12/08/1990: Ph??t hi???n b??? x????ng kh???ng long T. Rex

Thứ hai - 12/08/2019 09:36
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1990, th??? s??n h??a th???ch Susan Hendrickson ???? ph??t hi???n ra ba chi???c x????ng kh???ng l??? nh?? ra kh???i m???t v??ch ???? g???n Faith, South Dakota. Ch??ng h??a ra l?? m???t ph???n b??? x????ng c???a lo??i kh???ng long Tyrannosaurus Rex l???n nh???t t???ng ???????c ph??t hi???n, m???t m???u v???t 65 tri???u n??m tu???i ???????c ?????t t??n l?? Sue, theo t??n c???a ng?????i ph??t hi???n ra n??.
12/08/1990: Ph??t hi???n b??? x????ng kh???ng long T. Rex

12/08/1990: Ph??t hi???n b??? x????ng kh???ng long T. Rex

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Ngu???n: Skeleton of Tyrannosaurus rex discoveredHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1990, th??? s??n h??a th???ch Susan Hendrickson ???? ph??t hi???n ra ba chi???c x????ng kh???ng l??? nh?? ra kh???i m???t v??ch ???? g???n Faith, South Dakota. Ch??ng h??a ra l?? m???t ph???n b??? x????ng c???a lo??i kh???ng long Tyrannosaurus Rex l???n nh???t t???ng ???????c ph??t hi???n, m???t m???u v???t 65 tri???u n??m tu???i ???????c ?????t t??n l?? Sue, theo t??n c???a ng?????i ph??t hi???n ra n??.

Th???t ????ng ng???c nhi??n, b??? x????ng Sue c?? m???c ????? ho??n thi???n h??n 90 ph???n tr??m, v?? c??c m???u x????ng ???????c b???o qu???n c???c k??? t???t. C?? quan n??i l??m vi???c c???a Hendrickson, Vi???n Nghi??n c???u ?????a ch???t Black Hills, ???? tr??? 5.000 ???? la cho ch??? s??? h???u ?????t, Maurice Williams, ????? c?? quy???n khai qu???t b??? x????ng kh???ng long.

B??? x????ng n??y sau ???? ???????c l??m s???ch v?? v???n chuy???n ?????n tr??? s??? c???a vi???n ??? Hill City. Peter Larson, ch??? t???ch c???a Vi???n, ???? c??ng b??? k??? ho???ch x??y d???ng m???t b???o t??ng phi l???i nhu???n ????? tr??ng b??y Sue c??ng v???i c??c h??a th???ch kh??c c???a th???i k??? K??? Ph???n tr???ng.

N??m 1992, m???t cu???c chi???n ph??p l?? k??o d??i b???t ?????u t??? Sue. V??n ph??ng ch?????ng l?? Hoa K??? tuy??n b??? r???ng b??? x????ng Sue ???? ???????c thu gi??? t??? khu v???c ?????t li??n bang v?? do ???? l?? t??i s???n c???a ch??nh ph???. Cu???i c??ng ng?????i ta ???? ph??t hi???n ra r???ng Williams, m???t ng?????i M??? b???n ?????a lai v?? l?? th??nh vi??n c???a b??? t???c Cheyenne River Sioux, ???? b??n ?????t c???a m??nh cho b??? l???c t??? hai th???p k??? tr?????c ????? tr??nh ph???i n???p thu??? t??i s???n, v?? do ???? vi???c anh ta b??n quy???n khai qu???t cho Black Hills l?? kh??ng h???p ph??p. V??o th??ng 10 n??m 1997, B???o t??ng Field Chicago ???? mua Sue t???i bu???i ?????u gi?? c??ng khai t???i Sothwards, th??nh ph??? New York, v???i gi?? 8,36 tri???u USD, ???????c t??i tr??? m???t ph???n b???i c??c t???p ??o??n McDonald???s v?? Disney.

B??? x????ng Sue b???t ?????u ???????c tr??ng b??y t???i B???o t??ng Field v??o th??ng 05 n??m 2000. B??? x????ng T.rex kh???ng l??? ??? cao g???n 4m t??nh ?????n h??ng v?? d??i 12,8m t??? ?????u ?????n ch??n ??? ???????c tr??ng b??y t???i m???t trong nh???ng s???nh ch??nh c???a b???o t??ng. M???t cu???c tri???n l??m kh??c mang ?????n cho ng?????i xem m???t c??i nh??n c???n c???nh v??? h???p s??? d??i 1,5m, n???ng 907kg v???i 58 chi???c r??ng, m???t s??? chi???c d??i b???ng c???ng tay ng?????i.

B??? x????ng ???????c b???o qu???n c???c k??? t???t n??y ???? cho ph??p c??c nh?? khoa h???c x??c ?????nh ???????c nhi???u ??i???u v??? cu???c s???ng c???a T.rex. H??? ???? x??c ?????nh r???ng lo??i kh???ng long ??n th???t c?? kh???u gi??c l??? th?????ng, v?? c??c h??nh kh???u gi??c c??n l???n h??n c??? ?????i n??o, trung t??m t?? duy c???a n??o b???. Ngo??i ra, Sue l?? b??? x????ng T.rex ?????u ti??n ???????c ph??t hi???n c?? x????ng ????n, m???t kh??m ph?? quan tr???ng h??? tr??? cho gi??? thuy???t c???a c??c nh?? khoa h???c r???ng chim l?? m???t lo??i kh???ng long c??n s???ng.
 

25/10/1971: Trung Qu???c gi??nh gh???? H????i ??????ng Ba??o an LHQ

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Ngu???n: The U.N. seats the People???s Republic of China and expels Taiwan, History.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1971, trong m???t s??? ?????o chi???u b???t ng??? tr?????c cam k???t l??u d??i c???a m??nh ?????i v???i ch??nh ph??? ????i Loan v?? ch??nh s??ch kh??ng c??ng nh???n C???ng h??a Nh??n d??n Trung Hoa (Trung Qu???c), c??c ?????i di???n ngo???i giao c???a M??? ??? Li??n Hi???p Qu???c ???? b??? phi???u b???u Trung Qu???c tr??? th??nh th??nh vi??n th?????ng tr???c H???i ?????ng B???o an. M???c cho s??? ph???n ?????i t??? ph??a M???, ????i Loan v???n b??? tr???c xu???t.

L?? do cho s??? thay ?????i r?? r???t trong ch??nh s??ch c???a M??? l?? kh??ng kh?? ????? nh???n ra. M??? ???? ????nh gi?? c??c m???i quan h??? ch???t ch??? h??n v???i Trung Qu???c cao h??n cam k???t l???ch s??? c???a m??nh ?????i v???i ????i Loan. L???i ??ch c???a M??? trong vi???c ???????c Trung Qu???c gi??p ????? gi???i quy???t t??nh h??nh t???i t??? ??? Vi???t Nam; s??? d???ng ???nh h?????ng c???a M??? ?????i v???i Trung Qu???c nh?? l?? ????n b???y ngo???i giao ch???ng l???i Li??n X??; v?? mong mu???n c?? ???????c c??c m???i quan h??? kinh t??? b??o b??? v???i Trung Qu???c, l?? nh???ng y???u t??? t??c ?????ng ?????n quy???t ?????nh c???a M???.

Quan h??? v???i Trung Qu???c k??? t??? ???? ???? ph??t tri???n m???nh m???, n???i b???t l?? chuy???n th??m c???a T???ng th???ng Richard Nixon t???i Trung Qu???c v??o n??m 1972. Kh??ng c?? g?? ng???c nhi??n khi quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i ????i Loan tr??? n??n ngu???i l???nh m???t c??ch r?? r??ng, m???c d?? M??? v???n c??ng khai th???a nh???n r???ng h??? s??? b???o v??? ????i Loan n???u h??n ?????o n??y b??? t???n c??ng.
 

T???i sao c??c c??ng ??o??n ??ang co l???i?

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20151003_blp504

Ngu???n: ???Why trade unions are declining???, The Economist, 28/09/2015.

Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???nh Nguy??n | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Kho???ng 500 ?????i di???n ?????n t??? 90 c??ng ??o??n kh??c nhau s??? t??? h???p t???i Paris ????? tham d??? ?????i h???i Li??n ??o??n C??ng ??o??n ch??u ??u v??o ng??y 29 th??ng 9. Trong v??ng b???n ng??y ??? ????y, h??? s??? th???o lu???n v??? nhi???u v???n ????? quan tr???ng, t??? th???t nghi???p trong gi???i tr??? ?????n kh???ng ho???ng di d??n c???a ch??u ??u. V?? t???t nhi??n, h??? s??? ph???i nh???c ?????n nh???ng di???n bi???n ti??u c???c c???a m???t v???n ????? s??t s?????n h??n. ???? l??, tr??? m???t v??i ngo???i l???, s??? l?????ng th??nh vi??n c??ng ??o??n t???i c??c n?????c gi??u ??ang gi???m ????ng k??? trong su???t ba th???p ni??n qua. Theo OECD, m???t t??? ch???c h???p t??c c???a ph???n l???n c??c n?????c gi??u c??, con s??? ???? gi???m t??? ?????nh cao l?? 20 tri???u th??nh vi??n n??m 1979 xu???ng c??n 14,5 tri???u n??m 2013 ??? M???, v?? t??? 12 tri???u xu???ng c??n 6,5 tri???u ??? Anh. C??c qu???c gia ch??u ??u, bao g???m ?????c v?? Ph??p, c??ng ??ang ph???i ch???ng ki???n s??? s???t gi???m n???ng n??? n??y. V???y nguy??n nh??n ??? ????y l?? g???

Xu h?????ng gi???m n??y ch??? y???u l?? do nh???ng thay ?????i v??? m???t c???u tr??c c???a nhi???u n???n kinh t??? ti??n ti???n. T???ng s??? nh??n l???c ng??nh ch??? t???o ??? M??? gi???m t??? 20 tri???u v??o n??m 1979 xu???ng c??n 12 tri???u ng?????i hi???n nay. Nh???ng c??ng nh??n m???t vi???c ??? c??? th??? l?? nh???ng c??ng nh??n kh??ng l??nh ngh??? ??? l???i ch??nh l?? nh???ng ng?????i nhi???u kh??? n??ng s??? tham gia c??ng ??o??n nh???t. C??n nh???ng g?? ??ang xu???t hi???n ????? th??? ch??n h??? s??? c??ng l??m k??m h??m c??c t??? ch???c c??ng ??o??n h??n.

N???u ?????n th??m m???t nh?? m??y v??o nh???ng n??m 1970, b???n s??? nh??n th???y nh???ng d??y chuy???n s???n xu???t v???n h??nh b???i con ng?????i. Nh???ng c??ng nh??n n??y r???t d??? b??? ???nh h?????ng b???i ????? th???c giai c???p???. C??n b??y gi???, khi ?????n m???t nh?? m??y, b???n c?? l??? s??? ch??? th???y m???t v??i ng?????i ??ang gi??m s??t nh???ng con r??-b???t hay nh???ng thi???t b??? m??y m??c hi???n ?????i. Th??m v??o ???? c??n c?? ti???n tr??nh to??n c???u h??a, ??i???u c??ng khi???n vi???c ??i???u ch???nh ??i???u ki???n l??m vi???c c???a c??c c??ng ??o??n tr??? n??n kh?? kh??n, r???i s??? n???i l??n c???a m???t ng??nh d???ch v??? linh ho???t h??n, hay nh???ng ch??nh s??ch c??ng (nh?? nh???ng ch??nh s??ch ???? ???????c ??p d???ng b???i ?????ng B???o th??? ??? Anh trong nh???ng n??m 1980 d?????i th???i Margret Thatcher), t???t c??? nh???ng ??i???u n??y khi???n vi???c c??c c??ng ??o??n b??? m???t ??i quy???n l???c d?????ng nh?? l?? kh??ng th??? tr??nh kh???i. Nh???ng c???i c??ch g???n ????y v??? ti???n l????ng t???i thi???u v?? ch???ng ph??n bi???t ?????i x??? n??i l??m vi???c c??ng l??m gi???m nhu c???u gia nh???p c??ng ??o??n.
 

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