09/07/1993: X??c ?????nh danh t??nh c??c h??i c???t nh?? Romanov

Chủ nhật - 14/07/2019 08:37
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1993, c??c nh?? khoa h???c ph??p y Anh tuy??n b??? r???ng h??? ???? x??c ?????nh ???????c danh t??nh h??i c???t c???a Sa ho??ng cu???i c??ng, Nicholas II, c??ng v???i v??? ??ng, Alexandra, v?? ba c?? con g??i c???a h???. Nh??m nh?? khoa h???c n??y ???? s??? d???ng d???u v???t DNA ty th??? (mitochondria DNA, mtDNA) ????? ?????nh danh c??c b??? h??i c???t ???????c khai qu???t t??? m???t ng??i m??? t???p th??? g???n Yekaterinburg v??o n??m 1991.
09/07/1993: X??c ?????nh danh t??nh c??c h??i c???t nh?? Romanov
Ngu???n: Romanov remains identifiedHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1993, c??c nh?? khoa h???c ph??p y Anh tuy??n b??? r???ng h??? ???? x??c ?????nh ???????c danh t??nh h??i c???t c???a Sa ho??ng cu???i c??ng, Nicholas II, c??ng v???i v??? ??ng, Alexandra, v?? ba c?? con g??i c???a h???. Nh??m nh?? khoa h???c n??y ???? s??? d???ng d???u v???t DNA ty th??? (mitochondria DNA, mtDNA) ????? ?????nh danh c??c b??? h??i c???t ???????c khai qu???t t??? m???t ng??i m??? t???p th??? g???n Yekaterinburg v??o n??m 1991.
????m 16/07/1918, ba th??? k??? c???m quy???n c???a tri???u ?????i Romanov ???? ch???m d???t khi qu??n Bolshevik x??? t??? Nicholas v?? gia ????nh ??ng. Chi ti???t v??? v??? h??nh quy???t c??ng nh?? ?????a ??i???m n??i an ngh??? cu???i c??ng c???a h??? l?? ??i???u t???i m???t ??? Li??n X?? su???t s??u th???p ni??n. V?? kh??ng c?? b???ng ch???ng v???t l?? c??? th???, sau C??ch m???ng Bolshevik, tin ?????n s???m lan nhanh kh???p ch??u ??u r???ng m???t ?????a tr??? nh?? Romanov, c?? l??? l?? c?? con g??i ??t, Anastasia, ???? s???ng s??t sau cu???c t??n s??t. Trong nh???ng n??m 1920, ???? c?? m???t v??i ng?????i tuy??n b??? m??nh ch??nh l?? N??? t?????c Anastasia. C??u chuy???n thuy???t ph???c nh???t l?? c???a Anna Anderson, ng?????i ???? ?????n Berlin n??m 1922, t??? x??ng l?? Anastasia. N??m 1968, Anderson di c?? ?????n th??nh ph??? Charlottesville, Virginia, n??i b?? qua ?????i n??m 1984.
N??m 1991, s??? d???ng m???t b??o c??o c???a ch??nh ph??? m???i ???????c c??ng b??? v??? v??? h??nh quy???t Romanov, c??c nh?? ??i???u tra nghi???p d?? Nga ???? t??m th???y nh???ng g?? h??? ngh?? l?? n??i ch??n c???t gia ????nh Sa ho??ng. Ch??nh quy???n ???? khai qu???t h??i c???t. Nhi???u nh?? khoa h???c ???? nghi??n c???u c??c h???p s??? v?? tuy??n b??? r???ng Anastasia n???m trong s??? nh???ng ng?????i ???????c t??m th???y, nh??ng nh???ng ph??t hi???n c???a ph??a Nga ch??a ????? s???c thuy???t ph???c. ????? ch???ng minh m???t c??ch kh??ng th??? ch???i c??i r???ng c??c thi th??? tr??n l?? c???a ng?????i nh?? Romanov, Nga ???? t??m ?????n s??? gi??p ????? t??? c??c chuy??n gia DNA c???a Anh.
?????u ti??n, c??c nh?? khoa h???c ???? ki???m tra gi???i t??nh v?? x??c ?????nh ???????c nh??m h??i c???t g???m n??m n??? v?? b???n nam. Ti???p theo h??? ki???m tra xem li???u nh???ng ng?????i n??y c?? chung huy???t th???ng hay kh??ng. Ng?????i cha v?? ng?????i m??? ???? ???????c x??c ?????nh, c??ng v???i ba c?? con g??i. B???n h??i c???t kh??c c?? kh??? n??ng l?? c???a nh???ng ng?????i h???u. C???u con trai Alexei v?? m???t c?? con g??i c??n l???i th?? m???t t??ch.
????? ch???ng minh danh t??nh c???a Alexandra v?? c??c con, c??c nh?? khoa h???c ???? l???y m??u c???a V????ng t??? Philip, ch???ng c???a N??? ho??ng Elizabeth II v?? l?? ch??u trai c???a Alexandra. B???i h??? ?????u c?? chung m???t t??? ti??n ?????ng ngo???i, h??? s??? c?? c??ng DNA ty th??? (mtDNA), ???????c truy???n g???n nh?? kh??ng thay ?????i t??? m??? sang con. So s??nh gi???a mtDNA trong m??u Philip v?? trong h??i c???t l?? t????ng ?????ng, ch???ng t??? h??? l?? ng?????i nh?? Romanov. ????? ch???ng minh danh t??nh c???a Sa ho??ng, ng?????i kh??ng chia s??? mtDNA n??y, ng?????i ta cho khai qu???t thi h??i c???a Th??i c??ng George, anh trai Nicholas. So s??nh v??? mtDNA c???a h??? ???? ch???ng minh hai ng?????i c?? c??ng huy???t th???ng.
Vi???c Th??i t??? Alexei v?? m???t C??ng ch??a nh?? Romanov v???n ch??a ???????c t??m th???y c??ng l??m dai d???ng th??m ?????n ??o??n r???ng Anastasia ???? s???ng s??t sau khi b??? x??? t???. C?? ph???i Anastasia ???? tr???n tho??t v?? sau ???? xu???t hi???n tr??? l???i v???i c??i t??n Anna Anderson? N??m 1994, c??c nh?? khoa h???c M??? v?? Anh ???? c??? g???ng tr??? l???i c??u h???i n??y m???t l???n v?? m??i m??i. S??? d???ng m???u m?? c???a Anderson t??? m???t b???nh vi???n ??? Virginia, nh??m nghi??n c???u ng?????i Anh ???? so s??nh mtDNA c???a b?? v???i m???u c???a nh?? Romanov. ?????ng th???i, m???t nh??m ng?????i M??? kh??c ???? so s??nh mtDNA ???????c t??m th???y trong m???t s???i t??c c???a b??. C??? hai nh??m ?????u ??i ?????n c??ng m???t k???t lu???n: Anna Anderson kh??ng ph???i l?? ng?????i nh?? Romanov. N??m 1995, m???t ???y ban c???a ch??nh ph??? Nga sau khi nghi??n c???u c??c h??i c???t ???? tr??nh b??y nh???ng g?? h??? tuy??n b??? l?? b???ng ch???ng cho th???y m???t trong nh???ng b??? x????ng tr??n ch??nh l?? c???a Anastasia, v?? tr??n th???c t???, ng?????i con g??i Romanov b??? m???t t??ch l?? Maria.

Nghi??n c???u Quoocstees g???i b???n b??o
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10/07/1925: ???Phi??n t??a Kh?????? b???t ?????u
Ngu???n: Monkey Trial beginsHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1925, t???i Dayton, Tennessee, ???Phi??n t??a Kh?????? ???? b???t ?????u v???i vi???c John Thomas Scopes, m???t gi??o vi??n khoa h???c trung h???c tr??? tu???i, b??? bu???c t???i vi ph???m lu???t ti???u bang Tennessee v?? ???? gi???ng d???y v??? thuy???t ti???n h??a.
?????o lu???t n??y, ???????c th??ng qua v??o th??ng 03 n??m ????, ???? bi???n vi???c ???d???y b???t k??? l?? thuy???t n??o ph??? nh???n c??u chuy???n v??? ?????ng s??ng th??? thi??ng li??ng t???o ra con ng?????i nh?? ???????c d???y trong Kinh th??nh, v?? thay v??o ???? d???y r???ng con ng?????i c?? xu???t th??n t??? c??c ?????ng v???t c???p th???p h??n??? l?? m???t khinh t???i c?? th??? b??? ph???t ti???n. C??ng v???i v??? doanh nh??n ?????a ph????ng George Rappalyea, Scopes ???? l??n k??? ho???ch ????? b??? bu???c t???i v?? vi ph???m n??y, v?? sau khi Scopes b??? b???t, h??? ???? tranh th??? s??? h??? tr??? c???a Li??n ??o??n T??? do D??n quy???n Hoa K??? (ACLU) ????? t??? ch???c vi???c bi???n h???.
Khi nghe tin v??? cu???c t???n c??ng ph???i h???p n??y v??o phong tr??o Kit?? gi??o ch??nh th???ng, William Jennings Bryan, ng?????i ba l???n l?? ???ng c??? vi??n t???ng th???ng c???a ?????ng D??n ch??? v?? l?? m???t anh h??ng c???a phong tr??o ch??nh th???ng, ???? t??nh nguy???n h??? tr??? b??n c??ng t???. Ngay sau ????, v??? lu???t s?? n???i ti???ng Clarence Darrow ???? ?????ng ?? tham gia v??? ph??a ACLU trong qu?? tr??nh b??o ch???a, m??? ra b???i c???nh cho m???t trong nh???ng phi??n t??a n???i ti???ng nh???t trong l???ch s??? Hoa K???.
V??o ng??y 10 th??ng 07, ???Phi??n t??a Kh?????? ???? ???????c ti???n h??nh, v?? trong v??i ng??y, h??ng lo???t kh??n gi??? v?? ph??ng vi??n ???? t???i Dayton trong khi c??c nh?? thuy???t gi??o d???ng c??c l???u d???c theo ???????ng ph??? ch??nh c???a th??nh ph??? ????? khu???y ?????ng l??ng m??? ?????o. B??n trong T??a ??n H???t Rhea, ph??a b??? ????n ???? s???m g???p ph???i tr??? ng???i khi Th???m ph??n John Raulston ph??n quy???t ch???ng l???i n??? l???c c???a h??? nh???m ch???ng minh r???ng ?????o lu???t l?? vi hi???n v?? sau ???? t??? ch???i ch???m d???t th??i quen b???t ?????u phi??n t??a h??ng ng??y c???a ??ng b???ng vi???c c???u nguy???n.
B??n ngo??i, Dayton mang b???u kh??ng kh?? gi???ng nh?? m???t l??? h???i h??a trang khi m???t cu???c tri???n l??m v???i hai con tinh tinh v?? th??? ???????c cho l?? ????????ng v???t trung gian??? ???? ???????c khai tr????ng t???i th??? tr???n, v?? nh???ng ng?????i b??n h??ng b??y b??n Kinh Th??nh, kh??? ????? ch??i, x??c x??ch v?? n?????c chanh. ?????ng v???t trung gian tr??n th???c t??? l?? Jo Viens ??? Burlington, Vermont, m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng 51 tu???i, c?? t???m v??c th???p, tr??n h???t ra sau v?? h??m nh?? ra. M???t trong nh???ng con tinh tinh t??n l?? Joe Mendi, mang m???t b??? ????? k??? s???c, m?? ph???t m??u n??u, v?? gi??y gh???t tr???ng, gi??p mua vui cho nh???ng ng?????i d??n th??nh ph??? Dayton b???ng c??ch ch??i ????a tr??n b??i c??? t??a ??n.
T???i ph??ng x??? ??n, Th???m ph??n Raulston ???? ph?? h???y chi???n l?????c c???a b??? ????n b???ng c??ch ph??n quy???t r???ng l???i ch???ng khoa h???c c???a c??c chuy??n gia v??? ti???n h??a l?? kh??ng ???????c ch???p nh???n ??? v???i l?? do Scopes m???i l?? ng?????i ??ang b??? x??t x??? ch??? kh??ng ph???i ?????o lu???t m?? anh ta ???? vi ph???m. Ng??y h??m sau, Raulston ra l???nh cho phi??n t??a ???????c chuy???n ?????n b??i c??? t??a ??n, v?? s??? r???ng s???c n???ng c???a ????m ????ng b??n trong c?? nguy c?? l??m s???p s??n nh??.
Tr?????c h??ng ng??n kh??n gi??? ngo??i tr???i, Darrow ???? thay ?????i chi???n thu???t c???a m??nh v?? g???i Bryan ra l??m nh??n ch???ng duy nh???t c???a ??ng trong m???t n??? l???c ????? l??m m???t uy t??n c??ch di???n gi???i ngh??a theo ngh??a ??en v??? Kinh th??nh c???a v??? lu???t s?? b??n c??ng t???. Trong qu?? tr??nh ki???m tra, Bryan ???? ph???i ch???u s??? ch??? gi???u c???a ng?????i xem v?? bu???c ph???i ????a ra nh???ng tuy??n b??? thi???u hi???u bi???t v?? m??u thu???n tr?????c c???u ??? th??ch th?? c???a ????m ????ng.
V??o ng??y 21 th??ng 07, trong b??i ph??t bi???u b??? m???c, Darrow ???? y??u c???u b???i th???m ??o??n ????a ra b???n ??n c?? t???i ????? b??n b??? c?? th??? kh??ng ??n. Theo quy ?????nh ph??p lu???t t???i Tennessee, trong tr?????ng h???p ???? Bryan kh??ng c?? c?? h???i ????? ?????c b??i ph??t bi???u b??? m???c m?? ??ng ta ???? chu???n b??? trong nhi???u tu???n. Sau t??m ph??t c??n nh???c, b???i th???m ??o??n tr??? l???i v???i b???n ??n c?? t???i v?? Raulston ra l???nh cho Scopes ph???i n???p ph???t 100 ???? la, m???c t???i thi???u m?? lu???t ph??p cho ph??p. M???c d?? Bryan ???? th???ng ki???n, ??ng ta ???? b??? s??? nh???c c??ng khai v?? ni???m tin ch??nh th???ng c???a ??ng ???? m???t uy t??n. N??m ng??y sau, v??o ng??y 26 th??ng 07, ??ng n???m ng??? tr??a v??o ng??y Ch??? nh???t v?? kh??ng bao gi??? th???c d???y n???a.
N??m 1927, T??a ??n T???i cao Tennessee ???? b??c ph??n quy???t c???a Phi??n t??a Kh??? v??? kh??a c???nh chuy??n m??n nh??ng ????? ng??? v???n ????? ?????o lu???t c?? vi hi???n hay kh??ng cho ?????n n??m 1968, khi T??a ??n T???i cao Hoa K??? b??c b??? m???t ?????o lu???t t????ng t??? ??? Arkansas v???i l?? do n?? vi ph???m Tu ch??nh ??n ?????u ti??n c???a Hi???n ph??p Hoa K???.
Nghi??n  c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
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?????c v???i ng?????i M??? b???n ?????a
Ngu???n: Confederacy signs treaties with Native AmericansHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: L?? H???ng Loan
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1861, ???y vi??n ?????c bi???t Albert Pike ???? ho??n th??nh hi???p ?????c v???i c??c th??nh vi??n c???a b??? l???c Choctaw v?? Chickasaw, mang ?????n cho H???p bang mi???n Nam Hoa K??? (Confederate States of America) m???i th??nh l???p c??c ?????ng minh ??? L??nh th??? Ng?????i da ?????. M???t s??? th??nh vi??n c???a c??c b??? l???c c??ng chi???n ?????u cho H???p bang.
L?? m???t ng?????i g???c Boston, Pike ???? ??i v??? ph??a t??y v??o n??m 1831 v?? du l???ch v???i nh???ng ng?????i ????nh b???y v?? th????ng nh??n bu??n l??ng th??. ??ng ?????nh c?? ??? Arkansas v?? tr??? th??nh m???t nh?? th??, t??c gi??? v?? gi??o vi??n n???i ti???ng. ??ng ???? mua m???t ?????n ??i???n v?? ??i???u h??nh m???t t??? b??o, t??? Arkansas Advocate. ?????n n??m 1837, ??ng h??nh ngh??? lu???t s?? v?? th?????ng ?????i di???n cho ng?????i M??? b???n ?????a trong c??c tranh ch???p v???i ch??nh ph??? li??n bang.
Pike ???? ph???n ?????i vi???c ly khai nh??ng ??ng c??ng ?????ng v??? ph??a ti???u bang n??i m??nh sinh s???ng khi n?? r???i kh???i Li??n bang. V???i t?? c??ch l?? ?????i s??? c???a Ng?????i da ?????, ??ng l?? m???t s??? b??? sung may m???n cho H???p bang mi???n Nam khi h??? t??m c??ch h??nh th??nh li??n minh v???i c??c b??? l???c thu???c L??nh th??? Ng?????i da ?????. B??n c???nh c??c th???a thu???n v???i c??c b??? l???c Choctaw v?? Chickasaw, Pike c??n thi???t k??? c??c hi???p ?????c v???i ng?????i Creek, Seminole, Comanche, v?? Caddos, b??n c???nh nh???ng b??? l???c kh??c.
??i???u tr??? tr??u l?? nhi???u b??? l???c trong s??? n??y ???? b??? tr???c xu???t kh???i c??c bang mi???n Nam trong nh???ng n??m 1830 v?? 1840 nh??ng v???n ch???n li??n minh v???i c??c bang n??y trong chi???n tranh. M???i ??c c???m c???a h??? ?????i v???i c??c ti???u bang thu???c H???p bang ???? nh?????ng ch??? cho s??? th?? ?????ch c???a h??? ?????i v???i ch??nh ph??? li??n bang. Ng?????i M??? b???n ?????a c??ng c???m th???y b???t an tr?????c lu???n ??i???u c???a ?????ng C???ng h??a trong cu???c b???u c??? n??m 1860. M???t s??? ng?????i ???ng h??? Abraham Lincoln, nh?? William Seward, l???p lu???n r???ng v??ng ?????t c???a c??c b??? l???c thu???c L??nh th??? Ng?????i da ????? n??n ???????c chi???m h???u ????? chia cho nh???ng ng?????i ?????nh c?? da tr???ng. Khi chi???n tranh b???t ?????u v??o n??m 1861, B??? tr?????ng Chi???n tranh Simon Cameron ???? ra l???nh di t???n kh???i t???t c??? c??c v??? tr?? thu???c L??nh th??? Ng?????i da ????? ????? gi???i ph??ng c??c ngu???n l???c qu??n s??? nh???m ch???ng l???i H???p bang mi???n Nam, ????? ng??? khu v???c n??y cho H???p bang mi???n Nam chi???m ????ng.
B???ng c??ch k?? c??c hi???p ?????c n??y, c??c b??? l???c ???? c???t ?????t quan h??? c???a h??? v???i ch??nh ph??? li??n bang, gi???ng nh?? c??ch m?? c??c bang mi???n nam ???? l??m b???ng c??ch ly khai kh???i Li??n bang. H??? ???????c ch???p nh???n v??o H???p bang mi???n Nam v?? ???????c g???i ?????i di???n ?????n Qu???c h???i H???p bang. Ch??nh ph??? H???p bang h???a s??? b???o v??? quy???n n???m gi??? ?????t c???a ng?????i M??? b???n ?????a v?? th???c hi???n c??c ngh??a v??? nh?? thanh to??n ni??n kim c???a ch??nh ph??? li??n bang.
M???t v??i trong s??? nh???ng b??? l???c n??y th???m ch?? ???? g???i qu??n ?????n ph???c v??? trong qu??n ?????i H???p bang, v?? m???t ng?????i thu???c c??c b??? l???c Cherokee hay Stand Watie ???? ???????c th??ng c???p l??n c???p b???c thi???u t?????ng.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
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13/06/1966: Quy???n Miranda ra ?????i
Ngu???n: ???The Miranda rights are established,??? History.com (truy c???p ng??y 12/6/2015).
Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1966, T???i cao Ph??p vi???n Hoa K??? ra ph??n quy???t v??? v??? Miranda ki???n Arizona, thi???t l???p n??n nguy??n t???c l?? m???i nghi ph???m h??nh s??? ph???i ???????c th??ng b??o v??? c??c quy???n c???a h??? tr?????c khi ti???n h??nh th???m v???n. ???Anh c?? quy???n gi??? im l???ng. B???t c??? ??i???u g?? anh n??i c?? th??? v?? s??? ???????c d??ng ????? ch???ng l???i anh tr?????c t??a. Anh c?? quy???n c?? lu???t s??. N???u anh kh??ng th??? t??m ???????c lu???t s??, m???t lu???t s?? s??? ???????c ch??? ?????nh cho anh,??? th??? t???c th??ng b??o n???i dung n??y c???a c???nh s??t xu???t hi???n nhi???u tr??n phim ???nh v?? truy???n h??nh ?????n n???i n?? g???n nh?? tr??? n??n s??o r???ng.
Ngu???n g???c c???a ph??n quy???t Miranda b???t ?????u t??? ng??y m??ng 2 th??ng 3 n??m 1963, khi m???t c?? g??i 18 tu???i ??? Phoenix, Arizona ?????n b??o c???nh s??t r???ng c?? ???? b??? b???t c??c v?? c?????ng hi???p. C??c th??m t??? ??i???u tra v??? ??n ???? ti???n h??nh m???t b??i ki???m tra n??i d???i ?????i v???i c??, nh??ng kh??ng th??? ????a ra ???????c k???t lu???n g?? t??? k???t qu???. Tuy nhi??n, qua theo d??i bi???n s??? xe c???a m???t chi???c xe gi???ng nh?? c?? m?? t???, c???nh s??t ???? l???n t???i Ernesto Miranda, ng?????i t???ng c?? ti???n s??? nh??n tr???m ph??? n???. Tuy n???n nh??n kh??ng tr???c ti???p nh???n di???n ra Miranda, ??ng v???n b??? c???nh s??t giam gi??? v?? th???m v???n. Nh???ng g?? di???n ra sau ???? g??y tranh c??i, nh??ng c???nh s??t ???? k???t th??c th???m v???n b???ng m???t l???i th?? nh???n m?? sau n??y Miranda r??t l???i, kh??ng nh???n th???c ???????c r???ng l??? ra ??ng kh??ng c???n ph???i n??i g?? c???.
L???i th?? nh???n c???a Miranda r???t ng???n v?? m??u thu???n ??? m???t s??? ??i???m so v???i l???i khai c???a n???n nh??n. Tuy nhi??n, lu???t s?? ch??? ?????nh c???a Miranda (???????c tr??? t???ng c???ng 100 ???? la) l???i kh??ng h??? tri???u t???p b???t c??? nh??n ch???ng n??o trong phi??n t??a sau ????, v?? Miranda b??? k???t ??n. Trong khi Miranda b??? giam trong nh?? t?? ti???u bang Arizona, Li??n minh t??? do d??n s??? Hoa K??? (ALCU) ???? k??u g???i kh??ng ??n, cho r???ng l???i th?? nh???n c???a Miranda l?? sai l???ch v?? b??? c?????ng ??p.
T???i cao Ph??p vi???n ???? h???y b??? b???n ??n c???a Miranda, nh??ng d?? sao th?? ??ng c??ng v???n b??? x??t x??? l???i v?? b??? k???t t???i v??o th??ng 10 n??m 1966, b???t ch???p vi???c kh??ng c?? ????? b???ng ch???ng ch???ng l???i ??ng. Miranda ???????c th??? t??? do v??o n??m 1972, sau ???? b??? ????m ch???t trong nh?? v??? sinh c???a m???t qu??n ba v??o th??ng 1 n??m 1976. (Ch??nh nghi can s??t h???i Miranda ???? vi???n d???n quy???n Miranda ????? gi??? im l???ng khi b??? c???nh s??t b???t gi???.)
Sau ph??n quy???t c???a T???i cao Ph??p vi???n trong v??? Miranda ki???n Arizona, m???i ng?????i ?????u ph???i ???????c th??ng b??o v??? nh???ng quy???n h???p ph??p c???a h??? khi h??? b??? b???t gi???.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
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10/06/1692: Ph?? th???y Salem ?????u ti??n b??? treo c???
Ngu???n: First Salem witch hangingHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1692, t???i l??ng Salem, ??? bang thu???c ?????a V???nh Massachusetts, Bridget Bishop, ng?????i d??n thu???c ?????a ?????u ti??n b??? ????a ra x??t x??? trong c??c phi??n t??a ph?? th???y Salem, ???? b??? treo c??? sau khi b??? bu???c t???i l?? ph?? th???y.
R???c r???i trong c???ng ?????ng Thanh gi??o nh??? n??y ???? b???t ?????u v??o th??ng 02/1692, khi Elizabeth Parris 9 tu???i v?? Abigail Williams 11 tu???i, l???n l?????t l?? con g??i v?? ch??u g??i c???a M???c s?? Samuel Parris, b???t ?????u th?????ng xuy??n b??? ?????ng kinh v?? c??n m???c c??c c??n b???nh b?? hi???m kh??c. M???t b??c s?? k???t lu???n r???ng hai ?????a b?? ??ang ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a ph??p thu???t, v?? b???n tr??? ???? ch???ng th???c l???i ch???n ??o??n c???a b??c s??. Do b??? b??c s?? v?? cha m??? ??p bu???c, hai c?? b?? ???? k??? ra t??n nh???ng ng?????i b??? bu???c t???i g??y b???nh cho ch??ng.
Ng??y 01/03, Sarah Goode, Sarah Osborne, v?? Tituba, m???t n?? l??? ng?????i da ????? ?????n t??? Barbados, ???? tr??? th??nh nh???ng c?? d??n ?????u ti??n c???a Salem b??? c??o bu???c l?? ph?? th???y. Cu???i ng??y h??m ????, Tituba ???? nh???n t???i v?? sau ???? ???? gi??p ????? ch??nh quy???n x??c ?????nh danh t??nh nhi???u ph?? th???y Salem kh??c. V???i s??? khuy???n kh??ch c???a nh???ng ng?????i l???n trong c???ng ?????ng, c??c c?? b??, sau ???? nhanh ch??ng ???????c nh???ng ng?????i Salem ???b??? ph?? th???y ??m??? kh??c nh???p h???i, ???? l??n ti???ng c??o bu???c r???t nhi???u c?? d??n ?????a ph????ng l?? ph?? th???y, ch??? y???u l?? c??c ph??? n??? trung ni??n, ngo??i ra c??ng c?? m???t s??? nam gi???i v?? th???m ch?? c?? c??? m???t ?????a b?? ch??? m???i b???n tu???i. Trong v??i th??ng sau ????, nh???ng c?? d??n trong khu v???c b??? ???nh h?????ng ???? bu???c t???i h??n 150 ph??? n??? v?? nam gi???i t??? l??ng Salem v?? c??c khu v???c l??n c???n v??? vi???c th???c hi???n c??c h??nh vi qu??? d???.
Th??ng 06/1692, To?? ??n ?????c bi???t Oyer and Terminer (ngh??a l?? ???nghe v?? ph??n quy???t???) ???? ???????c tri???u t???p t???i Salem, v???i Ch??nh ??n William Stoughton l??m th???m ph??n. Ng?????i ?????u ti??n ???????c x??t x??? l?? Bridget Bishop ng?????i Salem, k??? b??? nhi???u ng?????i c??o bu???c l?? ph?? th???y h??n b???t c??? m???t nghi can n??o kh??c. Bishop n???i ti???ng quanh th??? tr???n v?? t??nh c??ch ????ng ng???, th?????ng xuy??n gh?? c??c qu??n r?????u, ??n m???c s???c s??? (n???u so v???i ti??u chu???n c???a Thanh gi??o), v?? ???? l???p gia ????nh ba l???n. C?? tuy??n b??? m??nh v?? t???i, nh??ng v???n b??? k???t ??n c?? t???i, v?? sau ???? b??? h??nh quy???t b???ng c??ch treo c??? v??o ng??y 10/06. C?? th??m m?????i ba ph??? n??? v?? n??m ng?????i ????n ??ng v???i xu???t th??n kh??c nhau c??ng ???? b??? treo c???, v?? m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng, Giles Corey, th?? b??? h??nh quy???t b???ng c??ch nghi???n x??c b???ng ???? t???ng (crushing). H???u h???t nh???ng phi??n t??a n??y ?????u k???t ??n d???a tr??n c?? s??? h??nh vi c???a c??c nh??n ch???ng trong su???t qu?? tr??nh t??? t???ng th???c t???, th??ng th?????ng s??? l?? ng???t x???u v?? b??? ???o gi??c, v???n ???????c cho l?? do c??c b??? c??o g??y ra.
Th??ng 10/1692, Th???ng ?????c bang Massachusetts William Phipps ???? ra l???nh gi???i t??n To?? Oyer and Terminer v?? thay th??? b???ng T??a ??n T???i cao (Superior Court of Judicature), theo ???? ???? c???m ki???u l??m ch???ng gi???t g??n v???n ???????c cho ph??p trong c??c phi??n x??? tr?????c ????. C??c ?????t h??nh quy???t gi???m d???n, v?? T??a ??n T???i cao ???? cho th??? t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i ??ang ch??? x??t x???, c??ng nh?? tha t???i cho nh???ng ng?????i b??? k???t ??n t??? h??nh. C??c Phi??n t??a Ph?? th???y Salem, v???n ???? k???t ??n 19 ph??? n??? v?? ????n ??ng v?? t???i, ???? ch???m d???t.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
P/v
14/07/1099: Jerusalem b??? chi???m trong cu???c Th???p t??? chinh ?????u ti??n
Ngu???n: Jerusalem captured in First Crusade, History.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1099, trong cu???c th???p t??? chinh ?????u ti??n, c??c hi???p s?? C??ng gi??o t??? ch??u ??u ???? chi???m ???????c Jerusalem sau b???y tu???n bao v??y, v?? b???t ?????u t??n s??t c??c c?? d??n th??nh ph??? theo H???i gi??o v?? Do Th??i gi??o.
B???t ?????u t??? th??? k??? 11, ng?????i C??ng gi??o ??? Jerusalem ng??y c??ng b??? ????n ??p b???i nh???ng nh?? cai tr??? theo H???i gi??o, ?????c bi???t l?? khi quy???n ki???m so??t th??nh ph??? linh thi??ng ???????c chuy???n t??? tay ng?????i Ai C???p t????ng ?????i khoan dung sang ng?????i Th??? c???a ????? qu???c Seljuk v??o n??m 1071. Cu???i th??? k??? ????, Ho??ng ????? Byzantine Alexius Comenus c??ng b??? ??e d???a b???i ng?????i Seljuk n??n ???? k??u g???i h??? tr??? t??? ph????ng T??y. N??m 1095, Gi??o ho??ng Urban II ???? c??ng khai k??u g???i m???t cu???c Th???p t??? chinh ????? h??? tr??? c??c t??n ????? C??ng gi??o ????ng ph????ng v?? gi??nh l???i c??c v??ng ?????t th??nh. Ng?????i T??y ??u ngay l???p t???c ????p l???i l???i k??u g???i n??y.
Nh???ng ng?????i l??nh th???p t??? chinh ?????u ti??n th???c ra ch??? l?? nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n Ph??p v?? ?????c v?? k??? lu???t, v?? ??????ng nhi??n, h??? ch??? ?????t r???t ??t th??nh c??ng. M???t nh??m, ???????c g???i l?? ???Th???p t??? chinh c???a Nh??n d??n??? (People???s Crusade), ???? ?????n ???????c Constantinople tr?????c khi b??? ng?????i Th??? ti??u di???t. N??m 1096, qu??n ch??? l???c c???a th???p t??? chinh, g???m kho???ng 4.000 k??? s?? v?? 25.000 l??nh b??? binh, b???t ?????u di chuy???n v??? ph??a ????ng. ???????c l??nh ?????o b???i Raymond x??? Toulouse, Godfrey x??? Bouillon, Robert x??? Flanders v?? Bohemond x??? Otranto, ?????i qu??n c???a c??c hi???p s?? C??ng gi??o ???? ?????n v??ng Ti???u ?? v??o n??m 1097.
Sang th??ng 6, qu??n th???p t??? chinh ???? chi???m ???????c th??nh ph??? Nicaea do Th??? Nh?? K??? n???m gi??? v?? sau ???? ????nh b???i m???t ?????i qu??n ng?????i Seljuk kh???ng l??? t???i Dorylaeum. T??? ????, h??? h??nh qu??n ?????n Antioch, n???m tr??n s??ng Orontes, b??n d?????i n??i Silpius, v?? b???t ?????u m???t cu???c bao v??y k??o d??i s??u th??ng ?????y kh?? kh??n. Trong qu?? tr??nh ???? h??? ???? ?????y l??i th??nh c??ng m???t s??? cu???c t???n c??ng c???a vi???n binh Th??? Nh?? K???.
Cu???i c??ng, v??o s??ng s???m ng??y 03/06/1098, Bohemond ???? thuy???t ph???c ???????c m???t k??? ph???n b???i Th??? Nh?? K??? m??? c???ng c???u Antioch, v?? c??c hi???p s?? ????? v??o th??nh ph???. Trong c??n th???nh n???, l??nh th???p t??? chinh ???? t??n s??t h??ng ng??n binh l??nh v?? th?????ng d??n c???a k??? th??, nhanh ch??ng chi???m to??n b??? th??nh l??y ki??n c??? c???a th??nh ph???. Cu???i th??ng n??y, m???t ?????i qu??n l???n c???a Th??? Nh?? K??? ???? ?????n ????? c??? g???ng gi??nh l???i th??nh ph???, nh??ng h??? c??ng b??? ????nh b???i, v?? th??nh Antioch bu???c ph???i ?????u h??ng ng?????i ch??u ??u.
Sau khi ngh??? ng??i v?? ch???nh qu??n trong s??u th??ng, c??c th???p t??? qu??n ???? l??n ???????ng ?????n m???c ti??u cu???i c??ng c???a h???, th??nh Jerusalem. Qu??n s??? c???a h??? gi??? gi???m xu???ng c??n kho???ng 1.200 k??? s?? v?? 12.000 l??nh b??? binh. Ng??y 07/06/1099, h??? ?????n th??nh ph??? linh thi??ng. Nh???n th???y r???ng n?? ???????c ph??ng th??? r???t nghi??m ng???t, qu??n th???p t??? b???t ?????u x??y d???ng ba t??a th??p bao v??y kh???ng l???. ?????n ????m ng??y 13/07, c??c t??a th??p ???? ho??n th??nh v?? h??? b???t ?????u t???n c??ng Jerusalem. Sang ng??y 14, l??nh c???a Godfrey l?? nh???ng ng?????i ?????u ti??n th??m nh???p v??o tuy???n ph??ng th??? c???a Jerusalem v?? m??? ???????c C???ng Th??nh Stephen. Ph???n c??n l???i c???a ??o??n qu??n th???p t??? chinh ??? ???t ti???n v??o th??nh ph???, h??ng ch???c ng??n c?? d??n ??? ???? ???? b??? t??n s??t.
Th???p t??? qu??n ???? ?????t ???????c m???c ????ch v?? Jerusalem r??i v??o tay ng?????i C??ng gi??o, nh??ng m???t ?????i qu??n Ai C???p ???? ti???n v??o th??nh ph??? ch??? v??i tu???n sau ???? ????? th??ch th???c h???. D?? v???y, v??o th??ng 8, ng?????i Ai C???p ???? th???t b???i tr?????c phe C??ng gi??o ??p ?????o. S??? ki???n n??y ???? ch???m d???t s??? kh??ng c??? c???a ng?????i H???i gi??o ?????i v???i ng?????i ch??u ??u ??? th???i ??i???m ???y, v?? n??m qu???c gia C??ng gi??o nh??? ???? ???????c thi???t l???p trong khu v???c d?????i s??? cai tr??? c???a c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o cu???c th???p t??? chinh.
#265 ??? Ngu???n g???c Leninist c???a s??? ????n ??p x?? h???i d??n s???
Ngu???n: Anne Applebaum, ???The Leninist Roots of Civil Society Repression???,  Journal of Democracy, 26(4), (2015), pp.21-27.
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng
N??m 1947, Stefan J??drychowski, c???u chi???n binh c???ng s???n, ???y vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr??? Ba Lan, v?? b??? tr?????ng trong ch??nh ph???, ???? vi???t m???t b???n ghi nh??? v???i nhan ????? c?? ph???n tr???ch th?????ng, ???Ghi ch?? v??? tuy??n truy???n c???a c??c n?????c Anglo-Saxon.??? ??ng ????a ra r???t nhi???u l???i ch??? tr??ch ??? v??? ???nh h?????ng c???a c??c d???ch v??? tin t???c Anh v?? M??? ??? Ba Lan, v?? v??? th???i trang v?? ??i???n ???nh n?????c ngo??i. Nh??ng cu???c t???n c??ng dai d???ng nh???t c???a ??ng l?? nh???m v??o Polska YMCA, chi h???i Ba Lan c???a Hi???p h???i Thanh ni??n C?? ?????c (YMCA). ???????c th??nh l???p ??? Warsaw n??m 1923 v?? sau ???? b??? Hitler c???m ho???t ?????ng, Polska YMCA ???? kh???i ?????ng l???i v??o th??ng 4 n??m 1945 v???i s??? h??? tr??? c???a YMCA qu???c t??? ??? Geneva, c??ng v???i s??? nhi???t t??nh trong n?????c.
YMCA ??? Warsaw hi???n nhi??n l?? phi ch??nh tr???. Nhi???m v??? ch??nh c???a t??? ch???c n??y ??? Ba Lan l?? ph??n ph???i vi???n tr??? n?????c ngo??i ??? qu???n ??o, s??ch v???, v?? ????? ??n ??? v?? t??? ch???c c??c ho???t ?????ng v?? c??c l???p h???c cho gi???i tr???. Tuy nhi??n, J??drychowski ???? nghi ng??? nh???ng ?????ng c?? b??n trong. Ch????ng tr??nh tuy??n truy???n c???a YMCA, ??ng vi???t, ???????c ti???n h??nh ???m???t c??ch c???n th???n??? tr??nh gi???ng ??i???u ch??nh tr??? tr???c ti???p,??? ??i???u ???? d?? nhi??n khi???n t??? ch???c n??y nguy hi???m h??n. ??ng ????? ngh??? B??? tr?????ng B??? An ninh Qu???c gia ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c ki???m to??n t??i ch??nh ?????i v???i t??? ch???c n??y v?? gi??m s??t c???n th???n nh???ng ???n ph???m ??ang ???????c ph??t h??nh v?? c??c d???ng kh??a h???c ??ang ???????c gi???ng d???y. Sau hai n??m theo d??i, ch??nh quy???n c???ng s???n cu???i c??ng quy???t ?????nh r???ng m???i chuy???n nh?? v???y ???? l?? qu?? ?????. H??? tuy??n b??? YMCA l?? ???c??ng c??? c???a ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t t?? s???n??? v?? gi???i th??? n??. V???i c??n cu???ng n??? mang t??nh Orwell k??? qu??i, c??c ??o??n vi??n thanh ni??n c???ng s???n ??a v??o tr??? s??? t??? ch???c v???i b??a tr??n tay v?? nghi???n n??t c??c ????a than nh???c jazz, v?? t??a nh?? ???????c giao l???i cho m???t t??? ch???c nh?? n?????c ???????c g???i l?? Li??n ??o??n B???ng h???u Binh s??.
Vi???c t??? ch???c l???i YMCA trong giai ??o???n h???u chi???n l?? v?? d??? ??i???n h??nh c???a c??i m?? ng??y nay ???????c g???i l?? ???x?? h???i d??n s??????, m???t hi???n t?????ng ???? t???n t???i d?????i nh???ng t??n g???i kh??c trong qu?? kh???. Trong th??? k??? 18, c??c tri???t gia ???? b???t ?????u x??c ?????nh t???m quan tr???ng c???a c??c t??? ch???c nh?? c??c ph?????ng h???i, c??u l???c b???, v?? c??c ??o??n th??? c?? ch???c n??ng t??ch bi???t v???i c??c th??? ch??? c???a nh?? n?????c. Edmund Burke ???? vi???t m???t c??ch ?????y ng?????ng m??? v??? c??c ???trung ?????i nh?????? ??? t???c l?? c??c t??? ch???c x?? h???i nh??? m?? ??ng tin l?? n??i ph??t sinh tinh th???n c??ng. Trong th??? k??? 19, Alexis de Tocqueville c??ng h??o h???ng kh??ng k??m khi vi???t v??? nh???ng ???hi???p h???i??? m?? ???ng?????i M??? ??? m???i l???a tu???i, m???i ?????a v???, v?? m???i khuynh h?????ng li??n t???c t???o n??n???. ??ng k???t lu???n r???ng nh???ng hi???p h???i n??y gi??p ?????y lui ch??? ????? ?????c t??i: ???N???u con ng?????i mu???n duy tr?? ho???c tr??? n??n v??n minh, ngh??? thu???t g???n k???t v???i nhau ph???i ph??t tri???n v?? c???i thi???n???. G???n ????y h??n, Robert Putnam ???? ?????nh ngh??a l???i hi???n t?????ng t????ng t??? l?? ???v???n x?? h???i??? v?? k???t lu???n r???ng c??c t??? ch???c t??? nguy???n n???m ??? trung t??m c???a c??i ch??ng ta g???i l?? ???c???ng ?????ng???.
***
Nh??ng trong nh???ng n??m ?????u th??? k??? 20, m???t nh??m nh??? c??c nh?? c??ch m???ng sau n??y tr??? th??nh ?????ng vi??n Bolshevik Nga ???? ph??t tri???n m???t l?? thuy???t thay th??? v??? x?? h???i d??n s???. Burke, Tocqueville, v?? ngay c??? gi???i tr?? th???c Nga c??ng tin r???ng x?? h???i d??n s??? l?? n???n t???ng c???a d??n ch???; Lenin l???i tin r???ng vi???c ti??u di???t x?? h???i d??n s??? l?? t???i quan tr???ng ?????i v???i ch??? ????? ?????c t??i to??n tr???. Nh?? s??? gia Stuart Finkel ???? gi???i th??ch, Lenin tin r???ng ???l??nh v???c c??ng c???ng trong m???t x?? h???i x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a c???n ph???i ????n nh???t v?? ????n ngh??a???, v?? b??c b??? kh??i ni???m tranh lu???n m??? c???a ???t?? s???n???. Theo ????, nh???ng ng?????i Bolshevik coi m???i hi???p h???i ?????c l???p, c??ng ??o??n, v?? ph?????ng h???i l?? ???ph???n t??? ly khai??? hay chia r??? ???giai t???ng??? trong x?? h???i. C??n v???i c??c ?????ng ch??nh tr??? t?? s???n, ch??ng l?? v?? ngh??a. Lenin vi???t, ???T??n c???a c??c ?????ng ph??i, c??? ??? ch??u ??u c??ng nh?? ??? Nga, th?????ng ???????c ch???n ????n thu???n cho m???c ????ch qu???ng c??o, ???c????ng l??nh??? c???a c??c ?????ng c??ng th?????ng ???????c vi???t v???i m???t m???c ????ch duy nh???t l?? l???a g???t c??ng ch??ng???.[1] Th???t ra, nh???ng ng?????i Bolshevik th?? gh??t c??c t??? ch???c ?????c l???p v???i c??ng l?? do m?? Burke v?? Tocqueville ng?????ng m??? ch??ng: b???i v?? ch??ng cho ng?????i d??n s???c m???nh ????? ki???m so??t cu???c s???ng c???a m??nh, b???i v?? ch??ng khuy???n kh??ch t?? duy ?????c l???p, v?? b???i v?? ch??ng khi???n ng?????i d??n tr??? n??n quan tr???ng h??n quy???n l???c nh?? n?????c.
Trong l??nh v???c n??y c??ng nh?? trong nhi???u l??nh v???c kh??c, nh???ng ng?????i Bolshevik ???? ??p d???ng nhanh nh???t c?? th??? l?? thuy???t c???a h??? v??o th???c t???. Sau C??ch m???ng Nga, h??? ???? t???o ra c??i c?? l??? l?? ?????ng ch??nh tr??? ?????u ti??n t???ng ?????t ra m???t trong nh???ng m???c ti??u r?? r??ng c???a ?????ng l?? ph?? ho???i b???t k??? t??? ch???c n??o kh??ng do ?????ng tr???c ti???p l???p ra v?? kh??ng trung th??nh v???i ?????ng. ??? Li??n X??, ngay c??? c??c t??? ch???c ho??n to??n phi ch??nh tr??? c??ng b??? c???m ??o??n, b???i Lenin tin r???ng m???i t??? ch???c v???n ?????u mang t??nh ch??nh tr???: N???u kh??ng ph???i ch??nh tr??? c??ng khai th?? c??ng l?? ch??nh tr??? b?? m???t.
T??? gi??? ?????nh ????, kh??ng t??? ch???c n??o l?? kh??ng b??? nghi ng???. C??c hi???p h???i tuy??n b??? quan t??m t???i b??ng ???? hay c??? vua c??ng c?? th??? l?? ???b??nh phong??? cho ??i???u g?? ???? nham hi???m h??n. H???c gi??? Dmitri Likhachev c???a th??nh ph??? St. Petersburg ??? sau n??y l?? nh?? ph?? b??nh v??n h???c n???i ti???ng nh???t ng?????i Nga ??? t???ng b??? b???t gi??? n??m 1928 v?? ??ng n???m trong m???t nh??m th???o lu???n tri???t h???c n??i c??c th??nh vi??n ch??o h???i nhau b???ng ti???ng Hy L???p c??? ?????i. Trong th???i gian ??? t??, Likhachev ???? g???p ng?????i ?????ng ?????u H???i Nam H?????ng ?????o Petrograd, m???t t??? ch???c sau n??y c??ng ???????c coi l?? h???t s???c ????ng ng??? ??? ????ng ??u.
M???i nghi ng??? s??u s???c nh?? v???y v??? x?? h???i d??n s??? l?? trung t??m c???a t?? t?????ng Bolshevik, h??n r???t nhi???u so v???i m???c ????? th?????ng ???????c th???a nh???n. Finkel ???? ch??? ra r???ng ngay c??? khi gi???i l??nh ?????o X?? vi???t ??ang th??? nghi???m t??? do kinh t??? trong nh???ng n??m 1920 (trong ???Ch??nh s??ch kinh t??? m???i??? c???a Lenin), s??? h???y ho???i mang t??nh h??? th???ng ?????i v???i c??c ??o??n h???i v??n h???c, tri???t h???c, v?? t??m linh v???n ti???p t???c kh??ng suy gi???m. Ngay c??? v???i nh???ng nh?? Marxist ch??nh th???ng, th????ng m???i t??? do v???n th??ch h???p h??n hi???p h???i t??? do, bao g???m c??? hi???p h???i t??? do c???a c??c nh??m phi ch??nh tr??? v??? th??? thao hay v??n h??a. ??i???u n??y l?? ????ng d?????i th???i Lenin, v???n ????ng d?????i th???i Stalin, d?????i th???i Khruschev, v?? d?????i th???i Brezhnev. M???c d?? c?? nhi???u ??i???u kh??c ???? thay ?????i trong ti???n tr??nh l???ch s??? X?? vi???t, s??? ????n ??p x?? h???i d??n s??? v???n ti???p t???c sau khi Stalin qua ?????i, t???i t???n nh???ng n??m 1970 v?? nh???ng n??m 1980.
Nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n ????ng ??u ???? th???a h?????ng ch???ng hoang t?????ng n??y, cho d?? l?? do h??? ???? quan s??t v?? ti???p nh???n n?? qua nhi???u chuy???n th??m Li??n X??, do ?????ng nghi???p c???a h??? trong c??c s??? c???nh s??t m???t ???? ti???p nh???n n?? trong qu?? tr??nh ????o t???o, hay trong m???t s??? tr?????ng h???p l?? do nh???ng t?????ng l??nh v?? ?????i s??? Li??n X?? ??? ?????t n?????c h??? v??o cu???i th??? chi???n ???? cho h??? nh???ng ch??? d???n r?? r??ng t???i c??n hoang t?????ng. Trong m???t v??i tr?????ng h???p, c??c c?? quan X?? vi???t ??? ????ng ??u ???? tr???c ti???p ra l???nh cho nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n ?????a ph????ng c???m c??c t??? ch???c ho???c c??c lo???i h??nh t??? ch???c c??? th???. V?? d???, trong ????ng ?????c th???i h???u chi???n, h??? ???? ?????t c??c nh??m leo n??i ra ngo??i v??ng ph??p lu???t.
C??ng nh?? trong n?????c Nga h???u c??ch m???ng, cu???c ????n ??p ch??nh tr??? c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng d??n s??? ??? c??c n?????c c???ng s???n ????ng ??u kh??ng ch??? ??i tr?????c cu???c ????n ??p c??c ch??nh tr??? gia th???c s???, m?? c??n ???????c ??u ti??n h??n c??c m???c ti??u X?? vi???t v?? c???ng s???n kh??c. Ngay c??? trong giai ??o???n 1945 ?????n 1948, khi c??c cu???c b???u c??? ??? Hungary v??? l?? thuy???t v???n c??n t??? do v?? Ba Lan v???n duy tr?? ???????c m???t ?????ng ?????i l???p h???p ph??p, m???t s??? lo???i h??nh hi???p h???i d??n s??? nh???t ?????nh ???? b??? ??e d???a. ??? ?????c, c??c ch??? huy X?? vi???t kh??ng h??? c???m c??c nghi th???c t??n gi??o v?? c??c bu???i l??? t??n gi??o trong nh???ng th??ng ?????u ti??n chi???m ????ng, nh??ng h??? th?????ng ph???n ?????i gay g???t c??c cu???c g???p gi??o h???i, c??c bu???i l??? t??n gi??o v??o bu???i t???i, v?? th???m ch?? c??? c??c hi???p h???i t??n gi??o v?? t??? thi???n c?? t??? ch???c g???p nhau ngo??i nh?? th??? trong nh?? h??ng hay ??? c??c kh??ng gian c??ng c???ng kh??c. Th????ng m???i t?? nh??n v???n l?? h???p ph??p ??? nhi???u n??i trong cu???i nh???ng n??m 1940 v?? ?????u nh???ng n??m 1950, ngay c??? khi th??nh vi??n c???a c??c nh??m thanh ni??n C??ng gi??o ???? b???t ?????u b??? b???t gi??? v?? truy t???.
Trong th???i k??? h???u chi???n, c??c n?????c kh??c ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a h???c thuy???t Bolshevik ???? ??p d???ng m???t s??? ch??nh s??ch t????ng t???. Trung Qu???c v?? B???c Tri???u Ti??n c???ng s???n l?? hai v?? d??? r?? r??ng nh???t, v?? qu??? th???t c?? th??? n??i c??n cu???ng ti??u di???t c??c t??? ch???c ?????c l???p c???a h??? kh??ng thua k??m g?? ho???c th???m ch?? c??n h??n c??? c??n cu???ng c???a Bolshevik. C?? l??? ??t r?? r??ng h??n, m???t s??? ch??? ????? ?????c t??i ??? R???p nh?? ??? Libya v?? Iraq c??ng theo ??u???i c??c ch??nh s??ch t????ng t???. Muammar al-Gaddafi cu???ng t??n v???i vi???c ph?? h???y x?? h???i d??n s??? ?????n m???c ??ng c??n ng??n ch???n c??? vi???c th??nh l???p m???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? nh?? n?????c duy nh???t, m?? thay v??o ???? l?? t??? m??nh qu???n tr???. Vi???c thi???u v???ng c??c hi???p h???i thay th??? l?? m???t l?? do quan tr???ng d???n t???i s??? tr???i d???y c???a H???i gi??o c???c ??oan h???u M??a xu??n ??? R???p: ??? nhi???u qu???c gia, c??c th??nh ???????ng H???i gi??o l?? t??? ch???c ?????c l???p duy nh???t trong nhi???u n??m qua c??n ho???t ?????ng.
Theo m???t ?? ngh??a r???t th???c t???, vi???c ????n ??p ho??n to??n x?? h???i d??n s??? ???? khi???n Li??n X??, c??c thu???c ?????a, v?? c??c con r???i c???a n?? tr??? n??n ?????c nh???t. M???c d?? c?? th??? c?? nh???ng kh??t v???ng t????ng t???, Hitler ???? kh??ng n???m gi??? quy???n l???c ????? l??u ????? c?? th??? ti??u di???t m???i t??? ch???c d??n s??? c???a n?????c ?????c. Ng?????c l???i, Bolshevik v?? nh???ng ng?????i theo g????ng h??? c?? th???a th???i gian ????? lo???i b??? kh??ng ch??? c??c ?????ng ch??nh tr??? ?????i l???p v?? doanh nghi???p t?? nh??n, m?? c??n c??? m???i lo???i nh??m thanh thi???u ni??n, c??u l???c b??? th??? thao, c??c x?? h???i gi??o d???c, v??n v??n ??? v?? ????a t???t c??? v??o khu??n kh??? c???a nh?? n?????c.
***
Cu???i c??ng, s??? chu ????o c???a nh???ng ng?????i Bolshevik c?? th??? l???i l?? m???t trong nh???ng sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng nh???t c???a h???. B???i Lenin ???? kh??ng nh???n ra r???ng b???ng c??ch c??? g???ng ki???m so??t m???i kh??a c???nh c???a x?? h???i, c??c ch??? ????? to??n tr??? cu???i c??ng ???? bi???n m???i kh??a c???nh c???a x?? h???i th??nh m???t ngu???n b???t ?????ng ti???m n??ng. Nh?? n?????c quy ?????nh ch??? ti??u c??ng vi???c h???ng ng??y c???a c??ng nh??n r???t cao ??? v?? do v???y m???t cu???c b??i c??ng ph???n ?????i ??i???u ki???n lao ?????ng t???i t??n c???a c??ng nh??n ????ng ?????c n??m 1953 ???? nhanh ch??ng bi???n th??nh m???t cu???c bi???u t??nh ch???ng nh?? n?????c. Nh?? n?????c quy ?????nh ngh??? s?? ???????c v??? g?? hay nh?? v??n ???????c vi???t g?? ??? v?? do v???y nh???ng h???a s?? hay nh?? v??n n??o v??? hay vi???t ??i???u g?? kh??c ??i t??? nhi??n tr??? th??nh m???t nh?? b???t ?????ng ch??nh tr???. Nh?? n?????c quy ?????nh kh??ng ai ???????c th??nh l???p c??c t??? ch???c ?????c l???p ??? v?? do v???y b???t c??? ai th??nh l???p m???t t??? ch???c, b???t k??? ??n h??a ?????n ????u, c??ng ?????u tr??? th??nh ?????i th??? c???a ch??? ?????. V?? khi m???t s??? l?????ng l???n ng?????i d??n tham gia v??o m???t t??? ch???c ?????c l???p ??? v?? d??? nh?? khi kho???ng 10 tri???u ng?????i Ba Lan gia nh???p c??ng ??o??n ??o??n k???t v??o n??m 1981 ??? s??? t???n vong c???a ch??? ????? ?????t nhi??n b??? ??e d???a.
Theo th???i gian, m???t s??? ?????i th??? ch??nh tr??? c???a c??c ch??? ????? c???ng s???n nh???n ra r???ng ????y l?? m???t ??i???m y???u c??? h???u c???a ch??? ????? to??n tr??? theo phong c??ch X?? vi???t. Trong ti???u lu???n xu???t s???c Quy???n l???c c???a k??? kh??ng quy???n l???c (The Power of the Powerless)n??m 1978 c???a m??nh, nh?? b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n V??clav Havel ng?????i S??c ???? n???i ti???ng th??c gi???c ?????ng b??o ??ng b??? qua nh???ng l???i gi??? d???i v?? v?? ngh??a ????? ???s???ng trong s??? th???t??? ??? n??i c??ch kh??c, ????? n??i v?? l??m nh?? th??? ch??? ????? kh??ng t???n t???i. C??? th??? h??n, ??ng c??ng k??u g???i ?????ng b??o ??ng t???n d???ng s??? ??m ???nh c???a nh???ng nh?? cai tr??? v???i s??? ki???m so??t tuy???t ?????i. N???u nh?? n?????c mu???n ?????c chi???m m???i l??nh v???c ho???t ?????ng c???a con ng?????i, ??ng vi???t, th?? m???i c??ng d??n bi???t t?? duy ph???i h??nh ?????ng ????? gi??? g??n ????????i s???ng ?????c l???p c???a x?? h???i??? m?? ??ng ?????nh ngh??a l?? bao g???m ???m???i th??? t??? t??? gi??o d???c ?????n t?? duy v??? th??? gi???i, th??ng qua ho???t ?????ng s??ng t???o t??? do v?? chuy???n t???i ?????n nh???ng ng?????i kh??c, t???i nh???ng th??i ????? ??a d???ng, t??? do, v?? d??n s??? nh???t, bao g???m c??? tr?????ng h???p c???a c??c t??? ch???c x?? h???i ?????c l???p t??? ph??t???.
?????n th???i ??i???m th??ch h???p, m???t s??? phi??n b???n ????????i s???ng ?????c l???p c???a x?? h???i??? ??? ???x?? h???i d??n s?????? ??? b???t ?????u ph??t tri???n b???ng c??c c??ch kh??c th?????ng. Ng?????i Hungary tham gia c??c c??u l???c b??? th???o lu???n h???c thu???t. Ng?????i S??c th??nh l???p c??c ban nh???c jazz. Ng?????i Ba Lan ng???m t??? ch???c l???c l?????ng h?????ng ?????o sinh v?? cu???i c??ng l?? c??c c??ng ??o??n ?????c l???p. ??? m???i n??i, m???i ng?????i ch??i nh???c rock, t??? ch???c c??c bu???i ?????c th??, th??nh l???p c??c doanh nghi???p b?? m???t, t??? ch???c c??c h???i th???o tri???t h???c ng???m, b??n th???t ??? ch??? ??en, v?? t???i nh?? th???. H??? k??? c??? chuy???n c?????i, th?????ng l?? r???t n???i lo???n. Trong m???t lo???i x?? h???i kh??c, nh???ng ho???t ?????ng n??y c?? th??? ???? ???????c coi l?? phi ch??nh tr???, v?? ngay c??? ??? ch??u ??u ch??ng c??ng kh??ng nh???t thi???t t???o ra ???s??? ?????i l???p???. Nh??ng ch??ng ???? cho ng?????i d??n quy???n ki???m so??t m???t s??? kh??a c???nh c???a ?????i s???ng ri??ng t?? ??? v?? tr??n th???c t??? ???? cho h??? c??i m?? h??? c???m th???y l?? c??c l??nh v???c t??? do v?? ?????c l???p v???i nh?? n?????c.
????i l??c, ch??ng c??ng c?? t??c ?????ng r???t s??u s???c ?????i v???i ch??nh tr???. N??m 1956, c??c nh??m th???o lu???n h???c thu???t nh??? b?? c???a ng?????i Hungary d???n l???n l??n, tr??? th??nh c??c cu???c g???p m???t c??ng c???ng, v?? cu???i c??ng d???n t???i C??ch m???ng Hungary. N??m 1980, c??ng ??o??n ??o??n k???t ???? gi??nh ???????c quy???n t???n t???i h???p ph??p trong m???t th???i gian ng???n tr?????c khi b??? nghi???n n??t m???t n??m r?????i sau ???? b???ng thi???t qu??n lu???t. V?? ?????n n??m 1989, c??c nh??m Tin l??nh v?? c??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng ?????c l???p ????ng ?????c ???? t??? ch???c m???t lo???t c??c bu???i tu???n h??nh ??? Leipzig, gi??p ?????y nhanh s??? s???p ????? c???a B???c t?????ng Berlin.
Sau khi ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ??i ?????n h???i ch???m d???t, m???t l???n n???a t??? do ng??n lu???n v?? t??? do h???i h???p ???????c l???p l???i ??? Trung v?? ????ng ??u. Nh??ng ??? nhi???u n??i ??i???u ???? n??i th?? d??? h??n l??m: C??c t??? ch???c t?? nh??n, d??n s???, v?? t??? thi???n t???ng ???????c ng?????i d??n d??ng ????? th??c ?????y c??c s??ng ki???n ?????c l???p v??? tri th???c, ch??nh tr???, thi???n nguy???n, ho???c th??? thao ???? kh??ng c??n t???n t???i. H??? th???ng ph??p l?? ????? h??? tr??? ch??ng c??ng v???y. Ng?????i ta ???? vi???t r???t nhi???u v??? s??? m???t m??t ?????o ?????c l??m vi???c ??? ch??u ??u c???ng s???n v?? s??? thi???u v???ng c??c th??? ch??? t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a v?? th??? tr?????ng ch???ng kho??n. Nh??ng ?????n n??m 1989, c??c th??i quen, t???p qu??n, ph??p lu???t, v?? th???m ch?? c??? ph??p l???ch thi???p g???n li???n v???i t???t c??? m???i th??? t??? v??n h??a c???a m???t t??a so???n c?? tr??ch nhi???m t???i t??? ch???c t??? thi???n th?????ng ni??n c??ng ???? bi???n m???t kh???i ph???n l???n Li??n X?? ???? 70 n??m, v?? kh???i Trung ??u ???? 40 n??m. Kh??ng d??? g?? thay th??? ???????c ch??ng.
T??? h??n, m???t s??? b??? ph???n d??n c?? ??? g???n nh?? t???t c??? c??c n?????c thu???c kh???i X?? vi???t c?? l???i ph???n ???ng tr??i ng?????c v???i s??? h???i sinh c???a h???, ??t nh???t l?? l??c ?????u. N??m 1989, kh??i ni???m v??? m???t t??? b??o xu???t b???n nh???ng b??i ch??? tr??ch ch??nh ph??? l?? th???t k??? qu??i, th???m ch?? ????ng ng???, ?????i v???i nhi???u c??ng d??n X?? vi???t c??. ?? t?????ng v??? tr?????ng h???c ???????c t??? ch???c theo m???t tri???t l?? kh??c ho??n to??n v???i c??c tr?????ng c??ng c?? v??? th???t xa l???. ?? t?????ng v??? m???t t??? ch???c t??? thi???n c?? th??? ???????c t??i tr??? ho??n to??n b???i c??c c?? nh??n, ?????i v???i nhi???u ng?????i, l?? kh??ng th??? ch???p nh???n ???????c v?? th???m ch?? c??n ????ng ng???: ?????ng c?? c???a nh???ng ng?????i ????ng g??p l?? g??? C??c ?????ng ch??nh tr??? tham gia v??o cu???c tranh lu???n kh??ng ki???m so??t l?? vi???n c???nh ????ng s??? nh???t trong t???t c???. C???nh t?????ng m???i ng?????i b???t ?????ng n??i c??ng ?????ng, ????i khi c??n h??t v??o m???t nhau, c?? v??? th???t kh?? ch???u, chia r???, v?? th???m ch?? nguy hi???m.
????ng l?? n???u thi???u v???ng c??? nh?? n?????c v?? x?? h???i d??n s???, nh???ng t??? ng??? nh?? ???t??? do??? ????i khi d?????ng nh?? ch??? l?? nh???ng c??u kh???u hi???u r???ng tu???ch. Anh c?? th??? t??? do d??nh th???i gian l??m g?? anh mu???n, nh??ng c??u l???c b??? b??ng ???? ?????a ph????ng c???a nh?? n?????c ???? s???p ????? v?? thi???u kinh ph??, kh??ng c?? g?? ????? thay th???, v?? c???ng ?????ng anh ???? qu??n m???t c??ch t??? m??nh t??? ch???c m???t ?????i b??ng. Anh c?? th??? t??? do tham gia ch??nh tr???, nh??ng c??c ?????ng v?? t??? ch???c ch??nh tr??? ???? suy y???u, m???c n??t, v?? t??? ch???c k??m. Anh c?? th??? c???m th???y b???t b??nh cho nh???ng ng?????i ngh??o quanh anh, nh??ng anh kh??ng c??n bi???t l??m th??? n??o ????? quy??n ti???n gi??p ?????.
D?? nhi??n, theo th???i gian, nhi???u c??ng d??n c???a c??c n?????c c???ng s???n tr?????c ????y ???? ??i???u ch???nh theo nh???ng th???c t??? m???i, d???n quen thu???c v???i t?? t?????ng t??? do c?? nh??n, v?? nhi???t t??nh t??i thi???t x?? h???i d??n s???. Nh??ng nh???ng ng?????i kh??c th?? kh??ng. Tr??n kh???p khu v???c, k??ch th?????c c???a hai nh??m n??y v???n kh??c bi???t kh?? nhi???u, t??y v??o l???ch s??? v?? v??n h??a c???a t???ng qu???c gia c??? th???. Qu??? th???t, s???c n???ng t????ng ?????i c???a h??? l?? ?????c bi???t quan tr???ng: Trong th??? gi???i h???u c???ng s???n, th??i ????? c???a ng?????i d??n ?????i v???i x?? h???i d??n s??? gi??p x??c ?????nh t??nh h??nh ch??nh tr??? c???a ?????t n?????c h??? ?????n m???t m???c ????? ????ng ng???c nhi??n. ??? Ba Lan, x?? h???i d??n s??? ???b???t h???p ph??p??? ???? ph??t tri???n m???nh trong hai th???p ni??n cu???i c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n, s???n sinh ra kh??ng ch??? c??ng ??o??n ??o??n k???t m?? c??n c??? h??ng ch???c t??? ch???c ?????c l???p kh??c: c??c nh??m ngh??? s?? v?? nh?? v??n, c??c t??? ch???c gi??o h???i, th???m ch?? c??? m???t phong tr??o h?????ng ?????o sinh b?? m???t. ?????n n??m 1989, ng?????i Ba Lan kh??ng ch??? ???? s???n s??ng h???p ph??p h??a c??c t??? ch???c d??n s???, m?? c??n c?? m???t s??? kinh nghi???m ??i???u h??nh ch??ng.
***
Ng?????c l???i, ??? Nga, n??i quy???n t??? do l???p h???i ???? b??? ????n ??p trong su???t 70 n??m ??? v?? th???m ch?? tr?????c ???? c??ng r???t h???n ch??? ??? ng?????i d??n n??i chung t??? ra th???n tr???ng h??n v???i ?? t?????ng v??? c??c t??? ch???c d??n s??? t??? do. T??? h??n, ng?????i l??n n???m quy???n v??o ?????u nh???ng n??m 2000, sau kho???ng tr???ng ng???n ng???i sau Yeltsin, m???t l???n n???a t??? ra th?? ?????ch m???t c??ch tr???ng tr???n v???i ch??ng. Cu???c th???p t??? chinh c???a ch??nh quy???n t???ng th???ng Putin ch???ng l???i ch??nh kh??i ni???m x?? h???i d??n s??? ?????c l???p t???i Nga ???? ph???n ??nh m???t ph???n s??? tr??? l???i v???i quy???n l???c c???a KGB tr?????c ????y, t??? ch???c c?? m???c ti??u ch??nh l?? ph?? h???y m???i t??? ch???c ?????c l???p ??? Li??n X??. Trong qu?? tr??nh ????o t???o, h??? ???? h???c ???????c r???ng c??c s??? ki???n kh??ng ???????c ph??p c??? th??? di???n ra, m?? ph???i b??? thao t??ng; c??c th??? tr?????ng kh??ng th??? c??? th??? m???, m?? ph???i ???????c qu???n l?? t??? ?????ng sau; c??c cu???c b???u c??? kh??ng th??? ??o??n tr?????c ???????c, m?? ph???i l??n k??? ho???ch t??? tr?????c. T????ng t???, h??? c??ng ???????c d???y r???ng c??c t??? ch???c m?? h??? kh??ng ki???m so??t theo ?????nh ngh??a l?? t??? ch???c th?? ?????ch.
B???n th??n Putin ???? c?? kinh nghi???m c?? nh??n v??? m???i nguy m?? c??c nh??m ?????c l???p ?????t ra ?????i v???i m???t nh?? n?????c chuy??n ch???. L?? m???t s?? quan KGB tr??? ??? Dresden n??m 1989, ??ng ???? ch???ng ki???n c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh c???a qu???n ch??ng tr??n ???????ng ph??? v?? vi???c l???c so??t tr??? s??? c???a Stasi, c???nh s??t m???t ????ng ?????c. ??ng c??ng kh??ng ????n ?????c. H???u h???t nh???ng ng?????i th??n c???n c???a Putin hi???n nay ?????u ???????c ????o t???o v?? gi??o d???c trong c??ng m???t h??? th???ng, v?? c?? v??? h???u h???t ?????u ngh?? theo c??ng m???t c??ch. C?? l??? kh??ng ng???c nhi??n khi s??? tr??? l???i v???i quy???n l???c c???a KGB ???????c ????nh d???u b???ng vi???c lo???i b??? ch???m nh??ng c?? h??? th???ng m???i lo???i h??nh nh??m v?? t??? ch???c ?????c l???p kh???i x?? h???i Nga. Th??ng 11 n??m 2012, Duma Nga ???? th??ng qua m???t ?????o lu???t v??? c?? b???n quy ?????nh r???ng b???t k??? t??? ch???c n??o nh???n t??i tr??? c???a ph????ng T??y c??ng ?????u ph???i ????ng k?? nh?? m???t ????????i di???n n?????c ngo??i??? ??? n??i c??ch kh??c, m???t ?????i di???n t??nh b??o. Vi???c ki???m tra ?????t xu???t v?? ki???m to??n ?????i v???i ph???m vi r???ng c??c nh??m, trong ???? c?? c??? c??c nh??m l??m vi???c trong l??nh v???c gi??o d???c v?? ch??m s??c s???c kh???e, ???? khi???n nhi???u nh??m ph???i ????ng c???a v??n ph??ng ho???c r???i kh???i n?????c Nga. Trong s??? h??n 50 t??? ch???c bu???c ph???i ????ng k?? ?????i di???n n?????c ngo??i c?? Memorial, t??? ch???c v???n ?????ng nh??n quy???n v?? b???o t???n l???ch s??? c???a ch??? ngh??a Stalin, v?? Dynasty Foundation, t??? ch???c t??? thi???n c???a Nga nh???m h??? tr??? to??n h???c v?? khoa h???c. Ng?????i s??ng l???p v?? nh?? t??i tr??? duy nh???t c???a Dynasty Foundation ???? tuy??n b??? h???i ?????u n??m nay l?? ??ng s??? ng???ng t??i tr??? cho t??? ch???c n??y n???u vi???c ????ng k?? ?????i di???n n?????c ngo??i kh??ng ???????c d??? b???, v?? ?????n th??ng 7 ban ??i???u h??nh t??? ch???c ???? quy???t ?????nh ????ng c???a n??.
M???t ?????o lu???t g???n ????y h??n cho ph??p nh?? n?????c Nga c?? quy???n ????ng c???a m???i lo???i h??nh t??? ch???c n?????c ngo??i ???kh??ng mong mu???n???. Trong s??? c??c nh??m ???????c nh???c ?????n nh?? nh???ng m???c ti??u kh??? d?? c?? Human Rights Watch v?? ??n x?? Qu???c t???. Theo lu???t, nh???ng t??? ch???c c???a Nga c?? ???h???p t??c??? v???i nh???ng t??? ch???c n?????c ngo??i ???kh??ng mong mu???n??? c??ng c?? th??? b??? ph???t ti???n ho???c ph???t h??nh s???. X?? h???i Nga, v???n t??? l??u ???? kh??ng quen tham gia c??c t??? ch???c d??n s???, gi??? ????y s??? ti???p t???c kh??ng ???????c khuy???n kh??ch l??m nh?? v???y b???i n???i s??? h??i. Trong th???i gian r???t ng???n, vi???c th??nh l???p, ??i???u h??nh, ho???c tham gia v??o m???t t??? ch???c ?????c l???p ??? Nga s??? tr??? n??n r???t kh?? kh??n; c??c t??? ch???c ???ch??nh danh??? duy nh???t s??? do nh?? n?????c ??i???u h??nh. Ch???ng n??o n?????c Nga c??n b??? cai tr??? b???i nh???ng ng?????i ch??a bao gi??? t??? b??? y???u t??? n??y trong t?? t?????ng Bolshevik, ??i???u ???? nhi???u kh??? n??ng s??? c??n ti???p di???n.
V???n ????? hi???n nay l?? li???u c??c x?? h???i h???u c???ng s???n kh??c ??? v?? qu??? th???t l?? c?? r???t nhi???u x?? h???i kh??c ch???u ???nh h?????ng n???ng n??? c???a ?? th???c h??? X?? vi???t ??? c?? d???m v??o v???t xe ????? n??y hay kh??ng. H???u h???t c??c n?????c Trung ??u v?? v??ng Baltic ???? gia nh???p Li??n minh ch??u ??u c?? v??? nhi???u kh??? n??ng s??? duy tr?? quy???n t??? do l???p h???i (m???c d?? th??? t?????ng Hungary Viktor Orb??n ???? de d???a ph???n ?????i s??? t???n t???i c???a m???t s??? t??? ch???c ?????c l???p ??? Hungary nh???n t??i tr??? t??? n?????c ngo??i). L??nh v???c d??n s??? c??ng r???t v???ng ch???c ??? Ukraine, d???a tr??n truy???n th???ng c???a c??c t??? ch???c n??ng d??n v?? t??? c???u c???a ng?????i d??n Ukraine ti???n X?? vi???t.
Nh??ng ??? Belarus, Trung ??, Trung Qu???c, Cuba, m???t ph???n ch??u Phi, v?? ph???n l???n th??? gi???i ??? R???p, nh???ng ng?????i c???m quy???n v???n g???n b?? v???i t?? t?????ng Bolshevik c?? r???ng c??c t??? ch???c d??n s??? ?????c l???p l?? m???i ??e d???a ?????i v???i nh?? n?????c. C?? m???t ??i???u tr??? tr??u ??? ????y l?? nh???ng ng?????i Bolshevik ???? th???t b???i trong nh???ng m???c ti??u quan tr???ng nh???t c???a h???. H??? ch??a bao gi??? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c th???c hi???n m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng c???ng s???n qu???c t???, l?? thuy???t kinh t??? c???a h??? ???? ????nh m???t uy t??n, v?? c??c k??? ho???ch t???p trung ???? ch???m d???t. Nh??ng nh???ng t?? t?????ng h???n h???p c???a Lenin v??? x?? h???i d??n s??? v???n c??n t???n t???i ??? nhi???u n??i nh?? B???c Kinh, Cairo, Havana, Minsk, B??nh Nh?????ng, v?? Tashkent ??? ch???ng t??? r???ng ci??ncwush??ng c?? l??? l?? lu??n v???ng ch???c v?? nguy hi???m nh???t trong t???t c???.
Anne Applebaum l?? nh?? b??o ng?????i Ba Lan v?? Hoa K???, n???i ti???ng v???i nh???ng b??i vi???t v??? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n v?? s??? ph??t tri???n c???a x?? h???i d??n s??? ??? Trung v?? ????ng ??u. B?? ???????c trao gi???i Pulitzer cho t??c ph???m phi h?? c???u n??m 2004 cho cu???n Gulag: A History (Doubleday, 2003).
???????????????
[1] V.I. Lenin, ???????c tr??ch trong The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) Is the Leading and Guiding Force of Soviet Society (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1951).
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
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