi???a k??? ???ch??a t???ng c?? ti???n l??????, v???i T???ng th???ng Donald Trump, r???t nhi???u ti???n, s??? ??a d???ng trong ???ng vi??n v?? s??? chia r??? s??u s???c trong c??ng ch??ng.
Khi th??ng 11 sang v?? Barack Obama ti???n g???n ?????n ng??y k??? ni???m 10 n??m ??ng ?????c c??? t???ng th???ng M???, ng?????i ta th???y c???u t???ng th???ng m???t l???n n???a c?? m???t t???i c??c bu???i v???n ?????ng tranh c???. L???n n??y, ??ng kh??ng tranh c??? ????? gi??nh l???y l?? phi???u c?? t??n m??nh, m?? k??u g???i ng?????i d??n, ?????c bi???t l?? ng?????i tr??? tu???i, ??i b??? phi???u cho ?????ng D??n ch??? trong cu???c b???u c??? m?? ??ng g???i l?? ???quan tr???ng nh???t trong cu???c ?????i c??c b???n, c?? l??? c??n quan tr???ng h??n n??m 2008 n???a???.
M???t ng?????i kh??c c??ng ??ang bay kh???p ?????t n?????c, c?? m???t t???i nh???ng bang chi???n l?????c ????? v???n ?????ng cho nh???ng l?? phi???u ???kh??ng c?? t??n m??nh???. ???? l?? T???ng th???ng Donald Trump.
V??o ng??y h??m nay, 6/11, th??? gi???i s??? c?? ???????c c??i nh??n ?????u ti??n v??? n?????c M???, 2 n??m sau c?? s???c Donald Trump ?????c c??? v??o Nh?? Tr???ng, ??i???u m?? nh???ng ng?????i nh?? Obama t???ng c???nh b??o l?? ???m???t m???i ??e d???a???.
C??? tri M??? s??? b??? phi???u ????? b???u l???i t???t c??? 435 gh??? c???a H??? vi???n; 35 gh???, t???c kho???ng 1/3 c???a Th?????ng vi???n; v?? ch???n ra 36 th???ng ?????c bang.
Trong s??? 35 gh??? Th?????ng vi???n s??? ???????c b???u l???i v??o h??m nay, ch??? c?? 9 gh??? hi???n do ng?????i C???ng h??a ??ang n???m v?? 26 gh??? do phe D??n ch??? chi???m, t???c c?? h???i ????? ?????ng D??n ch??? gi??nh th??m gh??? v?? ki???m so??t Th?????ng vi???n l?? kh?? th???p, theo trang ph??n t??ch d??? li???u b???u c??? FiveThirtyEight. D?? v???y, ?????ng D??n ch??? nhi???u c?? h???i s??? gi??nh l???i ???????c H??? vi???n trong l???n b???u c??? n??y.
????y l?? k??? b???u c??? gi???a k??? s??i ?????ng nh???t trong v??o 20 n??m qua t???i M???, x??t t??? c??? k???t qu??? th??m d?? d?? lu???n, l?????ng ti???n ???????c ????? v??o qu?? tr??nh v???n ?????ng tranh c??? v?? s??? ??a d???ng c???a c??c ???ng vi??n.
Trong s??? ???ng vi??n ra tranh c???, c?? 411 ng?????i l?? ph??? n???, ng?????i da m??u, ng?????i thu???c c???ng ?????ng LGBT ho???c 216 ng?????i l?? ng?????i da ??en, g???c Latin, ch??u ??, ng?????i M??? b???n ?????a ho???c ??a s???c t???c, ????a cu???c b???u c??? n??m nay tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng cu???c b???u c??? ??a d???ng nh???t trong l???ch s???.
Cu???c b???u c??? n??y c??ng ch???ng ki???n l?????ng ti???n ????? v??o t??? c??c ???m???nh th?????ng qu??n??? t??ng cao v?? t???ng chi ti??u cho v???n ?????ng tranh c??? l???n ?????u ti??n v?????t m???c 5,2 t??? USD (con s??? ng??y 4 v?? 8 n??m tr?????c ch??? x???p x??? nhau, ch??a t???i 4 t??? USD).
T???t c??? s??? h???ng kh???i ?????n t??? c??c c??? tri tr??? tu???i v???i ngu???n g???c ??a d???ng hay ???c??n l???c ti???n??? ????? v??o chi???n d???ch tranh c??? ?????u t???p trung ??? ?????ng D??n ch???. Trong khi ????, nh???ng ng?????i C???ng h??a l???i b?????c v??o cu???c b???u c??? v???i th??nh qu??? l?? M??? l???n ?????u tr??? l???i v??? tr?? n???n kinh t??? c???nh tranh nh???t to??n c???u trong 10 n??m qua, t??ng tr?????ng kinh t??? trong qu?? 2 n??m nay ?????t m???c t???t nh???t trong 4 n??m, t??? l??? th???t nghi???p th???p nh???t k??? t??? n??m 1969.
???L???ch s??? n?????c M??? v???n lu??n chia r?????????
Nh??ng hi???m khi s??? chia r??? ??? M??? l???n ?????n th??? n??y v?? ???????c c??? s??y b???i ch??nh t???ng th???ng ??????ng nhi???m, theo c??c nh?? ch??? tr??ch.
K???t qu??? th??m d?? c???a vi???n Pew cho th???y nh???ng ng?????i M??? D??n ch??? v?? C???ng h??a ti???p t???c xung ?????t v???i nhau ??? h???u h???t m???i quan t??m c?? b???n: nh???p c??, ch??m s??c s???c kh???e, c??ng b???ng trong kinh t???, ph?? thai??? H???u nh?? kh??ng th??? t??m th???y m???t s??? nh?????ng b??? hay ??i???m chung n??o trong ?????nh h?????ng c???a nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? hai ?????ng n??y v???i nhau.
T???ng th???ng Trump kh??ng l??m m???i th??? t???t l??n. Nh???ng ng?????i ch??? tr??ch n??i r???ng c??c ???ng vi??n t???ng th???ng th?????ng n??i nh???ng l???i d??? nghe v???i c??? tri ti???m n??ng c???a m??nh v?? c?? ph???n c??ng k??ch b??n kia, nh??ng khi ?????c c???, nhi???m v??? c???a t???ng th???ng l?? ph???i h??n g???n ?????t n?????c. ??ng Trump ???tuy??n chi???n??? nhi???u h??n.
H??n 10 ng??y tr?????c cu???c b???u c???, h??ng lo???t th??nh vi??n ?????ng D??n ch??? ??? trong ???? c?? c???u t???ng th???ng Barack Obama v?? c???u ?????i th??? c???a Trump, b?? Hillary Clinton ??? c??ng v??n ph??ng CNN nh???n ???????c b??u ph???m ch???a ch???t n???.
T???ng th???ng Trump, sau nh???ng tuy??n b??? m???nh m??? ban ?????u tr?????c m???t h??nh ?????ng b???o l???c, ???? h?????ng ch?? ?? c???a ??ng v??? n???i lo d??nh cho ?????ng m??nh. ???Nh???ng ng?????i C???ng h??a ??ang th??? hi???n r???t t???t trong k??? b???u c??? s???m v?? c??c cu???c th??m d??, gi??? th?? chuy???n ???bom??? x???y ra v?? ?????ng l???c b??? ch???m ??i. Nh???ng g?? ??ang x???y ra r???t kh??ng may. Nh???ng ng?????i C???ng h??a, h??y ra ngo??i v?? ??i b???u???, t???ng th???ng n??i tr??n Twitter.
Michael Cornfield, ph?? gi??o s?? t???i Tr?????ng Qu???n l?? Ch??nh tr??? ??? ?????i h???c George Washington, n??i r???ng T???ng th???ng Trump ??????? ??i xa kh???i c??ch m?? ph???n l???n t???ng th???ng s??? ph???n ???ng l???i m???t h??nh vi kh???ng b??? trong n?????c???.
Thay v??o ????, ??ng d??ng ?????t ch??? ???bom??? trong d???u nh??y ??? d??ng ???tweet???, h??nh ?????ng b??? ch??? tr??ch l?? m??? ???????ng cho c??c thuy???t ??m m??u v??? ngu???n g???c c???a b??u ph???m n??y v?? vi???c n?? xu???t hi???n ngay k??? b???u c???.
T??nh tr???ng chia r??? ???????c d??? ??o??n s??? k??o d??i sau c??? cu???c b???u c???. Th???m ch??, m???t chi???n th???ng c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? s??? ?????y t??nh h??nh t???i Washington D.C. v??o th??? b??? t???c. B???t k??? d??? lu???t n??o do phe D??n ch??? ????? xu???t, d?? ???? ???????c th??ng qua b???i l?????ng vi???n, ho??n to??n c?? th??? b??? t???ng th???ng b??c b???.
Tuy nhi??n, T???ng th???ng Trump kh??ng ph???i l?? nguy??n nh??n hay t??c nh??n duy nh???t. Chi???n th???ng c???a ??ng l?? hi???n th??n c???a nh???ng b???t m??n ??m ??? nhi???u th???p ni??n qua trong l??ng n?????c M??? c??n hai n??m v???a qua t???i Nh?? Tr???ng v?? s??? ???ng h??? m?? Trump nh???n ???????c t??? l?????ng vi???n, ?????i v???i nh???ng ch??nh s??ch ?????y tranh c??i, l???i l?? bi???u hi???n cho s??? chia r???, m???t ?????c ??i???m c???a ch??nh tr??? M??? v???i l???ch s??? c??n l??u ?????i h??n nh???ng b???t ?????ng b??n tr??n.
???S??? ph??n c???c l?? m???t l???ch s??? l??u d??i trong n???n ch??nh tr??? M???. Ch??ng ta h??y tin v??o s??? th???t r???ng ch??ng ta v???n s???ng s??t ?????n ng??y nay, v?? ???? v?????t qua nh???ng giai ??o???n c??n t???i t??? h??n???, Laura Ellyn Smith, Khoa L???ch s???, ?????i h???c Mississippi, n??i v???i Quartz.
???N??m c???a ph??? n?????? l???n 2?
Nhi???m k??? c???a T???ng th???ng Trump ???? b???t ?????u b???ng cu???c Tu???n h??nh Ph??? n??? (Women???s March) tr??n kh???p n?????c M??? m???t ng??y sau khi ??ng nh???m ch???c. C??ng trong n??m 2017, phong tr??o #MeToo ch???ng qu???y r???i t??nh d???c ???? t??? Hollywood v?? n?????c M??? lan kh???p th??? gi???i.
Hai n??m sau ????, trong s??? 962 ???ng vi??n, c?? 262 ph??? n??? ??ang ch???y ??ua v??o c??c v??? trong Th?????ng vi???n, H??? vi???n v?? ch???c th???ng ?????c c??c bang, v?? ????y l?? m???t con s??? k??? l???c.
???N???u c?? ai ???? h???i t??i c??ch ????y 3 n??m, ???c?? s??? ra tranh c??? ch???????, t??i s??? c?????i v??o h??????, Jasmine Clark, b?? m??? 2 con 35 tu???i v?? l?? ???ng vi??n cho v??? tr?? h??? ngh??? s?? c???a bang Georgia, n??i v???i Washington Post.
Clark l?? nh?? khoa h???c vi sinh t???i ?????i h???c Emory. C?? m???c pyjama v?? kh??c trong ????m ??ng Trump ?????c c??? r???i t??? ch???c cu???c Tu???n h??nh Khoa h???c t???i th??nh ph??? Atlanta c???a Georgia, cu???c t??? t???p c???a h??ng ngh??n ng?????i ph???n ?????i vi???c ??ng Trump ch???ng l???i c??c b???ng ch???ng v?? cu???c chi???n ch???ng bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u.
???T??i l?? ph??? n???, t??i l?? ng?????i da m??u v?? t??i l?? m???t nh?? khoa h???c. T??i c???m th???y t??? khi Trump ?????c c???, t???t c??? c??c ph???n trong c??n t??nh t??i b??? t???n c??ng???.
???N??n t??i ra tranh c??????, c?? n??i.
T???i Arizona, n??i ch??a t???ng c?? m???t ng?????i ph??? n??? n??o b?????c v??o Th?????ng vi???n, m???i th??? ch???c ch???n s??? thay ?????i trong n??m nay khi m???t trong hai ng?????i ph??? n???, Kyrsten Sinema v?? Martha McSally, tr??? th??nh th?????ng ngh??? s?? sau ng??y 6/11.
???ng vi??n c???a ?????ng C???ng h??a cho v??? tr?? n??y l?? Martha McSally, ng?????i c?? 26 n??m ph???c v??? trong Kh??ng l???c M???, tr??? th??nh phi c??ng ?????u ti??n bay trong m???t cu???c tham chi???n v?? ra tranh c??? trong b??? ????? phi c??ng m??u xanh c?? may l?? c??? M??? v?? t??n c???a b??. McSally ch??? tr??ch ?????i th??? c???a m??nh l?? ???ng?????i ph??? n??? v??y h???ng ??i bi???u t??nh??? trong l??c b?? chi???n ?????u v?? n?????c M???.
Tuy nhi??n, s??? ??a d???ng gi???i trong cu???c b???u c??? n??m nay kh??ng di???n ra ??? l?????ng ?????ng. Trong s??? 262 ???ng vi??n n??? cho c??c v??? tr??, 207 ng?????i thu???c ?????ng D??n ch???, theo th???ng k?? c???a Trung t??m nghi??n c???u Ph??? n??? v?? Ch??nh tr???.
Tr??n CNN, Karine Jean-Pierre c???a ?????i h???c Columbia l??u ?? r???ng trong n??m b???u c??? 1992, ng?????i ta c??ng g???i ???? l?? ???N??m c???a Ph??? n??????. ???? l?? cu???c b???u c??? sau khi Anita Hill c??o bu???c Clarence Thomas, c???p tr??n c?? c???a b?? v?? l?? ng?????i ??ang ?????i ph?? chu???n cho v??? tr?? th???m ph??n T??a T???i cao M???, ???? qu???y r???i t??nh d???c m??nh. ???? c??ng l?? s??? ph??? n??? ch???y ??ua v??o c??c v??? tr?? trong cu???c b???u c??? nhi???u ??? m???c ch??a t???ng c?? v?? Carol Moseley-Braun tr??? th??nh ng?????i ph??? n??? ??a ??en ?????u ti??n ?????c c??? v??o Th?????ng vi???n.
26 n??m sau, khi n?????c M??? l?? n??i kh???i ph??t cho phong tr??o #MeToo ch???ng qu???y r???i t??nh d???c, ng?????i ta v???n c???n m???t ???N??m c???a Ph??? n?????? cho c??c cu???c b???u c???. V?? c??ng tr??ng h???p, Th?????ng vi???n M??? v???a ph?? chu???n v??? tr?? th???m ph??n T??a T???i cao ?????i v???i Brett Kavanaugh sau nhi???u c??o bu???c qu???y r???i t??nh d???c nh???m v??o ??ng.
???Ch??ng ta ???? c?? ???N??m c???a Ph??? n?????? tr?????c ????y v?? ???? ch??? l?? hi???n t?????ng m???t ????m, nh??ng ????y l?? m???t s??? chu???n b??????, Reuters d???n l???i Celinda Lake, ng?????i ph??n t??ch th??m d?? c???a ?????ng D??n ch???. ???S??? c?? m???t s??? l?????ng k??? l???c ph??? n??? ?????c c???, c??ng s??? c?? m???t s??? l?????ng k??? l???c th???t c???. ??i???u quan tr???ng l?? h??? t??i tranh c??????.
C??n qu?? s???m ????? g???i ????y l?? cu???c b???u c??? c???a ph??? n???. V?? d?? nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? c?? chi???n th???ng, h??? c??ng s??? b?????c v??o ??i???n Capitol v???i m???t t???ng th???ng ???? g???i phong tr??o n??? quy???n l?? ???th???i kh???c ????ng s??? v???i ????n ??ng??? v?? m???t th???m ph??n t???i cao b??? ??t nh???t 3 ng?????i ph??? n??? t??? c??o ???? qu???y r???i t??nh d???c h???.
Cu???c tr??ng c???u d??n ?? v??? Trump
???T??n t??i kh??ng c?? tr??n phi???u b???u, nh??ng t??i v???n ??? tr??n phi???u b???u, v?? ????y l?? m???t cu???c tr??ng c???u d??n ?? v??? t??i???, T???ng th???ng Donald Trump ?????ng tr?????c c??? tri t???i Southaven, Mississippi v?? x??c nh???n ??i???u b??o ch?? ???? n??i nhi???u th??ng nay. ???T??i mu???n c??c b???n ??i b??? phi???u. H??y coi nh?? t??n t??i ??? tr??n phi???u???.
Nhi???u c??? tri M??? s??? b?????c v??o ph??ng b??? phi???u v?? mang theo k?? ???c v??? bu???i t???i ng??y 8/11/2016, th???i kh???c Donald Trump ?????c c??? t???ng th???ng M???.
???Tr??i tim t??i ch???t ??i khi ????. B??? t??i l???t m??? c???a ??ng ???y???, Guardian d???n l???i Maureen Osiecki, m???t h??u tr?? 76 tu???i s???ng t???i bang Michigan.
S???ng ??? b??n kia ???????ng so v???i b?? Osiecki, b?? Linda Andrews, 66 tu???i,l???i  n??i r???ng b?? s??? b??? phi???u cho nh???ng ng?????i C???ng h??a.
???Nh???ng d??ng tweet c???a Trump kh??ng ???????ng ?????n v??? ch??nh tr?????? nh??ng nh???ng k??? ???????ng ?????n v??? ch??nh tr?????? l???i ch???ng l??m g?? c???. Trump ??ang l??m ??i???u ??ng ???y n??i s??? l??m, ??ng ???y l?? ng?????i gi??? l???i. T??i ???? th??? nh???ng l???i ???????ng m???t r???i v?? ch??ng ch???ng gi??p g?? c??????, b?? n??i.
Nh???ng l?? phi???u v??o ng??y 6/11, d?? mang t??n h??ng tr??m ng?????i kh??c, s??? gi???i ????p c??u h???i ng?????i M??? ai ???? v?? ai kh??ng h???i h???n v??? l???a ch???n c???a h??? v??o n??m 2016. Hai n??m ?????u nhi???m k??? c???a T???ng th???ng Trump ???? ch???ng ki???n h??ng lo???t v??? b?? b???i t???i Washington D.C., s??? th??ch th???c c??c chu???n m???c hi???n ph??p v?? h???y ho???i ????ng k??? ?????i v???i c??c th??? ch??? n?????c M??? ??ang x??y d???ng nhi???u th???p ni??n qua ????? duy tr?? tr???t t??? th??? gi???i.
Nh??ng c??ng trong hai n??m ????, T???ng th???ng Trump ???? gi??? r???t nhi???u l???i h???a v???i c??? tri c???a ??ng, k??? c??? nh???ng l???i h???a g??y tranh c??i nh???t, tr???i qua m???t giai ??o???n kinh t??? t???t ?????p v?? ?????nh h??nh T??a T???i cao M??? th??m m???t th??? h??? n???a b???ng vi???c ????? c??? th??nh c??ng m???t th???m ph??n b???o th???.
M???t cu???c kh???o s??t c???a Wall Street Journal v?? NBC News, c??ng b??? h??m 4/11, cho th???y vai tr?? c???a t???ng th???ng trong l?? phi???u: 32% ng?????i ???????c h???i n??i r???ng phi???u b???u c???a h??? l?? th??ng ??i???p ???ng h??? Trump, 40% n??i r???ng ???? l?? th??ng ??i???p ph???n ?????i v?? 28% n??i r???ng ???? kh??ng ph???i l?? v??? t???ng th???ng.
??? ph??a ng?????c l???i, cu???c b???u c??? n??y c??n l?? b??i ki???m tra cho nh???ng ???lu???ng n??ng l?????ng ch???ng Trump??? ???????c h??nh th??nh t??? cu???c Tu???n h??nh Ph??? n??? v??o n??m 2017 ????? xem li???u phong tr??o c?? ????? l???n m???nh ????? ??e d???a ?????n t???ng th???ng hay ch??a.
??a s??? c??c d??? ??o??n cho th???y ?????ng D??n ch??? c?? nhi???u c?? h???i gi??nh l???i H??? vi???n trong khi Th?????ng vi???n v???n do ?????ng C???ng h??a ki???m so??t. B???t k??? ch????ng tr???nh ngh??? s??? n??o c???a t???ng th???ng hay ?????ng C???ng h??a ?????u s??? b??? ????nh tr??? v?? c???n tr??? n???u ?????ng D??n ch??? c?? ???????c m???t chi???n th???ng ??? b???t k??? vi???n n??o.
?????ng chi???m ??a s??? c?? quy???n b??? nhi???m c??c ???y ban trong vi???n, n??i s??? ra ???tr??t t??a??? ????? m??? c??c phi??n ??i???u tr???n. D?????i m???t H??? vi???n do ?????ng D??n ch??? ki???m so??t, c??c c???ng s??? c???a T???ng th???ng Trump c?? nhi???u nguy c?? h??n ph???i ra tr?????c phi??n ??i???u tr???n, t??? m???i li??n h??? v???i Nga hay c??ng vi???c l??m ??n c???a gia ????nh t???ng th???ng.
Trong k???ch b???n kh?? kh??n h??n, n???u ?????ng D??n ch??? gi??nh ???????c c??? l?????ng vi???n, ho???c ch??? Th?????ng vi???n, t???ng th???ng s??? ?????i m???t v???i chu???i ng??y kh?? kh??n trong vi???c thuy???t ph???c Th?????ng vi???n ph?? chu???n cho c??c v??? tr?? n???i c??c v?? th???m ph??n T??a T???i cao m?? ??ng ????? c???. V???i h???u h???t tr?????ng h???p, lu???t l??? t???i Th?????ng vi???n cho ph??p ph?? chu???n m???t ????? c??? c???a t???ng th???ng v???i ??a s??? t???i thi???u, ?????ng ngh??a v???i vi???c trong 2 n??m qua, h??ng lo???t ng?????i ??ng ????? c??? ???? ???????c ph?? chu???n m?? kh??ng c???n b???t k??? s??? ???ng h??? n??o c???a ?????ng D??n ch???. T???ng th???ng s??? th???t s??? g???p r???c r???i n???u ??i???u n??y x???y ra, trong b???i c???nh m???t cu???c ???ra ??i h??ng lo???t??? trong n???i c??c ??ang ???????c d??? b??o s??? di???n ra sau k??? b???u c??? gi???a k???.
Tuy nhi??n, ??i???u ???????c n??i ?????n nhi???u, s??? lu???n t???i t???ng th???ng, kh??ng c?? nhi???u c?? h???i x???y ra. Qu?? tr??nh lu???n ?????i b???t ?????u ??? H??? vi???n, th??? nh??ng khi l??n ?????n Th?????ng vi???n, s??? c???n 2/3 s??? phi???u t???i ????y ????? ph??? tru???t m???t t???ng th???ng, m???t con s??? khi???n kh?? ?????ng n??o c?? th??? t??? quy???t.
Cu???c b???u c??? quan tr???ng nh???t trong k?? ???c hi???n ?????i
Theo CNBC, kh??ng c?? nhi???u cu???c b???u c??? gi???a k??? t???i M??? ???????c theo d??i s??t sao ?????n v???y tr??n to??n c???u. L?? do r???t r?? r??ng: ???nh h?????ng c???a n?? ?????n h??nh ???nh v??? s???c h???p d???n c???a n???n d??n ch??? tr??n th??? gi???i, m???t h?? l??? v??? s???c ch???u ?????ng c???a ch??nh quy???n T???ng th???ng Trump v?? nh???ng ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i c???a h??? c??ng nh?? t??c ?????ng ?????i v???i phong tr??o d??n t??y tr??n to??n th??? gi???i.
M???t tu???n tr?????c khi c??c th??ng phi???u c???a M??? ????ng c???a, ng?????i Brazil ???? b???u l??n m???t t???ng th???ng c???c h???u, n?????c Anh b??? t???c trong cu???c ????m ph??n r???i EU, nh??ng h??? v???n s??? r???i ??i c??n s??? nghi ng??? ?????i v???i c??c th??? ch??? h???p t??c ??a ph????ng v?? n???n d??n ch??? ki???u M??? ??ang l???n d???n ??? m???i n??i.
C??c ?????ng minh c???a Washington ??ang lo l???ng m?? h??nh M??? ??ang m???t ??i h???p d???n trong l??c Trung Qu???c th??c ?????y m?? h??nh c???a h??? cho c??c n?????c ??ang ph??t tri???n l???n ???? ph??t tri???n.
Stephen Hadley, c???u c??? v???n an ninh qu???c gia d?????i th???i c???u t???ng th???ng George W. Bush, g???n ????y n??i v???i CNN: ???N???u b???n lo l???ng v??? m?? h??nh c???a M???, ch??ng ta c?? nhi???u c??ng c??? ????? v???n h??nh m???t ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i ph???c v??? cho l???i ??ch c???a ch??ng ta, mang l???i th???nh v?????ng v?? an ninh cho ng?????i d??n. Nh??ng th????ng hi???u c???a ch??ng ta tr??n to??n c???u ??ang kh??ng ???n???.
???C?? l?? do ????? m???i ng?????i kh??ng xem th?????ng tuy??n b??? c???a Trung Qu???c r???ng h??? c?? m???t m?? h??nh m???i. V?? m?? h??nh c???a ch??ng ta ??ang tr??ng kh??ng t???t???, ??ng n??i.
Cu???c b???u c??? tr??? th??nh cu???c tr??ng c???u d??n ??, kh??ng ch??? ?????i v???i t???ng th???ng m?? c??n c??? v???i th????ng hi???u ch??nh tr??? d??n t??y m?? ??ng l?? ng?????i ?????i di???n. D?? phong tr??o d??n t??y ???? t???n t???i t??? tr?????c nhi???m k??? c???a T???ng th???ng Trump, chi???n th???ng c???a ??ng l?? ?????ng l???c m???nh m???, th??c ?????y c??? nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? d??n t??y trong n?????c l???n nhi???u nh?? l??nh ?????o tr??n to??n c???u.
Frederick Kempe, Ch??? t???ch v?? CEO t???i Vi???n nghi??n c???u Atlantic Council, n??i r???ng ch??nh tr??? v?? m??i tr?????ng x?? h???i M??? n??i chung lu??n c?? ???nh h?????ng to??n c???u. N???u phong tr??o #MeToo, kh???i ngu???n t???i M???, c?? kh??? n??ng lan t???a to??n c???u th?? ch??nh s??ch ???N?????c M??? tr??n h???t??? c???a T???ng th???ng Trump c??ng s??? truy???n c???m h???ng cho nh???ng ng?????i l??nh ?????o c?? t?? duy t?? t??? ??ng. T???i ch??u ??u, nh???ng l??nh ?????o ???? th?????ng tranh c??? d???a tr??n ch??nh s??ch ch???ng nh???p c??, c??n t???i M??? Latin l?? c??c k??? ho???ch ch???ng tham nh??ng. V?? ??? m???i ng?????i, c??c ???ng vi??n d??n t??y ?????u n??i ?????n ???c???m h???ng t??? Trump???, bao g???m t???ng th???ng c???c h???u v???a ?????c c??? t???i Brazil.
Ng?????i ta s??? ph???i ?????i ?????n ????m 6/11 t???i M??? ????? bi???t li???u ???l??n s??ng xanh m??u ti???n??? v?? nh???ng g????ng m???t m???i m??? c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? c?? mang l???i cho h??? quy???n ki???m so??t ?????i Capitol hay kh??ng, hay ng?????i d??n v???n s??? ch???n nh???ng ch??? s??? kinh t??? ??ang r???t t???t sau 2 n??m ?????ng C???ng h??a h???u thu???n cho nh???ng ch??nh s??ch c???a T???ng th???ng Trump.
Kh??ng ai bi???t li???u ng?????i d??n M??? s??? ch???n nh???ng g????ng m???t c?? ph???n ??a s???c t???c h??n c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? hay c???m th???y b??? ??e d???a b???i ??o??n ???caravan??? di c?? ??ang ti???n s??t bi??n gi???i M??? v?? ch???n l???y ???ng vi??n v???i ch??nh s??ch nh???p c?? c???ng r???n. V?? n???u ?????ng D??n ch??? chi???n th???ng ??? ??t nh???t m???t vi???n c???a qu???c h???i M???, n???i lo s??? chuy???n t??? vi???c ?????ng chi???m ??a s??? h???u thu???n v?? ???nu??ng chi???u??? t???ng th???ng qu?? m???c sang vi???c kh??ng th??? c?? ti???ng n??i chung gi???a ?????ng ki???m so??t qu???c h???i v???i t???ng th???ng, trong b???i c???nh s??? chia r??? t???i Washington D.C. l???n n?????c M??? ng??y c??ng r???ng ra.
???T???t c??? ch??nh tr??? ?????u l?? chuy???n ?????a ph????ng???, Tip O???Neill???s, c???u ch??? t???ch H??? vi???n M??? v?? l?? m???t ng?????i C???ng h??a, t???ng n??i. Nh??ng nh???ng l?? phi???u ?????a ph????ng c???a ng?????i M??? s??? v????n ra kh???i c??c bang m?? h??? b??? phi???u, s??? ti???p t???c ?????nh h??nh n?????c M??? v?? c?? ???nh h?????ng ?????n th??? gi???i trong ??t nh???t 2 n??m n???a.
Ngu???n: Zing

Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o.
P/v

Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá

Click để đánh giá bài viết

  Ý kiến bạn đọc

Những tin mới hơn

Những tin cũ hơn

Thống kê
  • Đang truy cập11
  • Hôm nay3,043
  • Tháng hiện tại150,818
  • Tổng lượt truy cập4,603,959
Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây