Th??n ph???n ph??? n??? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a th???i chi???n

Thứ tư - 17/07/2019 04:15
???? h??n m???t tu???n k??? t??? khi ?????ng Nguy???t Anh ???????c tin v??? m???t cu???c t???n c??ng c???a Vi???t C???ng ??? t???nh Ph?????c Long, ph??a ????ng b???c S??i G??n, d???c bi??n gi???i Campuchia, n??i ch???ng c?? ??ang ????ng qu??n. C?? v???n ch??a nghe tin g?? t??? anh, v?? s??? ?????i ch??? s???m tr??? n??n kh??ng th??? ch???u ?????ng n???i.
Th??n ph???n ph??? n??? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a th???i chi???n
Th??n ph???n ph??? n??? Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a th???i chi???n
Ngu???n: Heather Stur, South Vietnam???s ???Daredevil Girls???The New York Times, 01/08/2017.
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
???? h??n m???t tu???n k??? t??? khi ?????ng Nguy???t Anh ???????c tin v??? m???t cu???c t???n c??ng c???a Vi???t C???ng ??? t???nh Ph?????c Long, ph??a ????ng b???c S??i G??n, d???c bi??n gi???i Campuchia, n??i ch???ng c?? ??ang ????ng qu??n. C?? v???n ch??a nghe tin g?? t??? anh, v?? s??? ?????i ch??? s???m tr??? n??n kh??ng th??? ch???u ?????ng n???i.
V???y l?? ng?????i ph??? n??? quy???t ?????nh b???t xe bu??t t??? nh?? ??? S??i G??n ?????n th??? tr???n ?????ng Xo??i, n??i c?? qu?? giang tr??n m???t chi???c xe qu??n ?????i ????? ?????n trung t??m hu???n luy???n n??i ch???ng m??nh ??ang ???. Tr??n ???????ng ??i, Vi???t C???ng t???n c??ng chi???c xe, c?? b??? b???n v??o c??? hai tay v?? c??n b??? g??y x????ng b??n ch??n.
T??? b???nh vi???n tr??? v??? S??i G??n, ?????ng Nguy???t Anh vi???t th?? cho B??? Qu???c ph??ng Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a, y??u c???u ch???ng m??nh, trung ??y Nguy???n Thanh Tr??c, ???????c ??i???u chuy???n v??? th??nh ph??? ????? anh c?? th??? s???ng ??? nh?? v?? gi??p ????? ch??m s??c s??u ?????a con nh??? c???a h???. B???c th?? m?? c?? vi???t v??o gi???a n??m 1965 ch??? l?? m???t trong nhi???u b???c th?? m?? B??? Qu???c ph??ng nh???n ???????c t??? h??ng lo???t gia ????nh, xin cho ch???ng/con trai c???a h??? ???????c chuy???n v??? c??c ????n v??? g???n nh?? h??n, t??? v??? tr?? chi???n ?????u tr??n chi???n tr?????ng sang c??ng vi???c b??n gi???y ??? S??i G??n ho???c th???m ch?? ???????c xu???t ng??. M???t b???c th?? th???t ?????c bi???t, minh h???a cho ranh gi???i r???t ?????i mong manh gi???a chi???n tr?????ng v?? gia ????nh, gi???a th?????ng d??n v?? l??nh chi???n, trong con m???t ng?????i d??n mi???n Nam th???i k??? chi???n tranh.
Nh??ng ranh gi???i mong manh ???? l?? m???t v???n ????? l???n ?????i v???i S??i G??n; ngh??a v??? gia ????nh l?? m???t trong nh???ng l?? do ch??nh d???n ?????n vi???c ????o ng?? kh???i Qu??n l???c Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a. V?? v?? v???y, v??o kho???ng th???i gian B??? Qu???c ph??ng nh???n ???????c th?? c???a ?????ng Nguy???t Anh, h??? ???? quy???t ?????nh th??nh l???p ??o??n N??? qu??n nh??n (Women???s Armed Forces Corps, W.A.F.C.) ????? gi??p ????? c??c gia ????nh c?? ch???ng v?? con trai ??ang chi???n ?????u trong qu??n ?????i.
?????n n??m 1967, ???? c?? h??n 2.700 ph??? n??? tham gia trong c??c ????n v??? to??n n???. Nh??ng ch??ng ta bi???t r???t ??t v??? nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? ????, c??ng nh?? nh???ng tr???i nghi???m c???a h??? ??? r???ng h??n l?? nh???ng tr???i nghi???m th???i chi???n c???a ph??? n??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam n??i chung. Ngo??i m???t v??i nh??n v???t ???huy???n tho???i??? nh?? L?? Th??? H???ng G???m, m???t tay s??ng tr??? ng?????i Vi???t ???? h??? m???t chi???c tr???c th??ng M???, t??n tu???i v?? cu???c s???ng c???a ph??? n??? ch???ng h??? xu???t hi???n trong l???ch s??? chi???n tranh. Nh??ng h??n h???t, tr???i nghi???m c???a ph??? n??? c???n ???????c t??m hi???u b???i ch??nh s??? ch???ng ch??o gi???a chi???n tr?????ng v?? gia ????nh.
Kh??c v???i ph??? n??? trong h??ng ng?? Vi???t C???ng hay qu??n ?????i B???c Vi???t, c??c th??nh vi??n W.A.F.C. kh??ng tham gia chi???n ?????u; thay v??o ????, h??? l??m c??c c??ng vi???c h??nh ch??nh, t??nh b??o, y t??? v?? x?? h???i, ????? ????n ??ng c?? th??? l??n ???????ng chi???n ?????u, y??n t??m r???ng gia ????nh m??nh ???? ???????c lo l???ng chu to??n. ????? tr??? th??nh m???t c??n b??? trong qu??n ??o??n, ph??? n??? ph???i ho??n th??nh ch????ng tr??nh ph??? th??ng 11 n??m, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i ????ng k?? tham gia kh??a ????o t???o c???n ??t nh???t 5 n??m h???c ch??nh quy. C??c c??n b??? ph???c v??? trong v??ng b???n n??m; nh???ng h???c vi??n tham gia ????o t???o th?? cam k???t ba n??m. M???i c?? g??i ???????c tuy???n v??o ?????u kh??ng ???????c ph??p k???t h??n v?? ph???i gi??? nguy??n t??nh tr???ng n??y trong hai n??m ?????u ti??n ph???c v???. Sau ????, h??? m???i c?? th??? k???t h??n v?? sinh con m?? kh??ng b??? sa th???i.
B??? ph???n ph??c l???i x?? h???i trong qu??n ??o??n h??? tr??? cho nh???ng gia ????nh c?? ng?????i th??n ??ang trong qu??n ng??, cung c???p d???ch v??? ch??m s??c tr??? em, ch??m s??c s???c kh???e c?? b???n v?? d?????c ph???m. Vi???c c??c th??nh vi??n c???a W.A.F.C. d?? ??? trong qu??n ?????i Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a nh??ng v???n l??m ???c??ng vi???c c???a ph??? n?????? l?? m???t trong nh???ng minh ch???ng cho th???y Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam ???? m??? r???ng vai tr?? gi???i nh??ng kh??ng thay ?????i n?? ho??n to??n. Tuy nhi??n, nh???ng c??ng vi???c n??y s???m thay ?????i khi m???t cu???n s??ch tuy??n truy???n th???i chi???n tranh ???????c xu???t b???n b???i H???i ?????ng Quan h??? ?????i ngo???i Vi???t Nam c?? t???a ????? Ph??? n??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam trong qu??n ph???c.
Ph????ng Th??? H???nh, t??c gi??? cu???n s??ch, vi???t r???ng ???Theo truy???n th???ng, vai tr?? c???a ng?????i ph??? n??? ch??u ?? l?? th??? ?????ng ??? Lu??n ch??? ?????ng ??? ph??a sau, c??c c?? b?? ???????c nu??i d?????ng ????? tr??? n??n n??? t??nh v?? ph??? thu???c, ????? bi???t ??? nh?? ch??m s??c ch???ng con v?? gia ????nh. Hai m????i n??m tr?????c, ?? t?????ng v??? m???t n??? qu??n nh??n th???m ch?? c??n xa v???i h??n ?? t?????ng v??? m???t n??? b??c s?? ho???c n??? lu???t s??. Nh??ng nhi???u n??m chi???n tranh r??ng r?? ???? ????a ph??? n??? b?????c v??o th??? gi???i c???a ????n ??ng, m???t ph???n do s??? c???n thi???t, m???t ph???n do s??? l???a ch???n.???
V?? th???c s???, nhi???u thay ?????i ???? di???n ra. Sau cu???c t???n c??ng T???t M???u Th??n n??m 1968, c??c nh?? l???p ph??p ???? tr??nh m???t d??? lu???t l??n Qu???c H???i, trong ???? ????? c???p ?????n ngh??a v??? nh???p ng?? cho t???t c??? ph??? n??? t??? 18 ?????n 25 tu???i, nh??ng n?? ???? b??? c??c th??nh vi??n b???o th??? ph???i ?????i. Tuy nhi??n, v???n c?? nh???ng con ???????ng kh??c: ph??? n??? mu???n c???m v?? kh?? c?? th??? ???????c hu???n luy???n v??? v?? kh?? v?? chi???n thu???t qu??n s??? qua ????n v??? L???c l?????ng D??n qu??n ?????a ph????ng. H???nh ?????c t??nh r???ng v??o n??m 1970, ???? c?? m???t tri???u ph??? n??? ph???c v??? trong c??c ????n v??? d??n qu??n n??y, h??n 100.000 ng?????i trong s??? h??? l?? trong c??c v??? tr?? chi???n ?????u.
Ngay c??? ????o t???o n??ng cao c??ng kh??ng gi??p cho n??? qu??n nh??n ????? ??i???u ki???n gi??? c??c v??? tr?? chi???n ?????u. D?? ph??? n??? c?? th??? ph???c v??? trong c??c v??? tr?? chi???n ?????u trong l???c l?????ng d??n qu??n, Nguy???n H???ng Nguy???t, ch??? huy m???t ????n v??? t??? v??? S??i G??n, chia s??? v???i b?? H???nh r???ng ph??? n??? ph?? h???p nh???t trong vai tr?? tr??? t??. N??m 1970, m???t nh??m ph??? n??? ??? W.A.F.C. ho??n th??nh ch????ng tr??nh ????o t???o kh??ng qu??n ?????y kh?? kh??n, nh???y d?? ra kh???i m??y bay theo nh??m, nh?? c??c ?????ng nghi???p nam c???a h???. Nh??ng nh?? H???nh ???? m?? t??? ch??ng trong t???p s??ch c???a m??nh, nh???ng ???c?? g??i t??o b???o??? ???y s??? kh??ng c?? s??? nghi???p trong l???c l?????ng t??c chi???n. Thi???u t?? H??? Th??? V???, ng?????i ?????ng ?????u tr?????ng ????o t???o c???a W.A.F.C., cho bi???t c??c n??? s?? quan ???? tham gia kh??a h???c tr??n ch??? ????? luy???n t???p s???c kh???e v?? ??? ????? cho vui.
Ph??? n??? mi???n Nam nh???p ng?? c??ng b???i nh???ng l?? do t????ng t??? nh?? ????n ??ng. Trong s??? nh???ng ng?????i ph??? n??? ???????c b?? H???nh ph???ng v???n, m???t s??? ng?????i mong mu???n ????ng g??p cho n??? l???c chi???n tranh, trong khi nh???ng ng?????i kh??c coi qu??n ?????i l?? m???t con ???????ng s??? nghi???p. H???a h???n phi??u l??u c??ng l?? th??? thu h??t ph??? n??? ?????n v???i W.A.F.C. V???a t???t nghi???p c???p ba, c?? g??i H?? Th??? T????i ???? ????ng k?? tham gia qu??n ??o??n v?? ???????c ch??? ?????nh v??o m???t tr???i h??? tr??? th??n nh??n l??nh chi???n t???i c??n c??? kh??ng qu??n T??n S??n Nh???t. Trung ??y T????i r???t th??ch c??ng vi???c c???a m??nh, nh??ng c?? ch??? xem ???? l?? kh??c ngo???t t???m th???i tr??n con ???????ng ?????n v???i cu???c ?????i c???a m???t ng?????i ph??? n??? truy???n th???ng. C?? ???? ????nh h??n v???i m???t sinh vi??n ki???n tr??c, v?? d??? ?????nh r???i kh???i qu??n ?????i sau khi sinh con, b???i ???? l?? nh???ng g?? h??n phu c???a c?? mong mu???n.
Tuy nhi??n, ngay c??? nh???ng ng?????i n???i tr??? c??ng c?? th??? ????ng g??p cho n??? l???c chi???n tranh. C??c t???p ch?? d??nh ri??ng cho ph??? n??? nh?? Ph??? N??? M???i khuy???n kh??ch ?????c gi??? c??ng tham gia n??? l???c n??y. T???p ch?? ???????c xu???t b???n h??ng tu???n t???i S??i G??n t??? n??m 1966 ?????n 1975, ch??? y???u ????ng t???i c??c ch????ng ti???u thuy???t, c??ng v???i nhi???u chuy??n m???c t?? v???n, tin t???c v??? th???i trang, s???c ?????p v?? ng?????i n???i ti???ng, nh??ng m???i ???n b???n ?????u m??? ?????u b???ng m???t b??i x?? lu???n li??n quan ?????n ch??nh tr???, qu??n ?????i v?? l??m th??? n??o ph??? n??? c?? th??? h??? tr??? n??? l???c chi???n tranh. C??c b??i x?? lu???n gi???i thi???u h??nh ???nh ph??? n??? trong qu??n ng??, khuy???n kh??ch ph??? n??? quy??n g??p nh???ng v???t d???ng c???n thi???t cho qu??n ?????i, v?? sau T???t M???u Th??n th?? c??n khuy???n kh??ch ph??? n??? tham gia v??o c??c ????n v??? t??? v??? ?????a ph????ng.
C??c b??i b??o c??ng nh???n m???nh t???m quan tr???ng c???a h??nh ?????ng ch??nh tr??? c???a ph??? n???, ?????c bi???t l?? trong c??c s??? ki???n m??? ???????ng cho cu???c b???u c??? n??m 1967 v???n ????a Nguy???n V??n Thi???u l??n gh??? T???ng th???ng. M???t b??i x?? lu???n xu???t b???n th??ng 07/1967 ???? kh???ng ?????nh r???ng ph??? n??? c??ng quan tr???ng kh??ng k??m ????n ??ng trong vi???c ?????m b???o n???n d??n ch??? s??? ph??t tri???n m???nh ??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam. ???n b???n th??ng 9 c??n ??i xa h??n trong vi???c nh???n m???nh t???m quan tr???ng c???a ph??? n??? ?????i v???i ti???n tr??nh d??n ch???: Ho???t ?????ng ch??nh tr??? c???a ph??? n??? s??? l??m n???i b???t s??? ti???n b??? v?? tr?????ng th??nh c???a mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam, ?????ng th???i s??? th??c ?????y b??nh ?????ng gi???i.
Ng?????i ph??? n??? m???i ph???i tham gia ch??nh tr???, nh???n th???c ???????c ho??n c???nh c???a nh???ng ng?????i k??m may m???n h??n v?? s???n s??ng gi??p ????? th??ng qua vi???c g??y qu??? ho???c c??c h??nh th???c v???n ?????ng kh??c. H???u qu??? c???a chi???n tranh ?????i v???i ph??? n??? n??ng th??n ch???ng bao gi??? xa r???i t??m tr?? h???. Ch??nh c??c ph??? n??? th??nh th??? thu???c t???ng l???p trung l??u l?? ?????ng l???c khi???n ch??nh ph??? t???o ra c??c ch????ng tr??nh gi??p ????? ph??? n??? n??ng th??n v?? gia ????nh h???. M???t cu???c s???ng t???t ?????p h??n cho ph??? n??? n??ng th??n s??? t???o ??i???u ki???n gi???i quy???t c??c v???n ????? x?? h???i kh??c m?? ng?????i ph??? n??? m???i n??n quan t??m ??? ch???ng h???n, n???n m???i d??m ng??y m???t ph??? bi???n ??i k??m v???i s??? gia t??ng hi???n di???n c???a qu??n ?????i n?????c ngo??i ??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam.
N??? s??? gia Nathalie Hu???nh Ch??u Nguy???n ???? ph???ng v???n c??c c???u th??nh vi??n W.A.F.C. v??? cu???c s???ng c???a h??? sau chi???n tranh, v?? nh???n th???y r???ng d?? c?? tr??nh ???????c ?????t ????n ??p t???i t??? nh???t ??? mi???n Nam, nhi???u ng?????i trong s??? h??? v???n ph???i ?????i m???t v???i s??? ????n ??p c???a ch??nh ph??? m???i v?? l???c l?????ng an ninh c???a h???. C??c n??? s?? quan ???y ch??? c?? th??? ?????ng nh??n trong s??? h??i khi ch???ng/anh em trai c???a m??nh b??? b???t gi??? v?? ????a ?????n c??c tr???i c???i t???o. M???t s??? ph??? n??? tr???n kh???i Vi???t Nam, s???ng trong c??c tr???i t??? n???n tr?????c khi ?????nh c?? ??? ??c ho???c M???. Nh???ng ng?????i v??? l??nh chi???n c??ng ph???i ch???u t??nh c???nh ???y, ch???ng ki???n ch???ng m??nh b??? ?????y v??o tr???i c???i t???o su???t h??ng n??m tr???i.
N???u ???? l?? ?????nh m???nh c???a ?????ng Nguy???t Anh, th?? n?? ??t nh???t c??ng l?? l???n th??? hai c?? ph???i t??? m??nh ch??m s??c c??c con. Nh??ng sau chi???n tranh, ???? ch???ng c?? nh??n vi??n ch??m s??c x?? h???i n??o c???a W.A.F.C. gi??p ????? c??.
Heather Stur l?? Ph?? Gi??o s?? ng??nh L???ch s??? t???i ?????i h???c Nam Mississippi v?? l?? th??nh vi??n c???a Trung t??m Nghi??n c???u Chi???n tranh v?? X?? h???i Dale. B?? l?? ?????ng bi??n t???p cu???n ???Integrating the U.S. Military: Race, Gender and Sexual Orientation Since World War II??? v?? l?? t??c gi??? cu???n ???Beyond Combat: Women and Gender in the Vietnam War Era.???
26/10/2001: George W. Bush k?? ?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c
Ngu???n: George W. Bush signs the Patriot ActHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 2001, T???ng th???ng George W. Bush k?? ?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c (Patriot Act) ??? m???t ??a??o lu???t ch???ng kh???ng b??? ????????c soa??n tha??o sau cu???c t???n c??ng v??o L???u N??m G??c v?? Trung t??m Th????ng m???i Th??? gi???i v??o ng??y 11/09/2001.
?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c co?? t??n go??i chi??nh th????c la?? The USA PATRIOT Act, vi????t t????t cu??a ???Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism??? (??o??n k???t v?? T??ng c?????ng s????c ma??nh cu??a n??????c M??? b???ng c??ch Cung c???p C??ng c??? Phu?? h???p C???n thi???t ????? Ng??n ch???n Kh???ng b???). T????ng th????ng Bush hy v???ng r???ng ?????o lu???t do l??????ng ??a??ng h???u thu???n n??y s??? trao quy???n cho c??c c?? quan ha??nh pha??p v?? c?? quan t??nh b??o ?????? ng??n ch???n c??c cu???c t???n c??ng kh???ng b??? tr??n ?????t M??? trong t????ng lai.
??a??o lu????t na??y co?? mu??c ??i??ch, theo l????i ??ng Bush, ???t??ng c?????ng c??c h??nh ph???t da??nh cho bo??n kh???ng b??? hay b???t c??? ai gi??p chu??ng.??? No?? t??ng c??????ng kha?? n??ng chia s??? th??ng tin gi????a ca??c c?? quan t??nh b??o v?? d??? b??? c??c h???n ch??? ?????i v???i vi???c gi??m s??t th??ng tin li??n la??c. Co??n c??c quan ch???c th???c thi ph??p lu???t thi?? co?? nhi????m vu?? ng??n ch????n ca??c ch????ng tr??nh gi??? m???o t??i ch??nh, bu??n l???u v?? r???a ti???n nh????m t??i tr??? kh???ng b???. ?????nh ngh??a m??? r???ng c???a ?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c v???? ch??? ngh??a kh???ng b??? c??ng cho phe??p FBI co?? th??m quy????n truy c???p th??ng tin c?? nh??n nh?? h??? s?? y t??? v?? t??i ch??nh. ?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c se?? thay th??? t???t c??? c??c lu???t ti????u bang.
Qu???c H???i b??? phi???u ???ng h??? d??? lu???t. M???t s??? ng??????i M??? th????m chi?? co??n cho r????ng no?? ch??a ??u?? ????? ch???ng l???i ch??? ngh??a kh???ng b???. Nh??ng ?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c v????n v????p pha??i ha??ng lo???t ch??? tr??ch. C??c nh?? ho???t ?????ng d??n quy???n lo ng???i r???ng no?? s??? gi???m b????t c??c quy???n t??? do d??n s???? trong n?????c v?? se?? cho ca??c c?? quan ha??nh pha??p qua?? nhi????u quy????n ?????? ??i????u tra ??????i t?? cu??a ng??????i d??n My?? ??? m???t n???i s??? h??i ch??a t????ng th???y k??? t??? th????p ni??n 1960 v?? 1970, khi ng??????i My?? bi???u t??nh vi?? FBI nghe tr???m v?? th??m nh???p va??o ca??c nho??m ch???ng chi???n tranh v?? c??c nh??m d??n quy???n.
?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c ???? ph???i ?????i m???t v???i th??ch th???c ph??p l?? t???? Li??n ??oa??n T??? do D??n s??? M??? (American Civil Liberties Union, ACLU). Trong nh???ng n??m g???n ????y, m???t s??? th??nh vi??n Qu???c H???i ??? nh???ng ng?????i ban ?????u v????n ???? ???ng h??? d??? lu???t, nay la??i m???t l??ng tin va??o ca??ch tri????n khai lu????t cu??a ch??nh quy???n Bush. Tuy nhi??n, Qu????c H????i do ??a??ng C???ng h??a ki???m so??t v????n th??ng qua lu????t v?? va??o th??ng 3/2006, Bush ph?? chu????n gia ha??n ?????o lu???t Y??u n??????c ??????y tranh c??i na??y. Ngay sau ??o??, ??ng co??n l??m tr???m tr???ng h??n nh???ng tranh c??i xoay quanh ??a??o lu????t khi ????a ra m????t tuy??n b??? l??c k?? gia h???n ?????o lu???t (signing statement), cho ph??p mi????n th????c hi????n ho????c kh??ng c???n tu??n th??? m???t s??? ??i???u kho???n nh???t ?????nh trong ?????o lu???t n??y.
Nghi??n c???u Qu???c t??? g???i b???n b??o
P/v
03/06/1965: Ng?????i M??? ?????u ti??n b?????c ??i trong kh??ng gian
Ngu???n: An American walks in spaceHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1965, ??? ????? cao c??ch Tr??i ?????t 120 d???m, Thi???u t?? Edward H. White II ???? m??? c???a v?? b?????c ra kh???i t??u Gemini 4, tr??? th??nh phi h??nh gia ng?????i M??? ?????u ti??n ??i b??? trong kh??ng gian. ???????c g???n v???i phi thuy???n b???ng s???i d??y d??i 25 b???, v?? t??? m??nh ki???m so??t c??c c??? ?????ng v???i m???t kh???u s??ng phun oxy c???m tay, White ???? ??? ngo??i kh??ng gian trong h??n 20 ph??t. Tr?????c White, v??o ng??y 18/03/1965, phi h??nh gia ng?????i Li??n X?? Aleksei A. Leonov ???? tr??? th??nh ng?????i ?????u ti??n b?????c ??i trong v?? tr???.
???????c tri???n khai v??o th???i k??? ?????nh cao c???a cu???c ch???y ??ua kh??ng gian, Gemini c???a NASA l?? ch????ng tr??nh ??t ???????c bi???t ?????n nh???t trong ba ch????ng tr??nh t??u kh??ng gian c?? ng?????i l??i c???a M??? trong th???p ni??n 1960. ???????c xem l?? ph???n m??? r???ng c???a D??? ??n Mercy, v???n ???? ????a ng?????i M??? ?????u ti??n v??o kh??ng gian h???i n??m 1961, Gemini ???? ?????t n???n m??ng cho c??c s??? m???nh Apollo l??n M???t Tr??ng (b???t ?????u t??? n??m 1968).
C??c chuy???n bay c???a Gemini l?? nh???ng chuy???n bay ?????u ti??n c?? c??? phi h??nh ??o??n, ?????ng th???i vi???c k??o d??i c??c s??? m???nh c??ng cung c???p th??ng tin c?? gi?? tr??? v??? nh???ng ???nh h?????ng sinh h???c c???a vi???c s???ng l??u trong kh??ng gian. Khi ch????ng tr??nh Gemini k???t th??c v??o n??m 1966, c??c phi h??nh gia M??? ???? l??m ch??? vi???c gh??p n???i v?? neo ?????u t??u v???i c??c ph????ng ti???n kh??c, v???n l?? k??? n??ng r???t quan tr???ng trong s??? m???nh Apollo sau ????.
Nghi??n c???u Qu??c t??? g???i b???n b??o.
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