V??n h???c ??????ng ?????i Trung Qu???c l?? "r??c r?????i"

Thứ bảy - 14/12/2019 02:07
V??n h???c ??????ng ?????i Trung Qu???c (VH????TQ)[1] c?? l?????ng t??c gi???, t??c ph???m v?? ng?????i ?????c l???n nh???t th??? gi???i v?? ??ang ph??t tri???n nhanh, ?????ng th???i t???n t???i kh?? nhi???u v???n ?????. Hi???n nay ch??nh ng?????i TQ c??ng ch??a c?? m???t ????nh gi?? t???ng quan v??? n???n v??n h???c c???a h???. V?? v???y t??m hi???u VH????TQ qua con m???t m???t nh?? H??n h???c ng?????i n?????c ngo??i c?? th??? l?? ??i???u b??? ??ch.
V??n h???c  ??????ng ?????i Trung Qu???c l?? "r??c r?????i"

V??n h???c ??????ng ?????i Trung Qu???c l?? ???r??c r?????i????

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T??c gi???:  Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

V??n h???c ??????ng ?????i Trung Qu???c (VH????TQ)[1] c?? l?????ng t??c gi???, t??c ph???m v?? ng?????i ?????c l???n nh???t th??? gi???i v?? ??ang ph??t tri???n nhanh, ?????ng th???i t???n t???i kh?? nhi???u v???n ?????. Hi???n nay ch??nh ng?????i TQ c??ng ch??a c?? m???t ????nh gi?? t???ng quan v??? n???n v??n h???c c???a h???. V?? v???y t??m hi???u VH????TQ qua con m???t m???t nh?? H??n h???c ng?????i n?????c ngo??i c?? th??? l?? ??i???u b??? ??ch.

Cu???i n??m 2006, v??n ????n TQ b???ng d???y s??ng sau khi B??o Bu???i s??ng Tr??ng Kh??nh ng??y 11/12 ????ng b??i Nh?? H??n h???c ng?????i ?????c n??i VH????TQ l?? r??c r?????i. Nh?? H??n h???c ???y t??n l?? Wolfgang Kubin (trong h??nh).[2]

Ba ng??y sau, Kubin thanh minh : ??ng ch??? n??i c??i g???i l?? t??c ph???m c???a c??c ???nh?? v??n m??? n?????? TQ (nh?? Mi??n Mi??n, H???ng ???nh, V??? Tu???) kh??ng ph???i l?? v??n h???c, m?? l?? r??c r?????i, ch??? kh??ng h??? n??i VH????TQ l?? r??c r?????i. Nh??ng l???i thanh minh ???? b??? nh???n ch??m trong ti???ng h?? la VH????TQ l?? r??c r?????i tr??n b??o ????i v?? m???t bi???n trang m???ng. L??u nay ng?????i TQ ???? x?? x??o nhi???u v??? t??nh tr???ng VH n?????c n??y ???l???n m?? ch??a m???nh??? nh??ng ??t ng?????i d??m ph?? ph??n, tranh lu???n; b??y gi??? c?? nh?? H??n h???c n?????c ngo??i c??ng khai, d??ng c???m b??nh ph???m VH????TQ, h??? l???p t???c b??u l???y v?? nh??n th??? n??i l??n ?? ki???n c???a m??nh.

D?? Kubin ???? thanh minh nh??ng nhi???u ng?????i v???n tin ??ng l?? t??c gi??? ???Thuy???t r??c r?????i??? n??i tr??n v?? ??ng d??ng thuy???t ???y ????? s??? nh???c gi???i nh?? v??n TQ. V?? s??? l???i th??a m??? ????? l??n ?????u Kubin. Song m???t kh??c thuy???t n??y l???i tr??? th??nh th????ng hi???u, th??nh ???pasport??? gi??p ??ng ??i kh???p TQ. C??c tr?????ng ?????i h???c v?? b??o ????i ??ua nhau ph???ng v???n ho???c m???i ??ng n??i v??? VH????TQ. N??m 2009 Kubin ???????c Trung t??m nghi??n c???u VH hi???n ?????i TQ thu???c ??H Nam Kinh m???i l??m gi??o s?? ki??m ch???c. N??m 2011 l???i ???????c ??H Ngo???i ng??? B???c Kinh m???i l??m gi??o s?? ?????c th???nh. Cu???i n??m 2015 tr?????ng n??y ph??t h??nh T???p 50 b??i vi???t m???ng th??? GS Kubin 70 tu???i, tri???n l??m ???nh v??? ??ng, v?? t??? ch???c H???i th???o khoa h???c Kubin v???i TQ, t???i ????y ?????i di???n nhi???u ??H l???n ??? B???c Kinh ???? tr???c ti???p ?????i tho???i v???i Kubin.

?????i ????? Kubin ???? n??i g?? v??? VH????TQ?

??? VHTQ tr?????c n??m 1949 c?? th??? s??nh v???i VH Ph??p, ??, T??y Ban Nha???, c?? m???t s??? nh?? v??n l???n v?? nhi???u t??c ph???m th?????ng h???ng. L??? T???n th???t v?? ?????i, c?? n??ng l???c ng??n ng??? r???t cao, gi???i m???y ngo???i ng???, c?? t?? t?????ng ri??ng v?? d??m n??i l??n ti???ng n??i c???a m??nh. AQ ???? tr??? th??nh m???t nh??n v???t qu???c t???. T??? 1949, khi c???ng s???n n???m quy???n th?? TQ kh??ng c??n nh?? v??n l???n, ng?????i nh?? L??? T???n hi???n nay v?? sau n??y s??? kh??ng c??. VHTQ 1949-1979 ch??? s??nh ???????c v???i VH ????ng ??u. Nh??ng thi ca TQ sau 1979 ?????t t???m c??? th??? gi???i; ti???u thuy???t ng???n v?? v???a c??ng r???t kh??, nh??ng ti???u thuy???t d??i v?? k???ch b???n th?? c?? v???n ?????, t????ng t??? ??? ?????c. Th???p ni??n 1980 c?? m???t s??? ti???u thuy???t r???t hay, nh?? c???a Tr????ng Khi???t (n???). T??c ph???m c???a V????ng M??ng h???i th???p ni??n 1950 r???t kh??. Sau 1992, VHTQ v?? th??? gi???i d???n d???n ??i v??o con ???????ng th??? tr?????ng. G???n ????y TQ c?? m???t s??? nh?? th?? c??? th??? gi???i nh?? Tr??c V??nh Minh (n???) v?? c??c nh?? th?? h???i ngo???i B???c ?????o, ??a ??a, D????ng Luy???n???

??? L??? T???n l?? nh?? v??n TQ ti??u bi???u nh???t cho t??nh hi???n ?????i trong th??? k??? XX. S??? d?? ng?????i ta ng???i ?????c L??? T???n v?? v???a ?????c v???a ph???i suy ngh?? v??? quan ??i???m c???a ??ng. Kim Dung ch??? l?? m???t nh?? v??n truy???n th???ng. ?????i v???i t??i, Kim Dung ?????i di???n cho s??? tho??i b??? v??? m???t s??ng t??c VH. Kubin ph???n ?????i vi???c s??ch gi??o khoa v??n ph??? th??ng trung h???c TQ thay AQ ch??nh truy???n b???ng Tuy???t s??n phi h??? c???a Kim Dung.

??? C??i g???i l?? t??c ph???m c???a c??c nh?? v??n m??? n??? TQ kh??ng ph???i l?? VH, m?? l?? r??c r?????i; h??? kh??ng hi???u c??i ?????p c???a ng??n ng???, l???n l???n s??ng t??c b???ng th??n x??c v???i s??ng t??c VH.

??? VH????TQ c?? ?????a v??? qu???c t??? r???t th???p, ch??a c?? t??c ph???m t???m c??? th??? gi???i, kh??ng c?? nh?? v??n l???n ?????i di???n cho VH th??? gi???i. Gi???i h???c gi??? v?? H??n h???c ?????c coi th?????ng VH????TQ, coi l?? VH th??ng t???c, tuy d??n th?????ng ?????c v???n ??a ?????c.

??? Khuy???t ??i???m n???i b???t nh???t c???a VHTQ l?? kh??ng c?? t?? t?????ng. Nh?? v??n TQ sau 1949 kh??ng d??m t??? m??nh suy ngh?? m?? ????? ng?????i kh??c ngh?? h???. Sau 1979, h??? ????? m???t n??ng l???c ng??n ng???, truy???n th???ng TQ v?? kh??? n??ng ngo???i ng???. Sau 1992 h??? bi???n th??nh c??ng c??? c???a th??? tr?????ng. Nh?? v??n TQ ??????ng ?????i ?????u kh??ng c?? c??i t??i [t??? ng??] ????ch th???c. H??? n??n th???a nh???n m??nh ???? th???t b???i, n??n h???c l???i H??n ng???, v?? ng??n ng??? TQ ???? b??? ch??nh tr??? ph?? h???ng. H??? c???n h???c ngo???i ng???, c???n giao l??u v???i c??c nh?? v??n n?????c ngo??i. H??? n??n vi???t r???i c???t ??i, 20 n??m sau h??y m??? ra xem. H??? thi???u s???c m???nh n???i t???i c???a t?? t?????ng. S???c m???nh c???a h??? ??i ????u r???i ? Tr?????c kia l?? [ph???c v???] ch??nh tr???, ng??y nay l?? b??n cho th??? tr?????ng!

??? Nh?? v??n ??????ng ?????i TQ kh??ng bi???t s??ng t??c VH, ti???u thuy???t TQ t???p trung v??o k??? chuy???n (d?? th???i ?????i VH k??? chuy???n ???? k???t th??c t??? l??u r???i, tr??? ??? TQ v?? M???), kh??ng vi???t n???i t??m con ng?????i, kh??ng bi???t con ng?????i l?? g??. B???nh chung c???a VH????TQ l?? kh??ng coi tr???ng ng??n ng???, ch??? coi tr???ng n???i dung, coi ng??n ng??? l?? c??ng c???. Nhi???u nh?? v??n kh??ng n???m v???ng ti???ng m??? ?????, v?? th??? nh?? v??n TQ v??? c?? b???n l?? nh?? v??n kh??ng chuy??n.

??? Ng?????i TQ coi th?????ng v??n h??a TQ v?? thi???u quan t??m VHTQ. Gi???i h???c gi??? c?? hi???n t?????ng v??n nh??n t????ng khinh r???t r?? : tr?????c m???t t??ng b???c, sau l??ng c??ng k??ch, l??m h???ng h??nh ???nh ch??nh m??nh; m???t s??? nh?? v??n t??? cho m??nh gi???i nh???t. Nh???ng nh?? v??n TQ t??i quen ?????u coi th?????ng H???i Nh?? v??n TQ.

??? Nh?? v??n TQ ??????ng ?????i kh??ng d??m n??i l??n ti???ng n??i c???a m??nh. Nh?? v??n ?????c thay m???t ng?????i ?????c ????? n??i, cho n??n ch??ng t??i c?? ti???ng n??i c???a n?????c ?????c. VHTQ kh??ng c?? ti???ng n??i c???a m??nh, ch??? c?? ti???ng n??i h???p v???i y??u c???u c???a ch??nh tr??? ho???c th??? tr?????ng.

??? Sau 1949 TQ kh??ng c?? c??c nh?? v??n bi???t ngo???i ng???, h??? kh??ng ?????c ???????c nguy??n t??c VH n?????c ngo??i, v?? th??? kh??ng hi???u bi???t v??? VH th??? gi???i, kh??ng th??? ti???p thu c??c ng??n ng??? kh??c ????? l??m phong ph?? c??ch bi???u ?????t c???a m??nh.

??? Nh?? v??n TQ ??????ng ?????i kh??ng coi VH l?? m???t c??ng vi???c cao c???, gian kh??? c???n su???t ?????i theo ??u???i, m?? h??? t??y ti???n ???ch??i VH???, c?? ng?????i b??? s??ng t??c VH ??i vi???t k???ch b???n ????? ki???m ti???n, h??? thi???u l??ng k??nh s??? VH.

??? C??ng t??c ph?? b??nh VH ??? TQ c?? v???n ?????: khen th?? ???????c ti???n, nh?? ph?? b??nh thi???u nghi??m ch???nh, s??? n??i th???t. VHTQ v???n d??ng ch??? ngh??a Marx ????? ????nh gi?? m??nh. Nh???ng nh?? ph?? b??nh xu???t s???c nh?? Ti??u ??ng r???t ??t.

??? T??-tem S??i ca ng???i b???n t??nh lo??i s??i, tuy??n d????ng ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t; c?? v???n ????? v??? ng??n ng???, h??nh th???c v?? ?? th???c t?? duy, nh???c nhi???u t???i c??c kh??i ni???m M??u?????tK??? m???nh c???a b???n ph??t x??t; n???u ng?????i TQ ??a th??ch nh???ng th??? ???? th?? xu h?????ng ???y ch???ng c?? g?? v??? vang.[3]

??? Gi???i Nobel V??n c?? t??nh ch??nh tr???, kh??ng ph???i l?? ti??u chu???n c???a t??c ph???m VH ch??n ch??nh, nh?? v??n lo???i k??m c??ng ???????c gi???i; c??c nh?? v??n ch??? n??n ngh?? t???i v???n ????? gi??nh gi???i n??y.

??? T??i r???t ng??n v?? nhi???u nh?? v??n TQ ??????ng ?????i kh??ng hi???u ph??? n???, ch??? ch?? tr???ng vi???t v??? ?????c ??i???m sinh l?? m?? b??? qua ph???n t??m h???n v?? nh??n c??ch c???a h???. ????n ??ng trong Anh em c???a D?? Hoa ch??? th??ch ng???m m??ng ph??? n???. ????n ??ng trong T???u qu???c c???a M???c Ng??n th??ch s??? v?? ????n b??. V????ng An ???c (n???) vi???t v??? ph??? n??? gi???i h??n.

??? Vi???c M???c Ng??n ??o???t Nobel V??n c?? ???nh h?????ng ti??u c???c t???i c??c nh?? v??n TQ. V???n ????? ch??nh l?? M???c kh??ng c?? t?? t?????ng; ch??nh M???c t???ng n??i nh?? v??n kh??ng c???n t?? t?????ng, ch??? c???n mi??u t???. T??c ph???m M???c h??nh th???c c??, ng??n ng??? xo??ng, vi???t qu?? d??i, nh???ng th??? ??ng ???y vi???t ???l??m t??i ch??n ng???y ?????n ch???t??? [Mo Yan bores me to death], thi???u t??nh y??u v?? s??? h??i h?????c, c?? qu?? nhi???u h???n th??. M???t nh???c s???ng v?? ch???t (46 v???n ch???), M???c vi???t trong h??n 40 ng??y. Nh?? v??n ?????c b??nh qu??n c??? n??m ch??? vi???t ???????c ch???ng 100 trang. M???c Ng??n c?? th??? vi???t 800 trang trong 2-3 th??ng. Nh?? v??n TQ ???s??ng t??c kh??ng v?? VH m?? v?? ti???n.???

Nhi???u ti???u thuy???t c???a M???c Ng??n ch??? k??? chuy???n, k??? nh???ng chuy???n hoang ???????ng ly k???, l???i c?? h??ng ch???c nh??n v???t, n??n kh??ng th??? ??i s??u n???i t??m nh??n v???t. Cao l????ng ????? c?? m???t nh??n v???t h???t l???i ca ng???i ?????ng CSTQ, khi???n ng?????i ?????c r???t kh?? ch???u. Nhi???u nh?? v??n TQ vi???t t???t h??n M???c, nh??ng v?? kh??ng ???????c d???ch gi??? n???i ti???ng ng?????i M??? Howard Goldblatt d???ch ra ti???ng Anh n??n ???y ban Nobel kh??ng c?? c??n c??? ????? x??t. N???u Goldblatt kh??ng d???ch nhi???u, d???ch c?? s???a nguy??n t??c v?? ra s???c ca ng???i t??c ph???m th?? ch??a ch???c M???c Ng??n ???????c Nobel V??n. Goldblatt ch??? d???ch ?????i ?? t???ng ??o???n, b??? r???t nhi???u ch??? kh??ng c???n thi???t, nh??? th??? tr??nh ???????c c??c nh?????c ??i???m c???a nguy??n t??c. Ti???u thuy???t TQ th?????ng d??i d??ng, c?? th??? v?? nhu???n b??t tr??? theo s??? ch???. M???c Ng??n b??? t??i c??ng khai ph?? b??nh nhi???u nh???t nh??ng ??ng l???i ti???p thu ph?? b??nh c???a t??i, v?? th??? t??i r???t coi tr???ng ??ng ???y.

Kubin ????nh gi?? cao VHTQ th???i c??? v?? n??i ng?????i ?????c coi VH????TQ l?? VH th??ng t???c, kh??ng ph???i l?? VH nghi??m t??c. Gi???i nh?? v??n ?????c ph???n c???m v???i s??ch c???a M???c Ng??n, c???a D?? Hoa, T?? ?????ng, T???t Phi V??. L?? ng?????i ?????u ti??n d???ch t??c ph???m c???a Cao H??nh Ki???n v?? hi???u t??c gi???; nh??ng khi Cao ???????c trao Nobel V??n 2000, Kubin n??i t??c ph???m c???a Cao ???r???t d??????, ch??? v?? nguy??n nh??n ch??nh tr??? m?? ???????c trao gi???i trong khi TQ c?? kh??ng ??t nh?? v??n gi???i h??n. Linh S??n qu?? d??i, n???i dung b???t ch?????c nh?? v??n ?? Italo Calvino. Ti???u thuy???t M???c Ng??n th??nh c??ng h??n nhi???u.

Gi???i h???c gi??? Trung Qu???c ph???n ???ng v?? tranh c??i

C??ch ????a tin xuy??n t???c nh???m c??u kh??ch c???a B??o Bu???i s??ng Tr??ng Kh??nh ???? g??y ???n ??o d?? lu???n TQ. Nh??n d??n nh???t b??o ph?? ph??n b??o n??y ????a tin gi???, r???t c?? h???i, nghi??m tr???ng b??p m??o h??nh ???nh VHTQ v?? g??y ra ???hi???u ???ng con b?????m???. Tuy v???y, c??c ph??t bi???u th???ng th???ng ti???p theo c???a Kubin ???? l??m cho ng?????i TQ s???ng s???; m???t s??? h???c gi???, nh?? v??n l??n ti???ng ph???n ???ng, n??? ra m???t cu???c tranh lu???n ch??a t???ng c?? tr??n v??n ????n TQ.

GS Tr???n B??nh Nguy??n (??H B???c Kinh) n??i Kubin ph?? b??nh VH????TQ nh???m ph???nh ph??? l???y l??ng qu???n ch??ng, kh??ng ????ng ????? xem x??t; t??c ph???m c???a c??c nh?? v??n TQ n???i ti???ng ?????u ???????c d?? lu???n trong n?????c ????nh gi?? r???t cao, nh?? T?? tem s??i ???????c khen hay, th??? m?? Kubin l???i n??i l?? c?? m??u s???c ph??t x??t, l??m ng?????i TQ b??? m???t. Kubin ???? ???v?????t gi???i h???n???, c?? l??? v?? ng?????i TQ qu?? khi??m t???n n??n Kubin m???i c?? th??? ph?? b??nh qu?? l???i nh?? th???.

GS Tr???n Hi???u Minh (??H B???c Kinh) n??i VH????TQ kh??ng ph???i ?????u l?? r??c r?????i m?? m???t s??? t??c ph???m ???? ?????t ????? cao ch??a t???ng th???y trong 60 n??m qua. ??ng ph???n ?????i s??? ????nh gi?? c???a Kubin v?? n??i ng?????i TQ ph???i c?? l???p tr?????ng c???a m??nh, ch??? h???c gi??? TQ m???i c?? th??? ????nh gi?? VH????TQ. Nh??ng quan ??i???m n??y b??? m???t s??? ?????ng nghi???p ph???n ?????i.

?????c bi???t b??i c???a Kubin ???M???c Ng??n, Cao H??nh Ki???n v?? cu???c kh???ng ho???ng VH??? ????ng tr??n Nguy???t san Minh b??o (Hong Kong, 8/2013) ???? g??y ???n ??o l???n, ch??? y???u do ????nh gi?? th???p M???c v?? Cao. B??o n??y s??? ti???p sau ????ng li???n 4 b??i ph???n b??c Kubin, trong ???? b??i vi???t d??i c???a L??u T??i Ph???c c??ng k??ch Kubin v???i t??? ng??? n???ng n???, ch???p m?? Kubin l?? ???t??n th???c d??n??? to m???m x??? v??? VHTQ ????? ph???nh ph??? l???y l??ng d??n TQ.

B??i n??y b??? m???t s??? h???c gi??? ph?? ph??n. Nh?? v??n L??u Ki???n Qu??n cho r???ng Kubin nh???n x??t M???c Ng??n r???t ch??nh x??c. L?? Nhu??? vi???t tr??n B???c ph????ng t??n b??o (8/6/2015): M???t ng?????i n?????c ngo??i kh??ng qu???n xa x??i ?????n TQ ????a ra nh???ng ?? ki???n s???c b??n, ch??nh x??c v?? ch??n th??nh, ???? l?? tinh th???n ph?? b??nh VH ta ??ang thi???u, ta n??n c???m ??n, h???c t???p v?? khen ng???i; th??? m?? L??u l???i vi???t m???t b??i d??i ch???ng c?? l?? lu???n g?? ????? b??c b???, ch???i b???i Kubin.

GS Ti??u ??ng ??? Khoa Tri???t ??H Thanh Hoa nh???n x??t ?? ki???n c???a Kubin ????nh tr??ng ch??? hi???m c???a VH????TQ. Ng???y D???c Thanh n??i : Tr??nh ????? ngo???i ng??? c???a nh?? v??n TQ sau th???p ni??n 1960 k??m xa c??c nh?? v??n th???p ni??n 1930, tuy th??? h??? tr??? hi???n nay ???? kh?? h??n. ??ng ?????c bi???t t??n th??nh vi???c Kubin coi tr???ng ng??n ng???, Ng??n ng??? quan tr???ng ??? ch??? kh??ng ch??? l?? c??ng c??? truy???n th??ng tin m?? c??n ???nh h?????ng t???i t?? duy.

L?? Nhu??? t??n th??nh Kubin tr??n nhi???u ??i???m, nh?? nh???n x??t v??? Kim Dung, M???c Ng??n. L?? n??i gi???i VHTQ r???t coi tr???ng c??c gi???i th?????ng c???a n?????c ngo??i, sau khi M???c Ng??n nh???n gi???i Nobel V??n, ai ph?? b??nh ??ng ???y th?? b??? coi l?? ?????i ngh???ch v?? ?????o. Khi ng?????i Ph??p g???c Hoa Cao H??nh Ki???n nh???n gi???i Nobel V??n, ng?????i TQ im thin th??t, ch??? Kubin d??m n??i t??c ph???m c???a Cao ???r???t xo??ng???. Gi???i VHTQ s??ng ngo???i, th??ch nghe ng?????i n?????c ngo??i khen m??nh, nh??ng khi m??nh b??? h??? ph?? b??nh th?? l???i gh??t cay gh??t ?????ng h???.

Ph???n l???n d??n m???ng TQ ????nh gi?? th???p VH????TQ, d?????ng nh?? h??? t??n th?????ng ???Thuy???t r??c r?????i???. B??o Bu???i s???m B???c Kinh 9/11/2011 cho bi???t theo k???t qu??? m???t cu???c ??i???u tra, 89,9% d??n m???ng n??i VH????TQ ch??a ?????t t???i ???????? cao ch??a t???ng th???y???, ch??? y???u do ch???t l?????ng t??c ph???m k??m tuy s??? l?????ng t??ng. Nhi???u ng?????i n??i hi???n TQ kh??ng c?? nh?? v??n ngh??? m?? ch??? c?? nh?? bu??n v??n ngh??? nh???m ki???m ti???n.

T??? l??u gi???i nh?? v??n TQ c?? b???t ?????ng l???n trong ????nh gi?? VH????TQ: m???t s??? ng?????i (?????i di???n l?? Ti??u ??ng) ????nh gi?? th???p, m???t s??? ng?????i (?????i di???n l?? Tr???n Hi???u Minh) ????nh gi?? cao.

T???i H???i ch??? s??ch Frankfurt 10/2011, V????ng M??ng (nguy??n B??? tr?????ng V??n h??a TQ) ph??t bi???u: VHTQ ??ang ??? v??o th???i k??? t???t nh???t. M???t s??? h???c gi??? ph???n b??c m???nh nh???n x??t n??y. Ti??u ??ng n??i : V????ng M??ng c?? ?????a v??? cao trong v??n ????n TQ m?? n??i ki???u pha tr?? nh?? th??? tr??n di???n ????n qu???c t??? l?? kh??ng nghi??m t??c; th???c ra VH????TQ ??ang ??? v??o ??i???m c???c th???p kh??ng ????ng c??. V??? sau V????ng thanh minh : Th???i k??? t???t nh???t ch??? l?? n??i v??? ho??n c???nh sinh t???n v?? s??ng t??c c???a nh?? v??n TQ hi???n nay. Ti??u l???i n??i: N???u ???? c?? ho??n c???nh s??ng t??c t???t nh???t, t???i sao ch??a c?? t??c ph???m xu???t s???c? M??i tr?????ng s??ng t??c kh??ng c?? quan h??? nh??n qu??? v???i ch???t l?????ng t??c ph???m; tr??n th???c t???, c??c nh?? v??n c?? ti???n c?? quy???n ch???ng nh???ng kh??ng th??? s??ng t??c ???????c t??c ph???m hay m?? th??i ????? t??ng b???c xu n???nh theo ??u??i k??? quy???n qu?? c???a h??? ??ang l??m h???ng VHTQ.

B??nh L????ng C??? nh???n x??t: V????ng M??ng n??i th??? l?? l???a m??nh d???i ng?????i, VHTQ t??? th???p ni??n 1950 t???i nay l?? VH ch??nh tr???, kh??ng c?? VH nh??n ?????o v?? VH nh??n t??nh, kh??ng c?? VH hi???n th???c th???t s???, c??ng kh?? c?? ???????c t??c ph???m kinh ??i???n l???n. Tr????ng Ninh (GS ??H S?? ph???m B???c Kinh) nh???n x??t : V????ng M??ng n??i VH????TQ ng??y nay c?? m??i tr?????ng s??ng t??c r???ng r??i ch??a t???ng th???y; nay Tr???n Hi???u Minh l???i nh???n ?????nh VH????TQ ?????t ????? cao ch??a t???ng th???y. Hai c??i ch??a t???ng th???y ???y c???ng l???i khi???n ch??ng ta kh?? x??? ch??a t???ng th???y.

M???i ????y V????ng M??ng h??i h?????c n??i TQ ??t c?? nh?? v??n v?? ?????i l?? do s??? nh?? v??n TQ t??? t??? qu?? ??t; vi???c s??ng t??c ch???ng kh??c con ch?? d???i ??u???i theo nh?? v??n, ?? th???c [cho m??nh l??] tinh hoa khi???n h??? c???m th???y c?? ????n v?? ch???u s???c ??p.

Nh??n chung d?? lu???n kh??ng ph??? nh???n VHTQ c??n y???u k??m so v???i th??? gi???i. S??ch VHTQ d???ch ra ngo???i ng??? ch??? b???ng m???t ph???n r???t nh??? s??? s??ch n?????c ngo??i d???ch ra H??n ng???. VH????TQ ch??a c?? nh?? v??n c??? th??? gi???i v?? t??c ph???m l???n. V????ng An ???c cho r???ng VHTQ mu???n ??i ra th??? gi???i c?? l??? ph???i ch??? v??i ch???c n??m n???a.

B??o Nam ph????ng d??? v?? vi???t : H??n 30 n??m qua VHTQ ph??t tri???n m???nh v??? s??? l?????ng, nh??ng ch???t l?????ng sa s??t nhanh, ch??? y???u do gi???i s??ng t??c v?? xu???t b???n ch???y theo danh v?? l???i. Hi???n nay TQ m???i n??m xu???t b???n h??n 2000 ti???u thuy???t d??i. Ph??t tri???n nhanh nh???t l?? VH m???ng, tuy c?? ??ch cho vi???c n??ng cao tr??nh ????? vi???t c???a to??n d??n, song l???i l??m cho r??c VH tr??n lan. C?? h???c gi??? ????? ngh??? ho??n 10 n??m vi???c b??nh ch???n gi???i VH Mao Thu???n.

Goldblatt nh???n x??t: Ti???u thuy???t VH????TQ kh??ng ???????c hoan ngh??nh trong th??? gi???i Anh ng???, c??c nh?? xu???t b???n kh??ng mu???n in; nh?? v??n TQ r???t kh??ng chuy??n nghi???p, h??? vi???t nhanh qu??, g??y ???n t?????ng vi???t ???u, sau khi xu???t b???n l???i thi???u s??? ph?? b??nh; m???t b???nh l???n n???a l?? vi???t qu?? d??i, v?? nhu???n b??t t??nh theo s??? ch???.

Vi???c M???c Ng??n ???????c gi???i Nobel kh??ng l??m thay ?????i c??ch ????nh gi?? VH????TQ. T??n Kinh B??o vi???t: Gi???i Nobel ch??? kh???ng ?????nh c?? nh??n M???c Ng??n ch??? kh??ng kh???ng ?????nh n???n VHTQ. Ph????ng Ch??u Th???y Th??? vi???t: Nobel V??n y??u c???u t??c gi??? ph???i c?? gi?? tr??? quan ?????c l???p, nh??ng trong m???t n?????c m?? nh?? v??n c?? th??? b??? b???t ??i th???m v???n th?? ??i???u ???? c??n c?? ?? ngh??a g??? T??o Tr?????ng Thanh, Ti??u ??ng, L?? Nhu?????? cho r???ng Kubin nh???n x??t ????ng v??? M???c Ng??n; n???u t??c ph???m c???a M???c kh??ng ???????c Goldblatt d???ch theo ki???u s??ng t???o nh?? v???y th?? ch??a ch???c M???c ???? ???????c gi???i Nobel. Nh?? v??n V????ng Qu?? Th??nh n??i: M???t Nobel V??n c???a M???c Ng??n kh??ng th??? thay ?????i ???????c s??? hoang vu y???u ??u???i v?? s??? ph???n r??c r?????i c???a sinh th??i VH????TQ; ch??? ????? nh?? n?????c nu??i nh?? v??n l?? m???t nguy??n nh??n l??m cho VH????TQ tr??? th??nh r??c r?????i.

Nh??ng b?? Thi???t Ng??ng Ch??? t???ch H???i Nh?? v??n TQ n??i: T??i e r???ng n?????c ta hi???n nay ch??a th??? b??? ???ch??? ????? nu??i nh?? v??n???; n?????c l???n th??? n??y, ch??nh ph??? c?? th??? b??? ti???n nu??i m???t b??? ph???n nh?? v??n ??u t??, n???u kh??ng nu??i n???i h??? th?? s??? l?? chuy???n bu???n.

Trong tranh c??i, ng?????i TQ hay vi???n d???n ?? ki???n c???a Kubin. Qua ????y c?? th??? th???y gi???i h???c gi??? TQ ?????u bi???t Kubin c?? nh???n ?????nh ????ng v??? VH????TQ, nh??ng trong c?? ch??? hi???n nay, nh?? v??n TQ kh??ng th??? tho??t ra kh???i nhi???u r??ng bu???c. Nh?? h??? ch??? ???????c ph??p c?? m???t t?? t?????ng l?? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n, h??? kh??ng th??? ph?? ph??n ch??nh quy???n b???i l??? h??? ???????c ch??nh quy???n tr??? l????ng ????? vi???t??? N???u h??? l??m kh??c th?? t??c ph???m s??? b??? c???m xu???t b???n. M???c Ng??n l?? ?????ng vi??n v?? Ph?? CT H???i Nh?? v??n TQ, do ???? c??ng kh??ng th??? c?? t?? t?????ng ri??ng; ??ng ph???i ch???n c??ch s??ng t??c k???t h???p ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c huy???n ???o v???i c??c c??u chuy???n d??n gian, l???ch s???, m?? kh??ng th??? d??ng ch??? ngh??a hi???n th???c ????ch th???c. V???i ch??? ????? ch??nh tr??? hi???n nay, TQ kh?? c?? th??? c?? nh???ng nh?? v??n th???c s??? n??i l??n ti???ng n??i c???a nh??n d??n.

Kh??ng ??t nh?? v??n TQ, k??? c??? ng?????i b??? ph?? b??nh ????ch danh, ?????u tr??nh b??nh lu???n l???i c???a Kubin, ho???c ch??? n??i qua loa. C?? l??? v?? h??? th???y Kubin ????ng, h??? bi???t ??ng nghi??n c???u VHTQ s??u s???c h??n m??nh. Qu??? th???t Kubin r???t nghi??m t??c, n??i c?? s??ch m??ch c?? ch???ng, kh??ng d??? th???a hi???p, lu??n ki??n ?????nh m???t nguy??n t???c kh?? b??c b??? : Nh?? v??n ch??n ch??nh th?? ch??? quan t??m ?????n th??? tr?????ng, t???c ch??? n??n s??ng t??c ch??? v?? ti???n. V???i nh???ng quan ??i???m s???t ???? c???a m??nh, Kubin nh?? m???t c??? xe t??ng ?????c c??? l??? l??? ti???n t???i, kh??ng ch??n b?????c b???t c??? s???c m???nh n??o.

????????????????????????

[1] VH????TQ ??? ????y l?? VHTQ sau n??m 1949.

[2] Wolfgang Kubin : nh?? v??n, nh?? th??, nh?? d???ch thu???t, h???i vi??n H???i D???ch gi??? ?????c v?? H???i Nh?? v??n ?????c, GS Ch??? nhi???m Khoa H??n h???c ??H Bonn. Sinh 1945, t??? 1966 h???c Th???n h???c t???i ??H M??nster. 1968 h???c Nh???t h???c (Japanology) v?? C??? v??n TQ t???i ??H Vienna. 1969-73 h???c H??n h???c (Sinology), tri???t h???c, VH ?????c t???i ??H Ruhr Bochum. L??m lu???n ??n ti???n s?? (1973) v??? th?? tr??? t??nh c???a ????? M???c. 1974-75 h???c H??n ng??? ??? ??H Ng??n ng??? B???c Kinh. 1981 b???o v??? lu???n ??n t?? c??ch GS, ????? t??i Kh??ng S??n ??? quan ??i???m t??? nhi??n c???a v??n nh??n TQ . Bi???t ti???ng Latin, Ph??p, Anh, Trung. Vi???t v??n, th?? b???ng ti???ng ?????c, TQ, Anh. ???? vi???t ho???c d???ch h??n 50 t??c ph???m VH. D???ch Lu???n ng???, L??o T???, M???nh T???, Trang T??????, d???ch th?? c???a h??n 50 nh?? th?? TQ nh?? L?? B???ch, ????? Ph???, B???c ?????o, C??? Th??nh,??? D???ch Tuy???n t???p L??? T???n 6 t???p, vi???t Di???n bi???n quan ??i???m t??? nhi??n trong VHTQ, L???ch s??? thi ca c??? ??i???n TQ, v?? L???ch s??? VHTQ th??? k??? XX (10 t???p) ??? b???n d???ch ti???ng TQ s??ch n??y khi xu???t b???n ??? TQ ???? g??y ph???n ???ng kh??ng nh???. ???????c t???ng nhi???u gi???i th?????ng v??n h???c trong, ngo??i n?????c, nh?? gi???i Johann-Heinrich-Vo??-Preis l?? gi???i th?????ng d???ch thu???t cao nh???t n?????c ?????c. V??? ng?????i Hoa.

[3] T??c gi??? l?? Kh????ng Nhung (b??t danh), h???u nh?? ch??a h??? xu???t hi???n c??ng khai, tuy c?? v??? l?? Ph?? CT H???i Nh?? v??n TQ (b?? Tr????ng Kh??ng Kh??ng). C?? ng?????i n??i Kh????ng ????? cao b???n t??nh lo??i s??i l?? tr??i v???i quan ??i???m truy???n th???ng ??? TQ cho r???ng ???d??n t???c H??n xu???t th??n l??m n??ng nghi???p, b???n t??nh hi???n l??nh, x??a nay ch??a t???ng x??m l?????c n?????c ngo??i???.

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