09/08/378: Ng?????i La M?? b??? ????nh b???i t???i Adrianople

Thứ sáu - 09/08/2019 08:37
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 378, trong m???t trong nh???ng tr???n chi???n c?? t??nh quy???t ?????nh nh???t trong l???ch s???, m???t ?????i qu??n La M?? l???n d?????i s??? ch??? huy c???a Valens, ho??ng ????? ????ng La M??, ???? b??? ng?????i Visigoth ????nh b???i trong Tr???n Adrianople ??? khu v???c thu???c Th??? Nh?? K??? ng??y nay. Hai ph???n ba qu??n ?????i La M??, bao g???m c??? Ho??ng ????? Valens, ???? b??? d???m ?????p v?? t??n s??t b???i ?????i qu??n man t???c (barbarians) c?????i ng???a
09/08/378: Ng?????i La M?? b??? ????nh b???i t???i Adrianople
09/08/378: Ng?????i La M?? b??? ????nh b???i t???i Adrianople


Ngu???n: Romans routed at AdrianopleHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 378, trong m???t trong nh???ng tr???n chi???n c?? t??nh quy???t ?????nh nh???t trong l???ch s???, m???t ?????i qu??n La M?? l???n d?????i s??? ch??? huy c???a Valens, ho??ng ????? ????ng La M??, ???? b??? ng?????i Visigoth ????nh b???i trong Tr???n Adrianople ??? khu v???c thu???c Th??? Nh?? K??? ng??y nay. Hai ph???n ba qu??n ?????i La M??, bao g???m c??? Ho??ng ????? Valens, ???? b??? d???m ?????p v?? t??n s??t b???i ?????i qu??n man t???c (barbarians) c?????i ng???a.
L??n ng??i n??m 264, Ho??ng ????? Valens kh???i x?????ng chi???n tranh ch???ng l???i t???c ng?????i Visigoth b??n-v??n minh v??o n??m 364 v?? ?????n n??m 369 ???? ????nh b???i h???. Nh???ng ng?????i Visigoth d?????i s??? l??nh ?????o c???a Fritigern ???? ???????c ph??p ?????nh c?? ??? ph??a nam s??ng Danube thu???c ????? ch??? La M??, nh??ng do ph???i quy ph???c s??? cai tr??? ??p b???c c???a c??c quan ch???c La M??, h??? ???? s???m n???i d???y.
V??o n??m 378, Valens d???n ?????u m???t ?????i qu??n La M?? ?????n chi???n ?????u v???i Fritigern, v?? khi c??n c??ch Adrianople 10 d???m, ?????i qu??n La M?? ???? ?????i ?????u v???i ?????i qu??n man t???c ????ng ????c. Khi k??? binh Visigoth v???ng m???t ????? l??m nghi binh, Valens ???? v???i v?? ra l???nh t???n c??ng v??o ng??y 09 th??ng 08. Ng?????i La M?? ban ?????u ???? ?????y l??i ???????c ?????i qu??n man t???c, nh??ng sau ???? k??? binh Visigoth ?????t ng???t quay tr??? l???i, ????nh tan t??c ?????i qu??n La M?? v?? bu???c h??? ph???i r??t lui. C??c k??? s?? sau ???? c?????i ng???a ??u???i theo v?? t??n s??t b??? binh La M?? ??ang tr???n ch???y. Kho???ng 20.000 trong s??? 30.000 qu??n l??nh ???? thi???t m???ng, bao g???m Ho??ng ????? Valens.
Chi???n th???ng mang t??nh quy???t ?????nh c???a ng?????i Visigoth trong Tr???n chi???n Adrianople ???? ?????y ????? qu???c ????ng La M?? v??o th??? g???n nh?? kh??ng c??n kh??? n??ng ph??ng th???, ?????ng th???i thi???t l???p s??? ??p ?????o c???a k??? binh tr?????c b??? binh, ??i???u s??? k??o d??i trong su???t thi??n ni??n k??? ti???p theo. Ho??ng ????? Valens ???? ???????c k??? v??? b???i Theodosius ?????i ?????, ng?????i ???? ?????u tranh ????? ?????y l??i man t???c Visigoth l??c b???y gi??? ??ang c?????p b??c tr??n kh???p b??n ?????o Balkan.
16/06/1961: Ng??i sao ba l?? Nureyev ????o tho??t kh???i Li??n X??


Ngu???n: Russian ballet star Nureyev defects, History.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1961, Rudolf Nureyev, ng??i sao tr??? t??? v?? ??o??n Kirov Opera Ballet c???a Li??n X??, ???? ????o tho??t trong chuy???n d???ng ch??n t???i Paris. V??? tr???n ch???y n??y l?? m???t ????n ch?? m???ng cho uy t??n c???a Li??n X?? v?? g??y ?? ch?? l???n tr??n tr?????ng qu???c t???.
Nureyev tr??? th??nh m???t ng??i sao ballet ??? Li??n X?? v??o n??m 1958, khi v???a m???i 20 tu???i, l??c m?? anh tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng ngh??? s?? solo c???a Kirov Opera Ballet. Hai v?? ??o??n ballet, Kirov v?? Bolshoi, l?? hai trong s??? nh???ng m??n trang s???c c???a ngo???i giao v??n ho?? Li??n X??. C??c m??n tr??nh di???n c???a h??? ???? gi??nh ???????c nhi???u danh hi???u n???i ti???ng tr??n to??n th??? gi???i v?? gi??p ngh??? thu???t Li??n X?? nh???n ???????c s??? t??n tr???ng.
Ng??y 16/06/1961, Kirov v???a ho??n th??nh m???t tua di???n ??? Paris v?? khi ??ang chu???n b??? l??n m??y bay, Nureyev ???? t??ch kh???i ??o??n v?? kh??ng kh??ng r???ng m??nh s??? ??? l???i Ph??p. Theo c??c nh??n ch???ng, nh???ng th??nh vi??n kh??c trong ??o??n ???? c???u xin Nureyev nh???p ??o??n v?? tr??? l???i Li??n X?? c??ng h???. Nh??ng nam v?? c??ng ???? t??? ch???i v?? ch???y ?????n l???c l?????ng b???o v??? s??n bay v?? h??t l??n ???H??y b???o v??? t??i!??? C??c quan ch???c an ninh ???? b???t gi??? Nureyev, sau ???? th?? anh ta xin t??? n???n ch??nh tr???. V?? ??o??n Kirov r???t b???c b???i v?? m???t ??i ng??i sao s??ng, c??n c??c nh??n vi??n an ninh c???a Li??n X?? th?? t???c gi???n tr?????c cu???c ????o t???u c???a Nureyev. Cu???i c??ng, ??o??n ???? bay v??? Li??n X?? m?? kh??ng c?? nam v?? c??ng n??y.
Vi???c ????o tho??t c???a Nureyev l?? m???t c?? ????p b???t ng??? v???i Li??n X??. Th??? nh???t, n?? ???? l??m gi???m ch???t l?????ng c???a V?? ??o??n Kirov, v???n ???? qu???ng b?? v??? s??? xu???t hi???n c???a th???n ?????ng tr??? tu???i trong c??c bu???i bi???u di???n tr??n kh???p th??? gi???i. Th??? hai, n?? ???? t??n ph?? n???ng n??? chi???n d???ch tuy??n truy???n c???a Li??n X?? v??? t??? do ch??nh tr??? v?? ngh??? thu???t ??? n?????c n??y.
Nureyev ???? ti???p t???c s??? nghi???p c???a m??nh sau khi ????o tho??t. Trong 30 n??m ti???p theo, ??ng tr??? th??nh ngh??? s?? cho Royal Ballet c???a Anh v?? American Ballet Theatre c???a M???. ??ng r???t ???????c y??u th??ch tr??n c????ng v??? v?? c??ng v?? bi??n ?????o m??a, v?? th???m ch?? c??n t???ng di???n trong m???t v??i b??? phim (bao g???m c??? m???t l???n h??a th??n t??? h???i v??o vai ng??i sao phim c??m Rudolf Valentino). N??m 1983, Nureyev ?????m nh???n vai tr?? gi??m ?????c ballet c???a Paris Opera. N??m 1989, ??ng quay tr??? l???i Li??n X?? ????? bi???u di???n ng???n h???n. ??ng qua ?????i ??? Paris n??m 1993.

Burger v?? ph???n c??n l???i c???a nh??m ph?? ho???i Long Island ???? b??? t??m g???n v??o ng??y 22/06, ?????n ng??y 27/06, to??n b??? nh??m ph?? ho???i Florida ???? b??? b???t gi???. ????? gi??? k??n c??c b?? m???t th???i chi???n, T???ng th???ng Franklin D. Roosevelt ???? ra l???nh th??nh l???p m???t t??a ??n qu??n s??? ?????c bi???t bao g???m b???y v??? t?????ng ????? x??t x??? nh???ng k??? ph?? ho???i. Cu???i th??ng 7, Dasch b??? k???t ??n 30 n??m t??, Burger b??? k???t ??n kh??? sai su???t ?????i v?? s??u ng?????i ?????c kh??c b??? k???t ??n t??? h??nh. S??u k??? ph?? ho???i n??y b??? x??? t??? b???ng gh??? ??i???n ??? Washington, D.C., v??o ng??y 08/08/1944, hai ??i???p vi??n ?????c kh??c ???? b??? b???t khi v???a ?????n Maine. Sau ????, kh??ng c??n tr?????ng h???p ng?????i ?????c ph?? ho???i n??o kh??c trong th???i chi???n ???????c M??? ????a ra ??nh s??ng.
S??? chia r??? t??? ??? h???u ???? ??i ?????n h???i k???t?


Ngu???n: Ian Buruma, ???The End of the Left/Right Divide???? Project Syndicate, 08/05/2017.
Bi??n d???ch: Ph???m H???ng Anh | Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng
Sau C??ch m???ng Ph??p n??m 1789, nh???ng ngh??? s?? Qu???c h???i ???ng h??? c??c th??nh qu??? c??ch m???ng ng???i ph??a b??n tr??i, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i ph???n ?????i c??ch m???ng v?? khao kh??t tr???t t??? c?? c???a ch??? ????? qu??n ch??? v?? nh?? th??? th?? t???p h???p ph??a b??n ph???i. T??? ???? thu???t ng??? ch??nh tr??? ???c??nh t?????? v?? ???c??nh h???u??? ra ?????i. Nhi???u nh?? b??nh lu???n v??? cu???c b???u c??? t???ng th???ng Ph??p ???? ch??? ra r???ng c??ch ph??n lo???i nh?? v???y kh??ng c??n ph?? h???p n???a v???i n???n ch??nh tr??? ??????ng ?????i ??? Ph??p ??? hay ??? b???t c??? ????u. Emmanuel Macron t??? h??o r???ng m??nh kh??ng thu???c c??nh h???u c??ng nh?? c??nh t???.
Marine Le Pen thu???c ?????ng M???t tr???n D??n t???c li??n k???t v???i c??nh c???c h???u th?? ph???n ?????i: v???i b??, Macron, c???u b??? tr?????ng trong m???t ch??nh ph??? c???a ?????ng X?? h???i ??? l?? ng?????i c??nh t???. Tuy nhi??n, gi???ng nh?? Donald Trump, b?? Le Pen m???i ch??nh l?? ng?????i tranh c??? v???i t?? c??ch ???ti???ng n??i c???a nh??n d??n??? (h??m ?? t??? khuynh ??? NBT) trong khi Macron, gi???ng nh?? Hillary Clinton, ???????c m?? t??? l?? con r???i c???a c??c ??ng tr??m nh?? b??ng, gi???i tinh hoa v??n h??a, v?? c??c nh?? t??i phi???t qu???c t??? (h??m ?? h???u khuynh ??? NBT).
V???y th?? c??nh t??? v?? c??nh h???u n???u c??n c?? ch??t ?? ngh??a n??o ????, th?? ?? ngh??a ???? l?? g???
Ch???c ch???n ???? c?? m???t s??? chuy???n bi???n n??o ???? trong nh???ng th???p ni??n cu???i c???a th??? k??? 20. C??c ?????ng c??nh t??? b???t ?????u m???t d???n s??? ???ng h??? c???a t???ng l???p lao ?????ng c??ng nghi???p ??? v???i t???c ????? ??? m???t s??? qu???c gia nhanh h??n h???n so v???i c??c qu???c gia kh??c. Vi???c t??i ph??n ph???i c???a c???i d???n tr??? n??n ??t quan tr???ng b???ng s??? gi???i ph??ng x?? h???i c???a c??c nh??m thi???u s??? s???c t???c v?? gi???i t??nh. Li??n minh c?? gi???a gi???i tr?? th???c theo ch??? ngh??a l?? t?????ng v?? c??ng ??o??n ???? nh?????ng ch??? cho c??c li??n hi???p ??a d???ng c???a gi???i tr?? th???c, ng?????i da m??u, gi???i n??? quy???n, v?? ng?????i ?????ng t??nh.
Trong khi ????, c??c ?????ng c??nh h???u, nh?? ?????ng C???ng h??a ??? Hoa K???, h???a h???n ????i b??i v???i ch??? ngh??a b???o th??? x?? h???i, v?? ????i khi ho??n to??n l??m ng?? gi???i c??? tri ??t ?????c quy???n ??? c??c v??ng n??ng th??n v?? t???nh l???, trong khi l???i l??m m???i th??? t???t nh???t cho c??c t???p ??o??n l???n m???t khi h??? l??n n???m quy???n.
Nh???ng g?? c?? l???i cho c??c t???p ??o??n l???n ??? h???p t??c qu???c t???, c??c th??? ch??? xuy??n qu???c gia, v?? s??? c???i m??? v???i ng?????i nh???p c?? ??? kh??ng ph???i l??c n??o c??ng ??i ng?????c l???i l???i ??ch c???a c??c ?????ng c??nh t??? v???n ??ang trong qu?? tr??nh ti???n h??a. C??c t???p ??o??n l???n h?????ng l???i t??? lao ?????ng gi?? r???, v?? c??nh t??? th?? ???ng h??? ch??? ngh??a ??a v??n h??a.
Nh?? v???y, c??ng ph???n n??o c?? l?? khi c??c nh?? d??n ch??? x?? h???i ch??u ??u th?????ng xuy??n h??nh th??nh c??c ch??nh ph??? li??n minh v???i nh???ng ng?????i b???o th??? ??n h??a ???ng h??? th????ng m???i hay nh???ng ng?????i theo ?????ng D??n ch??? C?? ?????c gi??o. Xu h?????ng n??y ???????c ?????y m???nh nh??? s??? s???p ????? c???a ????? ch??? X?? vi???t, do c??c n???n d??n ch??? t??? do ph????ng T??y kh??ng c??n ph???i ch???u ??p l???c tr?????c ????y l?? ph???i ch???ng l???i m?? h??nh C???ng s???n b???ng nh???ng d??n x???p b??nh qu??n ch??? ngh??a c???a ph????ng T??y. Nh???ng th??nh c??ng trong b???u c??? nh?? Bill Clinton ??? M??? v?? Tony Blair ??? Anh nh??? ph???n nhi???u v??o vi???c h??? c?? ch??? ?? nghi??ng v??? nh???ng ng?????i trung l???p th???c d???ng, t??n t??? do, v?? th??n thi???n v???i th????ng m???i.
V??? kh??a c???nh n??y, s??? kh??c bi???t gi???a c??nh t??? v?? c??nh h???u ???? s???p ?????. ?? t?????ng c?? v??? m???t c??nh t??? ?????i di???n cho giai c???p v?? s???n b??? ??p b???c ch???ng l???i l???i ??ch c???a c??c t???p ??o??n l???n v?? giai c???p t?? s???n ???? bi???n m???t. M???t l?? do l??m C??ng ?????ng Anh g???p t??nh tr???ng l???n x???n nh?? v???y l?? ?????ng n??y ???????c d???n d???t b???i Jeremy Corbyn, m???t ng?????i m?? t?? duy ch??nh tr??? ch??a h??? thay ?????i k??? t??? nh???ng n??m 1970.
Nh??ng s??? kh??c bi???t truy???n th???ng gi???a c??nh t??? v?? c??nh h???u kh??ng ch??? ????n gi???n l?? v???n ????? kinh t???. C??n c?? m???t s??? chia r??? s??u s???c h??n b??n trong Qu???c h???i Ph??p, ???????c x??c ?????nh b???i s??? chia r??? gi???a phe ???ng h??? Dreyfus v?? phe ch???ng Dreyfus trong nh???ng n??m 1890, hay gi???a li??n minh M???t tr???n B??nh d??n c???a L??on Blum v?? phong tr??o Ng?????i Ph??p H??nh ?????ng (Action fran??aise) trong nh???ng n??m 1930. S??? chia r??? n??y v???n t???n t???i cho ?????n th???i c???a Macron v?? Le Pen.
Nh???ng ng?????i b???o v??? n???n C???ng h??a Ph??p, coi tr???ng T??? do, B??nh ?????ng v?? B??c ??i, xem quy???n c??ng d??n l?? m???t kh??i ni???m ph??p l??, ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t th??? quy???n d???a tr??n ???m??u v?? ?????t.??? H??? tin t?????ng c??c th??? ch??? h??n nh???ng truy???n th???ng thi??ng li??ng, v?? tin v??o ch??? ngh??a qu???c t??? h??n ch??? ngh??a s?? vanh. ?????i ??y Alfred Dreyfus, s?? quan ng?????i Do Th??i b??? k???t oan t???i ph???n qu???c n??m 1894, l?? m???t nh??n v???t g??y ph??n c???c t???i Ph??p b???i nh???ng ng?????i ?????i ?????ch coi ??ng l?? bi???u t?????ng c???a s??? suy ?????i d??n t???c, c???a m???t d??n t???c m?? b???n s???c thi??ng li??ng b??? d??ng m??u ngo???i lai l??m m???t ch???t.
Nh???ng ng?????i theo ch??? ngh??a b??i Do Th??i, v?? nh???ng ng?????i kh??c c?? c??i nh??n ki???u m??u v?? ?????t v??? x?? h???i, lu??n lu??n coi ???nh???ng ??ng ch??? nh?? b??ng m??u l???nh??? (c??ch b?? Le Pen g???i ?????i th??? c???a m??nh trong cu???c tranh lu???n tranh c??? t???ng th???ng) l?? k??? th?? c???a ???nh??n d??n th???c s?????? nh???ng ng?????i b??nh th?????ng, t??? t?????? (l???i c???a Nigel Farage trong m???t cu???c v???n ?????ng tranh c??? c???a Donald Trump ??? Mississippi). Theo ?? ngh??a n??y, Macron, ng?????i qu??? th???t t???ng l??m vi???c t???i ng??n h??ng Rothschild v?? l?? ng?????i tin v??o c??c ???????ng bi??n gi???i m??? v?? c??c th??? ch??? qu???c t???, l?? m???t con ng?????i c??nh t???. V?? Le Pen, ng?????i ?????u tranh cho La France profonde (???N?????c Ph??p s??u s???c???), ???n?????c Ph??p ????ch th???c??? c???a nh???ng ng?????i C?? ?????c gi??o ??? n??ng th??n v?? nh???ng ng?????i da tr???ng gi???n d???, nh???ng ng?????i tin r???ng ng?????i Ph??p v?? ng?????i H???i gi??o l?? m???t s??? ?????i l???p l???n nhau, l?? h???u du??? ????ch th???c c???a nh???ng ng?????i ch???ng Dreyfus v?? phong tr??o Ng?????i Ph??p H??nh ?????ng.
Macron ???? ????nh b???i ???????c Le Pen l???n n??y. Nh??ng c??nh t??? d??n ch??? x?? h???i v???n ??ang ??? trong t??nh tr???ng kh???ng ho???ng. C??ng ?????ng Anh ??ang h???p h???i. Nh???ng ng?????i thu???c ?????ng D??n ch??? X?? h???i H?? Lan ???? b??? x??a s???. V?? Trump, m???t k??? ??i k??? k??m hi???u bi???t v???i kinh nghi???m ch??nh tr??? b???ng kh??ng, ???? tr??? th??nh T???ng th???ng Hoa K??? b???ng c??ch khu???y ?????ng s??? ph???n n??? c???a d??n ch??ng ?????i v???i gi???i tinh hoa tr?? th???c, gi???i ng??n h??ng, ng?????i n?????c ngo??i, ng?????i nh???p c??, v?? c??c th??? ch??? qu???c t???.
V???n ????? c???a c??c nh?? d??n ch??? x?? h???i hi???n nay l?? l??m sao t???n t???i ???????c n???u m???t s??? l?????ng l???n nh???ng ng?????i ch???u thi???t th??i quy???n l???i nghi??ng sang c??nh h???u thay v?? c??nh t???. Li???u c?? kh??? n??ng h??nh th??nh m???t li??n k???t m???i hay kh??ng? Kho???ng c??ch ng??y c??ng l???n gi???a ng?????i gi??u v?? ng?????i ngh??o c?? th??? ????a ??t nh???t m???t ph???n t???ng l???p lao ?????ng da tr???ng x??ch l???i v???i ng?????i nh???p c?? v?? c??c nh??m thi???u s??? kh??c hay kh??ng? Li???u m???t Ch??nh s??ch kinh t??? m???i (New Deal) n???a c?? kh??? thi? L??m sao h??a h???p ???????c v???i l???i ??ch c???a c??c doanh nh??n v?? ch??? nh?? b??ng theo ch??? ngh??a qu???c t????
Tuy nhi??n, cu???c kh???ng ho???ng c???a c??nh h???u c??ng kh??ng k??m ph???n nghi??m tr???ng. Trump c?? th??? ???? t???p h???p ???????c c??c c???u nh??n vi??n c???a Goldman Sachs v?? nh???ng ng?????i t??i gi???i t??? c??c t???p ??o??n l??m vi???c cho m??nh, ngay c??? khi ??ng tuy??n b??? ph???c v??? l???i ??ch c???a nh???ng ng?????i d??n th?????ng. V?? nhi???u ng?????i thu???c ?????ng C???ng h??a v???n ?????ng v??? ph??a ??ng v???i hy v???ng ?????t ???????c m???c ti??u ch??nh s??ch c???a h???. Nh??ng Trump v??? c?? b???n ???? chi???m ???????c ?????ng b???o th??? c?? k??? ???ng h??? th????ng m???i v?? ch??? ngh??a qu???c t???. Li???u th????ng hi???u ch??? ngh??a d??n t??y s?? vanh, b???n ?????a b??i ngo???i c???a ri??ng ??ng c?? th??? c??ng t???n t???i v???i ki???u ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n v???n ph??t tri???n m???nh m??? nh??? v??o d??ng ng?????i nh???p c?? li??n t???c, quy???n t??? do ??i l???i, v?? c??c th??? ch??? to??n c???u hay kh??ng?
N?????c Ph??p ???? may m???n tr??nh ???????c vi??n ?????n b??i ngo???i l???n n??y, nh??ng m???i chuy???n v???n ch??a k???t th??c. C??nh t??? v?? c??nh h???u c?? th??? ??ang thay ?????i, nh??ng nh???ng s??? chia r??? c?? xu???t hi???n sau n??m 1789 v???n c??n ????, v?? c?? l??? c??n s??u s???c h??n bao gi??? h???t. Macron c?? nhi???u thi???n ??. Nh??ng n???u ch??nh quy???n c???a ??ng th???t b???i, phe ch???ng Dreyfus th???i hi???n ?????i s??? quay tr??? l???i b??o th??.
Ian Buruma l?? Gi??o s?? v??? D??n ch???, Nh??n quy???n, v?? B??o ch?? t???i BardCollege. ??ng l?? t??c gi??? c???a nhi???u cu???n s??ch, trong ???? c?? ???Murder in Amsterdam: The Death of Theo Van Gogh and the Limits of Tolerance??? v?? ???Year Zero: A History of 1945.???
Copyright: Project Syndicate 2017 ??? The End of the Left/Right Divide?

23/09/1969: Phi??n t??a ???Chicago 8??? m??? t???i Chicago


Ngu???n: Chicago 8 trial opens in ChicagoHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
Va??o nga??y na??y n??m 1969, phi??n t??a xe??t x???? t??m nh?? ho???t ?????ng ch???ng chi???n tranh v???i ca??o bu????c ch???u tr??ch nhi???m cho c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh b???o l???c t???i ??a??i h????i Qu????c gia cu??a ??a??ng D??n ch??? va??o tha??ng 08/1968 t???? ch????c t???i Chicago ???? di???n ra. C??c b??? c??o bao g???m David Dellinger c???a ???y ban Huy ?????ng Qu???c gia (National Mobilization Committee, NMC); Rennie Davis v?? Thomas Hayden c???a t???? ch????c Sinh vi??n vi?? m???t X?? h???i D??n ch??? (Students for a Democratic Society, SDS); Abbie Hoffman v?? Jerry Rubin, nh???ng ng?????i th??nh l???p ?????ng Thanh ni??n Qu???c t??? (Youth International Party, ???Yippies???); Bobby Seale c???a ?????ng B??o ??en (Black Panthers); v?? hai nh?? ho???t ?????ng ??t ???????c bi???t ?????n, Lee Weiner v?? John Froines.
Ta??m ng??????i na??y b??? bu???c t???i ??m m??u v??????t qua ranh gi????i gi????a ca??c ti????u bang nh???m k??ch ?????ng b???o lo???n. Ngoa??i tr???? Seale, ba??y ng??????i co??n la??i ??????u ???????c ?????i di???n b???i hai lu???t s?? William Kunstler v?? Leonard Weinglass. Phi??n t??a do Th???m ph??n Julius Hoffman ch??? tr?? ???? tr??? th??nh m???t ???r???p xi???c??? v?? c??c b??? c??o v?? lu???t s?? c???a h??? ???? d??ng phi??n to??a ????? t???n c??ng Nixon, chi???n tranh, ph??n bi????t chu??ng t????c v?? ??p b???c.
Chi???n thu???t na??y ??a?? g??y h????n loa??n ??????n m????c co?? lu??c Th???m ph??n Hoffman pha??i ra l???nh cho bi??t mi????ng Seale va?? tro??i anh ta va??o gh????. Khi phi??n t??a ch???m d???t v??o th??ng 02/1970, Hoffman ???? k????t lu????n r????ng c??c b??? c??o v?? lu???t s?? c???a h??? ??a?? pha??m 175 t???i khinh mi???t t??a ??n v?? ??a?? k???t ??n h??? t??? hai ?????n b???n n??m tu??.
M???c d?? tuy??n b??? c??c b??? c??o kh??ng c?? t???i ??m m??u ba??o loa??n, nh??ng b???i th???m ??o??n ???? nh????n ??i??nh t???t c??? ca??c bi?? ca??o, tr??? Froines v?? Weiner, ??????u c?? ?? ?????nh g??y ba??o lo???n. M????i ng??????i ??????u bi?? a??n tu?? 5 n??m v?? ph???t 5.000 ???? la. Tuy nhi??n, kh??ng ai pha??i thu?? a??n v?? n??m 1972, To?? Ph??c th???m ???? b??c ca??o tra??ng tr??????c ??o??, v?? cu???i c??ng thi?? h???u h???t c??c ca??o bu????c khinh mi????t t??a ??n ???? b??? b???.








 

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