V??? v??? m??y bay qu??n s??? Trung Qu???c b??? tr???n sang Li??n X??

Thứ hai - 09/09/2019 09:19
Chi???u ng??y 25/8/1990, khi t??i ??ang tr???c t???i Ban Ch??nh tr??? b??? ?????i kh??ng qu??n qu??n khu ????ng B???c th?? b???ng nh???n ???????c th??ng b??o ??i???n tho???i c???a S??? Ch??? huy cho bi???t m???t chi???c m??y bay J-6 c???a ?????i bay thu???c trung ??o??n kh??ng qu??n t???nh H???c Long Giang m???t t??ch kh??ng l??u sau khi c???t c??nh v??o l??c kho???ng 12 gi??? tr??a. Ng?????i l??i m??y bay l?? V????ng B???o Ng???c (Wang Baoyu).
V??? v??? m??y bay qu??n s??? Trung Qu???c b??? tr???n sang Li??n X??

V??? v??? m??y bay qu??n s??? Trung Qu???c b??? tr???n sang Li??n X??

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Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

T?????ng thu???t c???a s?? quan tr???c ban

Chi???u ng??y 25/8/1990, khi t??i ??ang tr???c t???i Ban Ch??nh tr??? b??? ?????i kh??ng qu??n qu??n khu ????ng B???c th?? b???ng nh???n ???????c th??ng b??o ??i???n tho???i c???a S??? Ch??? huy cho bi???t m???t chi???c m??y bay J-6 c???a ?????i bay thu???c trung ??o??n kh??ng qu??n t???nh H???c Long Giang m???t t??ch kh??ng l??u sau khi c???t c??nh v??o l??c kho???ng 12 gi??? tr??a. Ng?????i l??i m??y bay l?? V????ng B???o Ng???c (Wang Baoyu). Qua r?? so??t tr??n b???u tr???i ch??a ph??t hi???n b???t c??? d???u v???t n??o, d?? l?? m??y bay hay phi c??ng ?????u kh??ng bi???t k???t c???c ra sao, hi???n ??ang m??? r???ng ph???m vi t??m ki???m. ????? ngh??? c??c ?????i ?????i kh??ng qu??n ch?? ?? h?????ng ph??t tri???n c???a v??? m???t t??ch n??y, c?? tin g?? l???p t???c b??o ngay l??n c???p tr??n.

L??c ???y t??i ??o??n kh??? n??ng l???n nh???t l?? x???y ra tai n???n m??y bay, b???i l??? h??m ???y ?????i bay n??y ti???n h??nh t???p bay t???m th???p k??? thu???t ?????c bi???t, l?? m???t b??i t???p kh?? v?? ????? r???i ro l???n, c??ng hay x???y ra tr???c tr???c, n???u kh??ng c???n th???n c?? th??? x???y ra tai n???n.

Khi t??i b??o c??o l???i tin n??i tr??n cho th??? tr?????ng Ban Ch??nh tr???, ph???n ???ng ?????u ti??n c???a th??? tr?????ng l?? e r???ng tuy???n ph??ng th??? tr??n b???u tr???i c?? v???n ????? g?? ????; ??ng ????? ngh??? t??i l???p t???c b??o cho Ph??ng B???o v??? n???m ch???c t??nh h??nh tuy???n ph??ng th???, ?????ng th???i xem x??t l???i h??? s?? l?? l???ch phi c??ng v?? l??m t???t vi???c chu???n b??? ???ng ph??.

An to??n tuy???n ph??ng th??? b???u tr???i l?? v???n ????? r???t nh???y c???m, ch???ng ai mu???n ?????ng ch???m nh??ng l???i kh??ng th??? n?? tr??nh. Gi??? thi???t phi c??ng l??i m??y bay b??? tr???n c?? v??? kh??ng h???p l??, v?? hi???n nay c??c qu???c gia xung quanh Trung Qu???c ?????u kh??ng c?? ??i???u ki???n ????? phi c??ng l??m vi???c n??y. Qu???c gia g???n Trung Qu???c nh???t c?? Tri???u Ti??n v?? H??n Qu???c. Tri???u Ti??n l?? n?????c b???n h???u h???o, d?? tr???n sang ?????y th?? c??ng c?? th??? d???n ????? v??? Trung Qu???c. H??n Qu???c h???i ???y tuy ch??a l???p quan h??? ngo???i giao v???i Trung Qu???c nh??ng c??ng ??ang x??c ti???n vi???c n??y. Tr?????c ????y t???ng x???y ra chuy???n ng?????i Trung Qu???c v?????t bi???n tr???n sang H??n Qu???c, sau khi hai b??n b??n b???c cu???i c??ng c??ng gi???i quy???t ???n th???a. Nh?? v???y con ???????ng tr???n sang H??n Qu???c coi nh?? ???? b??? b???t k??n. C??n n??i t???i chuy???n tr???n sang ????i Loan th?? m??y bay J-6 kh??ng ????? l?????ng x??ng ????? bay xa th???.

Nh?? v???y h?????ng cu???i c??ng l?? Li??n X??, n?????c ??? ph??a B???c Trung Qu???c. Nh??ng t??? th??ng 5/1989, sau khi T???ng B?? th??? ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? Gorbachev th??m B???c Kinh, Trung Qu???c v?? Li??n X?? ???? th???c hi???n b??nh th?????ng h??a quan h??? ngo???i giao. Ai c?? ch??t ?????u ??c ch??nh tr??? ?????u hi???u r???ng Li??n X?? ch???ng d???i g?? coi vi???c b??nh th?????ng h??a quan h??? ngo???i giao r???t kh?? kh??n ???y l?? tr?? tr??? con, ????nh ?????ng gi?? tr??? m???t phi c??ng b??nh th?????ng ngang v???i l???i ??ch qu???c gia m??nh. B???i v???y ph???n l???n m???i ng?????i trong c?? quan t??i ?????u cho r???ng kh??? n??ng V????ng B???o Ng???c b??? tr???n l?? r???t th???p, ch??? c?? th??? x???y ra tai n???n g?? ???? th??i.

Th??? nh??ng s??? vi???c ???kh??ng th?????? ???y l???i ???? x???y ra. Ngay t???i h??m ????, Th??ng t???n x?? TASS ph??t ??i b???n tin n??i v??o 12 gi??? 45 ph??t chi???u h??m nay, m???t chi???c m??y bay qu??n s??? Trung Qu???c ???? h??? c??nh xu???ng s??n bay qu??n s??? Knevchev ??? g???n Vladivostok, phi c??ng y??u c???u ???????c sang M??? t??? n???n ch??nh tr???.

L??c b???y gi??? ch??ng t??i m???i ng?? ng?????i x??c nh???n vi???c V????ng B???o Ng???c b??? tr???n l?? s??? th???c. C?? quan Kh??ng qu??n Qu??n khu l???p t???c kh???i ?????ng d??? ??n ?????i ph?? t??nh h??nh kh???n c???p. M???t m???t b??o c??o ngay l??n c???p tr??n s??? ki???n ch??nh tr??? nghi??m tr???ng n??y; m???t m???t Kh??ng qu??n Qu??n khu th??nh l???p Nh??m c??ng t??c t???i ngay ????n v??? c?? V????ng B???o Ng???c ????? ??i???u tra gi???i quy???t v???n ?????.

M???t v??? ???h??? c??nh tr??n Qu???ng tr?????ng ???????? n???a ch??ng?

Sau khi x???y ra v??? ????o t???u n??i tr??n, m???i ng?????i b???t gi??c ngh?? ngay t???i s??? ki???n m??y bay n?????c ngo??i h??? c??nh tr??n Qu???ng tr?????ng ????? ??? Moskva ng??y 28/5/1987.

T???i h??m ???y m???t thanh ni??n T??y ?????c m???i 19 tu???i t??n l?? Mathias Rust l??i chi???c m??y bay th??? thao h???ng nh??? ki???u Cessna 172B Skyhawk v?????t qua h??? th???ng ph??ng kh??ng c???a Li??n X?? ???????c coi l?? t???t nh???t th??? gi???i, h??? c??nh nh?? m???t tr?? ????a ngay tr??n Qu???ng tr?????ng ?????, l??m cho ch??nh quy???n Li??n X?? s???ng s???t, l??ng t??ng v?? t???c gi???n.

Theo ????nh gi?? c???a M???, Li??n X?? h???i ???y c?? 14 ngh??n b??? ph??ng t??n l???a ph??ng kh??ng, 10 ngh??n gi??n ra-??a ph??ng kh??ng v?? 2.100 m??y bay ti??m k??ch s???n s??ng c???t c??nh b???t c??? l??c n??o. ?????c bi???t h??? th???ng ph??ng kh??ng xung quanh th??? ???? Moskva l???i c??ng k??n k??? h??n b???t c??? ??? ????u, m???t gi???t n?????c c??ng kh??ng th??? l???t v??o ????y, c?? th??? ng??n ch???n ???????c m???i v??? t???n c??ng h???t nh??n.

Th??ng 5/1960 m???t chi???c m??y bay trinh s??t tr??n cao ki???u U-2 c???a M??? khi bay v??o b???u tr???i Li??n X?? t???ng b??? t??n l???a Li??n X?? b???n h???. Th??ng 8/1983 m???t m??y bay h??ng kh??ng d??n d???ng H??n Qu???c ki???u Boeing-747 bay ch???ch ???????ng v??o kh??ng ph???n Li??n X?? li???n b??? m??y bay chi???n ?????u Li??n X?? ph??ng t??n l???a b???n r??i.

Th??? m?? l???n n??y m???t tay l??i m??y bay kh??ng chuy??n m???i c?? l?? l???ch 40 gi??? bay l???i d??? d??ng ch???c th???ng l?????i ph??ng kh??ng ch???t ch??? nh???t th??? gi???i c???a Li??n X?? b??nh y??n v?? s??? h??? c??nh gi???a tr??i tim th??? ???? Li??n X?? ??? ??i???u ???? kh??ng th??? kh??ng l??m c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? to??t m??? h??i. M???t nh?? b??nh lu???n qu??n s??? ph????ng T??y n??i: ???Ch??a t???ng c?? s??? vi???c n??o l??m cho ch??nh quy???n Li??n X?? b??? m???t nh?? v??? m??y bay h??? c??nh t???i Qu???ng tr?????ng ????? n??y.???

Ng??y 30/5, B??? Ch??nh tr??? ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X?? h???p kh???n c???p, ra quy???t ngh??? c??ch ch???c Th??? tr?????ng B??? Qu???c ph??ng ki??m T?? l???nh l???c l?????ng ph??ng kh??ng kh??ng qu??n Li??n X?? Aleksandr Koldunov; B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng, nguy??n so??i Sergey Sokolov 75 tu???i c??ng b??? cho v??? h??u. T??? sau Th??? chi???n II, nh???ng quy???t ?????nh nh?? v???y c???c k??? hi???m khi x???y ra t???i Li??n X??. Sau ???? kho???ng h??n 300 s?? quan b??? ?????i ph??ng kh??ng b??? b??i ch???c; m???t s??? ng?????i c??n b??? b???t giam.

C??ng ng??y, ng?????i ph??t ng??n B??? Ngo???i giao Li??n X?? n??i Mathias Rust ???? x??m ph???m b???u tr???i Li??n X?? v?? do ???? b??? b???t giam ????? x??t x???. H??m sau Gi??m ?????c H??ng Th??ng t???n TASS n??i s??? ki???n Qu???ng tr?????ng ????? kh??ng ???nh h?????ng t???i m???i quan h??? Li??n X?? v???i CHLB ?????c, v?? n??i: ???N??n c???m ??n Mathias Rust ???? nh???c nh??? ch??ng t??i ch?? ?? t???i c??c l??? h???ng trong h??? th???ng ph??ng kh??ng???.

L???n n??y phi c??ng Trung Qu???c V????ng B???o Ng???c l??i m??y bay tr???n sang Li??n X?? ch???c h???n s??? l??m th??? gi???i ng???c nhi??n.

H??m 25/8/1990, V????ng B???o Ng???c l??i m??y bay c???t c??nh b??nh th?????ng, ti???n h??nh t???p bay k??? x???o ??? ????? cao th???p. Sau khi t???i t???a ????? quy ?????nh, anh ta ngo???t sang b??n ph???i, bay v???i ????? cao 100 m??t ???????c m???t th???i gian th?? v?????t bi??n gi???i. Tho???t ti??n V????ng ?????nh bay th???ng t???i s??n bay Ugrov c???a Li??n X?? nh??ng khi ?????n n??i m???i ph??t hi???n s??n bay ??ang s???a ch???a n??n kh??ng th??? h??? c??nh. V????ng bay ti???p ?????n s??n bay qu??n s??? Knevchev. Do bay c???c th???p n??n r???t t???n x??ng, khi ?????n s??n bay n??y th?? th???y x??ng ???? s???p c???n. May sao ????y l?? s??n bay c???a m??y bay n??m bom, ???????ng b??ng v???a r???ng v???a d??i, V????ng li???n cho m??y bay h??? c??nh, l??c ???y l?? 12 gi??? 45. H??? c??nh xong, V????ng l??i m??y bay ra kh???i ???????ng b??ng ngo???t v??o b??i ????? m??y bay, t???t m??y r???i m?? v???n ch??a th???y ph??a Li??n X?? ????? ?? ?????n m??nh. V?? kh??ng c?? thang n??n V????ng kh??ng th??? xu???ng ?????t, ????nh m??? n???p c???a m??y bay ????? th??ng gi??. L??c n??y V????ng m???i th???y b??? ????? bay ?????t ?????m m??? h??i.

Kho???ng 10 ph??t sau th?? th???y m???t binh s?? Li??n X?? ti???n l???i, V????ng b??n gi?? tay v???y, l??c n??y ph??a Li??n X?? m???i ch?? ?? t???i chi???c m??y bay l??? n??y. Ng?????i l??nh kia li???n quay l???i, ch???c l?? v??? b??o c??o c???p tr??n. L??t sau, m???t chi???c ?? t?? ch???y ?????n. M???t s?? quan v?? m???y binh s?? xu???ng xe. Khi x??c nh???n ????y l?? m??y bay Trung Qu???c, h??? h???t s???c ng???c nhi??n, tr??? m???t nh?? mu???n h???i: ???Sao anh l???i c?? th??? bay t??? Trung Qu???c t???i ????y ???????c th???????.

R???i h??? l???p c???u thang, gi??p V????ng B???o Ng???c ra kh???i m??y bay. Khi c?? phi??n d???ch ?????n, h??? bi???t ???????c ?? ?????nh c???a V????ng B???o Ng???c v?? th???y ????y l?? chuy???n l???n, b??n l???p t???c b??o c??o c???p tr??n. Vi??n s?? quan c?????i g?????ng g???o n??i: ???Vi???c anh ?????n ????y s??? tr??? th??nh m???t v??? h??? c??nh tr??n Qu???ng tr?????ng ?????. S??? c?? kh??ng ??t s?? quan ch??ng t??i b??? m???t ch???c v?? anh ?????y!???

S??? ki???n V????ng B???o Ng???c h??? c??nh tr??n s??n bay Li??n X?? ???? g??y ra s??? kinh ho??ng v?? t??c ?????ng l???n v?????t xa v??? Mathias Rust h??? c??nh tr??n Qu???ng tr?????ng ?????. ???? l?? v?? n??m x??a khi Mathias Rust bay v??o kh??ng ph???n Li??n X?? ???? b??? b??? ?????i ph??ng kh??ng Li??n X?? ph??t hi???n v?? c?? ph???n ???ng ngay, c??n l???n n??y kh??c h???n, t??nh ch???t nghi??m tr???ng th??? hi???n ??? ch??? m???t chi???c m??y bay chi???n ?????u Trung Qu???c d??? d??ng h??? c??nh xu???ng s??n bay c???a Li??n X?? m?? h??? th???ng ph??ng kh??ng c???a Li??n X?? kh??ng c?? b???t c??? ph???n ???ng n??o c???. ?????ng th???i v??? n??y c??n cho th???y phi c??ng qu??n s??? Trung Qu???c c?? k??? thu???t bay r???t cao si??u. S??? ki???n ng??y 25/8/1990 ????? ch???ng minh ???C??c l??? h???ng trong h??? th???ng ph??ng kh??ng c???a Li??n X????? ch???ng nh???ng ch??a ???????c l???p k??n m?? ????ng l?? c??n l???n h??n tr?????c. Do v??? vi???c n??y m?? m???t lo???t t?????ng l??nh c???p cao c???a Li??n X?? v?? m???t s??? s?? quan c?? tr??ch nhi???m tr???c ti???p ???? b??? c??ch ch???c.

Trong th???i gian d??i tr?????c khi ????o t???u, V????ng B???o Ng???c gi??? v??? t??? ra ti???n b??? trong c??ng t??c v?? h???c t???p, th???c ra V????ng ???? b?? m???t chu???n b??? m???i vi???c cho ng??y tr???n ch???y. L???i d???ng c??c d???p hu???n luy???n v?? di???n t???p, V????ng thu th???p, ghi nh???, nghi??n c???u k??? s??? li???u v?? ???????ng bay t???i s??n bay c???a c??c n?????c xung quanh Trung Qu???c.

Ng??y 25 th??ng 8, cu???i c??ng V????ng B???o Ng???c ???? c?? d???p l???i d???ng chuy???n bay hu???n luy???n ????? th???c hi???n nguy???n v???ng c???a m??nh. L??c n??y V????ng ???? h??? quy???t t??m ch???y sang th??? gi???i ???t??? do??? c???a ph????ng T??y. Tr?????c khi l??n m??y bay, V????ng t???ng chi???c ?????ng h??? ??eo tay c???a m??nh cho ng?????i ?????ng ?????i giao m??y bay l???i cho m??nh. Anh n??y l?? b???n h???c c???a V????ng ??? tr?????ng h??ng kh??ng. Sau ???? V????ng l??n m??y bay, c???t c??nh b??nh th?????ng. Sau khi ?????n v??ng tr???i d??? ?????nh, V????ng ?????t nhi??n chuy???n h?????ng bay, t??ch kh???i bi??n ?????i, h??? xu???ng ????? cao c???c th???p bay th???ng v??? ph??a Vladivostok.

D???n ????? v?? ra t??a

H???i ???y, v?? Trung Qu???c v?? Li??n X?? ???? ph???c h???i quan h??? ngo???i giao b??nh th?????ng, cho n??n sau khi x???y ra v??? V????ng B???o Ng???c l??i m??y bay b??? tr???n sang Li??n X??, hai n?????c li???n l???p t???c kh???i ?????ng tr??nh t??? ti???p x??c ngo???i giao nh???m gi???i quy???t th???a ????ng s???m nh???t v??? r???c r???i n??y b???ng con ???????ng ngo???i giao.

Ng??y 26 th??ng 8, B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao Trung Qu???c Ti???n K??? Tham v?? ng?????i c??ng c???p ph??a Li??n X?? l?? Sevarnatdze ?????n Kh??c-bin (thu???c Trung Qu???c) g???p nhau b??n b???c kh???n c???p. H???i ???y Li??n X?? ??ang b???c thi???t mong mu???n c???i thi???n quan h??? v???i Trung Qu???c, v?? th??? h??? mu???n s??? d???ng v??? n??y ????? th??? hi???n nguy???n v???ng ????.

Qua b??n b???c, hai b??n nh???t tr?? quy???t ?????nh x??? l?? v??? n??y m???t c??ch nh??? nh??ng. Ph??a Li??n X?? t??ch c???c ???ng h??? v?? ph???i h???p gi???i quy???t v???n ????? do Trung Qu???c n??u ra l?? d???n ????? ng?????i l??i m??y bay v??? Trung Qu???c. Hai b??n ?????t ???????c th???a thu???n v??? vi???c n??y. Theo v??n b???n th???a thu???n ????, ph??a Trung Qu???c s??? cho m???t chi???c TU-154 sang s??n bay Knevchev d???n ????? V????ng B???o Ng???c v??? Trung Qu???c v?? ????a chi???c m??y bay J-6 (do V????ng l??i sang Li??n X??) v??? n?????c.

Tuy th???, tr??n c??c chi ti???t c??? th??? v???n c?? m???t s??? r???c r???i. Ph??a Li??n X?? cho r???ng v?? V????ng B???o Ng???c ???? n??u y??u c???u t??? n???n ch??nh tr???, cho n??n v???n ????? an to??n c???a V????ng tr?????c khi d???n ????? s??? do ph??a Li??n X?? ph??? tr??ch, ?????ng th???i kh??ng ???????c ????? cho V????ng B???o Ng???c bi???t ch??t n??o v??? vi???c s??? b??? d???n ????? v??? Trung Qu???c. Ngo??i ra ph??a Trung Qu???c kh??ng ???????c b???t gi??? V????ng khi c??n ??? tr??n l??nh th??? Li??n X??.

Hai b??n th???a thu???n ranh gi???i ch??nh th???c b??n giao ng?????i l?? c???a khoang chi???c m??y bay TU-154 c???a Trung Qu???c; m???i vi???c b??n ngo??i c???a m??y bay n??y do ph??a Li??n X?? ph??? tr??ch, m???i vi???c b??n trong c???a m??y bay kh??ng li??n quan g?? t???i ph??a Li??n X??.

????? b???o ?????m vi???c b??n giao d???n ????? ???????c thu???n l???i, ph??a Li??n X?? s??? n??i v???i V????ng B???o Ng???c l?? c??c c?? quan h???u tr??ch c???a qu??n ?????i Li??n X?? ??ang nghi??n c???u c??ch gi???i quy???t y??u c???u c???a V????ng xin t??? n???n ch??nh tr??? ??? M???; x??t t???i t?? c??ch ?????c bi???t c???a V????ng th?? kh??ng ???????c gi??? V????ng ??? l???i c??n c??? qu??n s??? n??y; ????? b???o ?????m an to??n, quy???t ?????nh ????a V????ng t???i m???t ?????a ??i???m kh??c ch??? gi???i quy???t. Do nguy??n nh??n b???o m???t, trong qu?? tr??nh di chuy???n, V????ng c???n ???????c b???t m???t. Nghe n??i v???y, V????ng B???o Ng???c vui v??? ?????ng ??.

Ri???ng v??? chi???c m??y bay J-6, v?? V????ng B???o Ng???c h??? c??nh m???t c??ch c?????ng ??p n??n th??n m??y bay b??? x?????c nh???, hai t???m c??nh gi???m t???c kh??ng tr??? v??? v??? tr?? c?? ???????c, nh??ng s??n bay n??y l?? s??n bay c???a m??y bay n??m bom, kh??ng c?? c?? s??? s???a ch???a m??y bay. Ph??a Li??n X?? ???? c??? g???ng gi??p s???a ch???a ngay tr??n ???????ng b??ng kh??ng c?? m??i che m?? kh??ng l???y ti???n c??ng. Tuy th??? cu???i c??ng v???n kh??ng th??? n??o l??m cho hai t???m c??nh gi???m t???c tr??? v??? v??? tr?? c??. Ph??a Trung Qu???c cho r???ng d?? th??? n??o c??ng kh??ng th??? ????? m??y bay c???a m??nh l??u l???i tr??n ?????t Li??n X??.

R???t cu???c m???t trung ??o??n ph?? kh??ng qu??n Trung Qu???c qu??? c???m quy???t ?????nh t??? l??i chi???c m??y bay J-6 c?? hai c??nh gi???m t???c m??? n??y v??? Trung Qu???c. Cho d?? gi??? th??? bay kh??ng t???i ???????c n??i c???n t???i m?? b???t ?????c d?? ph???i b??? m??y bay r??i tr??n ?????t Trung Qu???c c??ng ???????c ch??? nh???t thi???t kh??ng ???????c ????? l???i tr??n ?????t Li??n X??. V?? ????y l?? chuy???n li??n quan t???i s??? t??n nghi??m c???a kh??ng qu??n Trung Qu???c, nh???t l?? s??? t??n nghi??m c???a m???t qu???c gia c?? ch??? quy???n.

R???t cu???c, v???i tay l??i ??i???u ngh??? v?? ?? ch?? qu??? c???m, v??? trung ??o??n ph?? n??y ???? l??i chi???c m??y bay tr???c tr???c ???y v??? t???i Trung Qu???c.

Ri??ng v??? V????ng B???o Ng???c, sau khi d???n ????? v??? n?????c li???n l???p t???c b??? khai tr??? ?????ng t???ch, qu??n t???ch. Sau ???? t??a ??n binh kh??ng qu??n x??t x???, kh??p V????ng v??o ??n t??? h??nh v?? t???i ph???n b???i t??? qu???c, ???????c ho??n hai n??m thi h??nh ??n, t?????c ??o???t quy???n l???i ch??nh tr??? su???t ?????i.

??t l??u sau, b??? ?????i kh??ng qu??n Trung Qu???c ???? th??ng qua v??? vi???c n??i tr??n ti???n h??nh m???t ?????t gi??o d???c to??n qu??n, ?????ng th???i ?????t ra m???t lo???t quy ch??? li??n quan, t??? ???? tr??? ??i ???? ch???n ?????ng kh??? n??ng x???y ra v??? vi???c t????ng t???. B???i th???, c?? th??? coi v??? V????ng B???o Ng???c l?? v??? l??i m??y bay ????o t???u cu???i c??ng trong l???ch s??? n?????c CHND Trung Hoa.

Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh d???ch theo t??i li???u Trung Qu???c
 

C??u chuy???n v??? nh???ng ph??? n??? chi???n ?????u cho H?? N???i

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Ngu???n: Elizabeth D. Herman, ???The Women Who Fought for Hanoi???, The New York Times, 06/06/2017.

Bi??n d???ch: Minh Ch??u | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Ba m????i s??u n??m sau l???n cu???i c??ng nh???m b???n v???i kh???u AK-47, ??i???n tho???i c???a b?? Ng?? Th??? Th????ng ????? chu??ng.

?????i t?????ng V?? Nguy??n Gi??p, t???ng t?? l???nh qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam trong su???t cu???c chi???n tranh, ???? t??m ki???m ng?????i ph??? n??? Vi???t Nam ???? b???n h??? m???t m??y bay n??m bom c???a M??? v??o th??ng 6 n??m 1968. G???n b???n th???p ni??n tr??i qua, ng?????i ph??? n??? ???y ???? tr???i qua bi???t bao c??ng vi???c v?? nu??i ba ?????a con kh??n l???n. Ch??? c?? m???t s??? ng?????i b??n ngo??i gia ????nh t???ng ???????c nghe nh???ng c??u chuy???n th???i chi???n c???a b??.

Nh???ng n??? anh h??ng hay nh???ng n??? chi???n binh kh??ng ph???i l?? m???i ??? Vi???t Nam ??? h??? ???? l?? nh???ng nh??n v???t quan tr???ng c???a l???ch s??? Vi???t Nam t??? h??ng ngh??n n??m nay. V??o th??? k??? I sau C??ng nguy??n, Hai B?? Tr??ng, th?????ng ???????c coi l?? nh???ng nh?? y??u n?????c ?????u ti??n c???a Vi???t Nam, ???? l??nh ?????o m???t cu???c n???i d???y k??o d??i ba n??m nh???m ch???ng l???i nh?? H??n c???a Trung Qu???c v???n ??ang tr??? v?? ?????t n?????c c???a h???. Di s???n c???a c??c v??? n??? anh h??ng v???n c??n t???n t???i ?????n t???n k??? nguy??n hi???n ?????i; trong t???t c??? nh???ng cu???c xung ?????t hi???n ?????i c???a Vi???t Nam, ph??? n??? lu??n ????ng m???t vai tr?? quan tr???ng. H??? chi???n ?????u b??n c???nh nh???ng ng?????i ????n ??ng v?? v???n chuy???n h??ng ti???p t??? d???c ???????ng m??n H??? Ch?? Minh.

Tuy nhi??n, nh?? nh?? s??? h???c Karen G. Turner vi???t trong cu???n ???Even the Women Must Fight???: ???Nh???ng chi???n binh n??? l?? c???t l??i ?????i v???i l???ch s??? l??u d??i c???a Vi???t Nam v?? l?? ph???n quan tr???ng trong cu???c chi???n tranh ???????c ghi l???i b???ng h??nh ???nh nhi???u nh???t trong l???ch s???, nh??ng h??? v???n v?? h??nh.???

D?????i ????y l?? c??u chuy???n c???a nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? t???ng l?? nh???ng ng?????i l??nh chi???n ?????u cho Qu??n ?????i B???c Vi???t Nam trong chi???n tranh ch???ng M???. H???u h???t trong s??? h??? c??n r???t tr??? khi tham gia qu??n ng?? ??? ch??? ??? ????? tu???i thanh thi???u ni??n hay v???a ra tr?????ng, ho???c qu?? ngh??o kh??ng th??? ??i h???c. M???t v??i ng?????i ???? ch???ng ki???n chi???n tranh nh??ng kh??ng h??? t?????ng t?????ng ???????c tr???i nghi???m th???c t??? l???n n??y s??? nh?? th??? n??o. V??i ng?????i ???? l?? m??? c???a nh???ng ?????a tr??? tr?????c khi chi???n ?????u, trong khi nhi???u ng?????i kh??c ?????n t???n khi v??? nh?? sau chi???n tranh m???i l???p gia ????nh.

Nh???ng tr???i nghi???m c???a h??? ???? ?????nh h??nh n??n ph???n c??n l???i c???a cu???c ?????i h??? v?? con ch??u h??? ??? nh???ng ?????a tr??? ???????c ch??m s??c v?? nu??i d?????ng tr??? th??nh th??? h??? ng?????i Vi???t Nam k??? ti???p, nh???ng ng?????i gi??p t???o n??n b??? m???t ?????t n?????c nh???ng n??m sau chi???n tranh. Ch??nh qua nh???ng c??u chuy???n c???a nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? n??y, ch??ng ta c?? th??? hi???u ???????c l??m th??? n??o m???t qu???c gia b??? t??n ph?? v?? xung ?????t trong nhi???u th???p ni??n ???? x??y d???ng l???i ch??nh m??nh, hay m???t c??i nh??n tho??ng qua v??? nh???ng k?? ???c c???a nh???ng ng?????i ???? t???ng c???ng hi???n ????? nu??i d?????ng ?????t n?????c n??y ??? v?? b???n th??n h??? ??? ????? c??? g???ng ???????c tr??? n??n tr???n v???n m???t l???n n???a.

L?? Th??? M??? L???

T??i ???????c sinh ra n??m 1946, b??n d??ng s??ng Nh???t L???, c??ch Hu??? 150km. ???? l?? l?? do v?? sao t??i t??n l?? M??? L???. N?? c?? ngh??a l?? ???Xinh ?????p???.

Th??ng 7 n??m 1965, t??i nghe theo l???i k??u g???i c???a Ch??nh ph??? c???n th??m thanh ni??n xung phong v?? chi???n tranh ng??y c??ng kh???c li???t. T??i r???t mu???n l??m thanh ni??n xung phong n??n ????ng k??. H??? ???? nh???n d?? t??i c??n tr???.

?????i ?????i thanh ni??n xung phong c???a t??i c?? kho???ng 200 ng?????i, 2/3 trong s??? ???? l?? n???. T??i ph??? tr??ch m???t ????n v??? 10 ng?????i, ch??? c?? t??i l?? n???. Khi M??? ng???ng n??m bom mi???n B???c n??m 1968, t??i ???? l???p gia ????nh. Sau ????, t??i quay l???i chi???n tr?????ng.

T??i sinh con g??i ?????u l??ng n??m 1971. C?? con th???i chi???n r???t v???t v??? ??? c???m x??c c???a t??i sau khi c?? con c??ng c?? nhi???u thay ?????i. Tr?????c khi l??m m???, t??i kh??ng s??? g?? nh??ng khi c?? con, t??i s??? ch???t. T??i c?? th??m hai ch??u: m???t ch??u trai n??m 1973 v?? m???t ch??u n???a n??m 1975. Khi sinh ?????a ??t, t??i n??i v???i ch???ng, ???Chi???n tranh gi??? ???? k???t th??c r???i, m??nh ???, n??n anh s??? kh??ng ph???i hi sinh n???a???, v?? t??i ?????t t??n con l?? ?????i Th???ng. Ch???ng t??i l?? s?? quan chuy??n nghi???p n??n ????ng qu??n ??? ?????o C???n C??? sau chi???n tranh v?? s???ng xa nh?? ?????n khi ngh??? h??u v??o n??m 1988.

Nu??i con m???t m??nh th???c s??? r???t c???c v?? t??i kh??ng th??? di???n t??? th??nh l???i r???ng vi???c ???? kh?? nh?? th??? n??o. Khi ra tr???n, ai c??ng g???p nguy hi???m v?? c?? th??? hi sinh b???t c??? l??c n??o. Nh??ng nu??i con m???t m??nh c??n kh?? h??n. ????i khi t??i ch??? bi???t ng???i kh??c. Th???nh tho???ng t??i v???n n???m m?? v??? chi???n tranh. T??i m?? th???y bom n??? v?? ra l???nh cho ?????ng ?????i n???m xu???ng. T??i m?? th???y nhi???u th???, th???y 8/10 ng?????i trong ????n v??? b??? th????ng ho???c ch???t ngay l???p t???c. Chi???n tranh th???t t??n nh???n. Khi c?? chi???n tranh, m???i ng?????i v?? gia ????nh b??? ly t??n ??? gi???a ch???ng v??  v???, gi???a b??? m??? v?? con c??i. T??i ?????c sao kh??ng c?? chi???n tranh tr??n th??? gi???i, ch??ng ta c?? th??? gi??p nhau thay v?? ????nh nhau. ???? l?? th??ng ??i???p c???a t??i. T??i mu???n h??a b??nh.

Nguy???n Th??? Hoa

Chi???n tranh th???t kh???ng khi???p ??? ?????c bi???t l?? b???i s??? t??n ??c c???a l??nh M???. Ch???ng h???n, m???t l???n l??nh M??? v??o l??ng v?? th???y m???t ph??? n??? c?? b???u m?? h??? cho r???ng c?? quan h??? v???i b??? ?????i, ch??ng ????? x?? ph??ng v?? t????ng ???t v??o mi???ng c?? ???y, r???i ?????ng l??n b???ng c?? ???y cho ?????n khi ?????a b?? tu???t ra.

Khi ???? t??i m???i 15 tu???i. T??i bi???t ng?????i ph??? n??? v?? ?????a b?? trong b???ng c?? ???y ch???ng li??n quan g?? ?????n chi???n tranh. Khi t??i nghe chuy???n v?? t???n m???t ch???ng ki???n s??? t??n ??c c???a l??nh M???, t??i c??m th?? ch??ng. V?? t??i ?????c th??n v?? m???i 15 tu???i, t??i ngh??: ???N???u t??i hi sinh, n???u t??i ch???t, th?? ??i???u ???? c??n d??? d??ng h??n so v???i vi???c k???t h??n v?? c?? con???. V?? v???y, t??i v??o b??? ?????i.

S??? hi sinh c???a m???t ng?????i ph??? n??? ch??? gi???ng nh?? m???t h???t c??t. Nh??ng nhi???u ph??? n???, nhi???u h???t c??t, c?? th??? g??p r???t nhi???u v?? nh???ng ????ng g??p ???? c?? th??? gi??p T??? qu???c. Theo truy???n th???ng v??n h??a Vi???t Nam, ph??? n??? t???i gia t??ng ph???, xu???t gi?? t??ng phu, phu t??? t??ng t???. Th???m ch??, sau khi k???t h??n, d?? nh?? ch???ng n??i g?? h??? c??ng ph???i nghe theo, m???c d?? ????i khi h??? b??? ?????i x??? t??n t??? v?? b??? ????nh. L?? ph??? n???, ngh??a l?? ho??n to??n ph??? thu???c v??o nh???ng ng?????i kh??c.

T??? khi c??n tr???, t??i ???? bi???t m??nh ph???i t??m c??ch tho??t kh???i s??? ???? n??n ????. V?? c??ch duy nh???t ch??nh l?? ??i theo C??ch m???ng. Chi???n tranh ???? thay ?????i v??? th??? c???a ng?????i ph??? n??? trong x?? h???i. Sau khi chi???n tranh k???t th??c n??m 1975, ?????t n?????c ???? c??? g???ng x??y d???ng nh???ng chu???n m???c m???i cho ph??? n???. Ch??ng t??i g???i ???? l?? Ph??? n??? Th???i ?????i m???i; h??? th???y chung v???i gia ????nh, nh??ng c??ng c?? c?? h???i h???c t???p v?? th??nh c??ng. B??y gi???, ch??ng t??i v???a c?? th??? g??p s???c x??y d???ng x?? h???i v?? v???a c?? th??? ch??m s??c con c??i. Chi???n tranh ???? l??m t??i tr??? th??nh m???t ng?????i m??? t???t h??n, chi???n tranh ???? d???y t??i c??ch nu??i con ??? nh?? m???t ph??? n??? ???????c gi???i ph??ng.

Ng?? Th??? Th????ng

T??i l?? m???t du k??ch ??? mi???n B???c Vi???t Nam, ???? l?? c??ng vi???c r???t quan tr???ng. Ch??ng t??i t???i g???o, v?? kh?? v?? ?????n d?????c cho b??? ?????i mi???n Nam. V??o m???t ng??y th??ng 6 n??m 1968, khi ??ang t???i h??ng, ba m??y bay M??? ph??t hi???n ra ch??ng t??i v?? b???t ?????u b???n. Ch??ng t??i l???y s??ng v?? b???n tr???. Ph??t th??? nh???t kh??ng tr??ng m??y bay. V?? v???y, t??i n???m xu???ng, g??c s??ng l??n c??y v?? ng???m b???n. T??i b???n ph??t th??? hai tr??ng th??ng x??ng, c??? m??y bay ph??t n??? v?? ????m xu???ng ng???n ?????i c???nh ????.

Khi th???y c?? g?? ???? t??? tr??n tr???i r??i xu???ng, t??i ngh?? ???? l?? bom nh??ng th???c ra l?? phi c??ng nh???y d??. Th??? l?? t??i ch???y theo d??. Khi phi c??ng ti???p ?????t, anh ta ch??a th??o h???t m???t b??n d??, t??i ???? ??p s??t v?? ?????t s??ng l??n b??n ph???i c??? anh ta v?? n??i: ????????ng y??n???. Anh ta gi?? tay l??n, t??i b???o ?????ng ?????i c???t d??y d?? ????? c?? d??y tr??i anh ta.

Ba m????i s??u n??m sau, m???t c??n b??? Trung ????ng g???i cho t??i: ???Ch??? l??m g?? trong chi???n tranh, c?? ?????t th??nh t??ch n??o kh??ng???? Sau khi nghe t??i k??? chuy???n, ??ng ???y n??i ?????i t?????ng V?? Nguy??n Gi??p ???? t??m t??i ba m????i s??u n??m qua. Khi t??i g???p ?????i t?????ng, ??ng h???i: ???Sao c?? gi???i v???y???? v?? t??i tr??? l???i: ??????? l?? may m???n, ch??u ch??? theo h?????ng d???n ???? ???????c d???y th??i???.

D?? nhi??n kh??ng ai mu???n chi???n tranh c???. Sinh m???nh con ng?????i l?? thi??ng li??ng. Kh??ng ai mu???n chi???n tranh, kh??ng ai mu???n chi???n ?????u nh??ng khi qu??n th?? ?????n, kh??ng c?? s??? l???a ch???n n??o kh??c c???. Ch??ng t??i ph???i b???o v??? T??? qu???c, ph???i b???o v??? cu???c s???ng c???a ?????ng b??o.

Ho??ng Th??? N???

T??i sinh n??m 1949 ??? ngo???i th??nh Hu???, n??i t??i s???ng c??ng v???i ba m???. T??i tham gia chi???n tranh khi m???i kho???ng 15 tu???i. ??? tu???i ????, t??i c?? th??? hi???u, c?? th??? th???y ng?????i M??? ?????n v?? c??? g???ng ki???m so??t v?? x??m chi???m ?????t n?????c t??i. L??c ????, nam hay n??? ?????u tham gia chi???n ?????u, v?? v???y, t??i c??ng mu???n tham gia.

Ban ?????u, t??i gia nh???p nh??m thu th???p tin t???c. Ch??ng t??i ??i l??ng v??ng, xem ng?????i M??? l??m g?? r???i g???i tin cho l??nh ?????o. M???t th???i gian ng???n sau ????, t??i tham gia ?????i v???n ?????ng c??c ph??? n??? kh??c tham gia kh??ng chi???n. ??? th???i ??i???m ????, ch??ng t??i c??n r???t tr??? v?? kh??ng th???c s??? hi???u chi???n tranh l?? g?? v?? nh???ng k??? ho???ch v??? n??. Ch??ng t??i ch??? tin v??o Ch??nh ph???, tin r???ng m???i th??? r???i s??? ???n. N???u ch??ng t??i c?? b???t k?? v???n ????? g??, d?? ch??ng t??i kh??ng bi???t k??? ho???ch t???ng th??? hay c??c b?????c k??? ti???p, ch??ng t??i v???n lu??n h???nh ph??c v?? ???????c chi???n ?????u cho T??? qu???c. Ch??ng t??i s???n s??ng hi sinh.

???? c?? r???t nhi???u kh?? kh??n. M???i ng?????i ?????u ngh??o nh??ng y??u th????ng v?? tin t?????ng nhau. B??y gi??? ch??ng t??i c?? t??? do, cu???c s???ng c??ng d??? d??ng h??n nh??ng ti???n l???i ki???m so??t nhi???u th???. V?? v???y, khi t??i n??i v???i c??c con g??i v??? chi???n tranh, t??i k??? cho c??c ch??u th??? n??o l?? t??nh y??u v?? l??ng tin v??o ng?????i kh??c. T??i k??? v??? vi???c m???i ng?????i tu??n theo lu???t ph??p v?? c??c qui ?????nh c???a Ch??nh ph??? nh?? th??? n??o.

Nguy???n Th??? Hi???p

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