T???p C???n B??nh ???? th???ng tr??? Trung Qu???c nh?? th??? n??o? (P1)

Thứ tư - 28/08/2019 20:21
Khi Joe Biden g???p T???p C???n B??nh v??o n??m 2011, nh?? l??nh ?????o t????ng lai c???a Trung Qu???c ???? d???n d???p h???i ng??i Ph?? T???ng th???ng M??? m???t lo???t c??c c??u h???i v??? n???n ch??nh tr??? Hoa K???. H??? th???ng v???n h??nh nh?? th??? n??o? Quan h??? gi???a Nh?? Tr???ng v?? Qu???c h???i ra sao?
T???p C???n B??nh ???? th???ng tr??? Trung Qu???c nh?? th??? n??o? (P1)

T???p C???n B??nh ???? th???ng tr??? Trung Qu???c nh?? th??? n??o? (P1)

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Ngu???n: Richard McGregor, ???Party Man: Xi Jinping???s Quest to Dominate China???, Foreign Affairs, September/October 2019.

Bi??n d???ch: ????? ?????ng Nh???t Huy | Bi??n t???p: L?? H???ng Hi???p

Khi Joe Biden g???p T???p C???n B??nh v??o n??m 2011, nh?? l??nh ?????o t????ng lai c???a Trung Qu???c ???? d???n d???p h???i ng??i Ph?? T???ng th???ng M??? m???t lo???t c??c c??u h???i v??? n???n ch??nh tr??? Hoa K???. H??? th???ng v???n h??nh nh?? th??? n??o? Quan h??? gi???a Nh?? Tr???ng v?? Qu???c h???i ra sao? B???c Kinh n??n ph??n t??ch c??c d???u hi???u ch??nh tr??? t??? Washington nh?? th??? n??o? ?????i v???i Biden v?? c??c c??? v???n c???a ??ng, ????y l?? nh???ng c??u h???i r???t ???????c hoan ngh??nh sau g???n m???t th???p ni??n ?????y ???th???t v???ng??? khi l??m vi???c v???i ng?????i ti???n nhi???m k??n ti???ng, k??m sinh ?????ng c???a ??ng T???p ??? H??? C???m ????o.

Song tr???i qua c??c bu???i g???p v?? d??ng b???a t???i B???c Kinh v?? Th??nh ????, th??? ph??? c???a t???nh T??? Xuy??n, c??c v??? kh??ch M??? ng???c nhi??n tr?????c s??? h??o h???ng c???a ??ng T???p v??? m???t ch??? ????? ho??n to??n kh??c. C??c nh?? l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c th?????ng r???t c???n tr???ng tr??nh sa ???? n??i v??? ti???u s??? c???a ch??nh h???. K??? l???i c??c c??u chuy???n c?? nh??n c???a h??? tr?????c c??c quan ch???c Trung Qu???c, ch??? ?????ng n??i ?????n ng?????i n?????c ngo??i, ?????ng ngh??a v???i vi???c nh???c l???i l???ch s??? ch??nh tr??? g???n ????y c???a Trung Qu???c, m???t ???b??i m??n??? ?????y r???y c??c cu???c thanh tr???ng, ph???n b???i, v?? nh???ng s??? thay ?????i ?? th???c h???.

??ng T???p, tr??i l???i, k??? kh??ng ng???ng v??? cha m??nh, T???p Tr???ng Hu??n, m???t nh?? c??ch m???ng l??o th??nh t??? nh???ng ng??y ?????u c???a ?????ng C???ng S???n Trung Qu???c (??CSTQ); v?? v??? Mao Tr???ch ????ng, ng?????i l???p n??n n?????c Trung Qu???c hi???n ?????i, v?? l?? ng?????i ???? l??m ?????o l???n ?????t n?????c m??nh nh???m ng??n ch???n c??c ?????i th??? c???a ??ng t??? xa. Cha c???a ??ng T???p, t???ng ???????c xem l?? m???t ?????ng vi??n trung th??nh, l??m Ph?? Th??? t?????ng h???i cu???i nh???ng n??m 1950, ????? r???i b??? thanh tr???ng b???i Mao v??o n??m 1962 sau khi ??ng ???ng h??? c??c ?????i th??? ch??nh tr??? c???a Mao. R???t nhanh ch??ng sau ????, T???p Tr???ng Hu??n b??? b??? t?? v?? ph???i ch???u s??? s??? nh???c c??ng khai g??y ra b???i c??c H???ng V??? Binh trong C??ch m???ng V??n h??a. Nh???ng k??? c???c ??oan ???? qu???y r???i con trai ??ng v?? ????y T???p C???n B??nh v??? v??ng n??ng th??n. T???p Tr???ng Hu??n ???? kh??ng ???????c kh??i ph???c danh d??? cho ?????n t???n cu???i nh???ng n??m 1970, sau khi Mao qua ?????i.  Nh??ng nh?? T???p C???n B??nh ???? n??i r?? v???i c??c v??? kh??ch c???a m??nh, ??ng kh??ng h??? ch???i b??? Mao. ??ng t??n k??nh Mao.

Biden v?? c??c c??? v???n c???a ??ng r???i Trung Qu???c v???i ???n t?????ng r???ng ??ng T???p s??? l?? ng?????i kh?? ?????i ph?? h??n H??? C???m ????o, tham v???ng h??n tr??n c????ng v??? l?? ng?????i ?????i di???n cho qu???c gia m??nh v?? quy???t ??o??n h??n trong vi???c theo ??u???i c??c l???i ??ch c???a Trung Qu???c. H??? ???? ????ng, v?? th???m ch?? ???? ????nh gi?? th???p ??ng T???p. Trong nh???ng n??m sau khi l??n n???m quy???n, ??ng T???p ???? m???nh tay ????n ??p b???t ?????ng ch??nh ki???n, tri???n khai m???t chi???n d???ch ch???ng tham nh??ng r???ng kh???p v?? m???t ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i t??o b???o, m??? r???ng v???n ???? th??ch th???c tr???c ti???p Hoa K???. ??t ai d??? ??o??n ???????c m???c ????? tham v???ng c???a T???p tr?????c khi ??ng l??n n???m quy???n.

???? c?? nhi???u tranh c??i g???n ????y ??? ph????ng T??y xoay quanh vi???c t???i sao l???i c?? nhi???u ng?????i d??? ??o??n sai v??? Trung Qu???c, v?? v??? T???p, ?????n v???y. C??c nh?? ph??n t??ch ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i ???? th?????ng xuy??n nh???m l???n gi???a ni???m tin c???a ph????ng T??y v??? c??ch m?? Trung Qu???c n??n c???i t??? v?? ni???m tin c???a ??CSTQ v??? c??ch qu???n tr??? ?????t n?????c. Song c??ng gi???ng nh?? nhi???u ng?????i n?????c ngo??i ???? l???m t?????ng, ngay c??? c??c ?????ng nghi???p c???a ??ng T???p v??o th???i ??i???m 2007 d?????ng nh?? c??ng kh??ng bi???t tr?????c ???????c h??? s??? tr???i qua ??i???u g?? khi ?????t ??ng T???p v??o v??? tr?? ng?????i k??? nhi???m ??ng H??? C???m ????o 5 n??m sau ????.

??ng T???p lu??n l?? ng?????i tin t?????ng tuy???t ?????i v??o quy???n l??nh ?????o Trung Qu???c c???a ?????ng. ?????i v???i ??ng, v??? th??? trung t??m c???a ?????ng, c???a Mao, v?? c???a ?? th???c h??? c???ng s???n ?????u l?? m???t. Ch???i b??? m???t ph???n l???ch s??? c???a ??CSTQ ch??nh l?? ch???i b??? to??n b??? n??. Trong m???t ??ng, m???t nh?? l??nh ?????o t???i cao c???a Trung Qu???c ph???i ??????????? nh???t, ngh??a l?? ph???i trung th??nh v???i ?????ng C???ng s???n, v???i c??c l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng, v?? v???i ngu???n g???c ?? th???c h??? c???a ?????ng b???t k??? m???i s??? c?? ra sao.

V??o th???i ??i???m n??n l???m quy???n, ??ng T???p d?????ng nh?? c?? m???t n???i s??? s??u s???c r???ng c??c tr??? c???t ch???ng ????? cho s??? n???m quy???n c???a ?????ng ??? qu??n ?????i, c??c doanh nghi???p nh?? n?????c, h??? th???ng an ninh, v?? b??? m??y tuy??n truy???n ??? ??ang v??? v???n v?? ?????y tham nh??ng. V?? v???y ??ng ti???n h??nh m???t ???chi???n d???ch gi???i c???u???. ??ng s??? l?? ng?????i ??????????? nh???t trong th??? h??? l??nh ?????o c???a m??nh. V?? ??ng mong ?????i t???t c??? ?????ng vi??n noi theo ??ng.

Sinh ra ???? ???????????

Nh???ng n??m ?????u ?????i c???a ??ng T???p th??? hi???n c??? nh???ng ?????c quy???n m?? gia ????nh c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o c???p cao c?? ???????c l???n nh???ng hi???m nguy m?? h??? ph???i ?????i m???t khi ng???n gi?? ch??nh tr??? ?????i chi???u. ??ng T???p khi c??n l?? m???t c???u b?? theo h???c t???i m???t ng??i tr?????ng ??u t?? ??? B???c Kinh v?? th?????ng ?????n th??m cha m??nh ??? Trung Nam H???i, t??? h???p r???ng l???n ngay c???nh T??? C???m Th??nh, n??i s???ng v?? l??m vi???c c???a c??c l??nh ?????o h??ng ?????u. Khi Mao b???t ?????u ti???n h??nh cu???c C??ch m???ng V??n h??a v??o gi???a th???p ni??n 1960, th??? gi???i c???a ch??ng thi???u ni??n T???p b??? ?????o l???n ho??n to??n. ??ng b??? b???t gi??? b???i H???ng V??? Binh v?? b??? bu???c ph???i th???c hi???n m???t th??? t???c nh???m ?????u t??? ch??nh cha m??nh. Khi ???????c ????a v??? v??ng n??ng th??n c??ng nh???ng tinh hoa th??nh th??? kh??c, ch??ng thanh ni??n 17 tu???i T???p C???n B??nh ???? ph???i v???t l???n v???i ??i???u ki???n kh???c nghi???t.

Kho???ng th???i gian ??? L????ng Gia H??, ng??i l??ng ngh??o kh?? ??? t??y b???c Trung Qu???c, khi???n ??ng s??? h??i nh??ng ?????ng th???i c??ng chu???n b??? ??ng cho nh???ng s??ng gi?? ph??a tr?????c. ???Nh???ng ng?????i c?? tr???i nghi???m h???n ch??? v??? quy???n l???c, ho???c ??? c??ch xa n??, th?????ng cho r???ng nh???ng ??i???u n??y l?? b?? ???n v?? m???i l??????, ??ng T???p n??i trong m???t b??i ph???ng v???n h???i n??m 2000. ???Nh??ng t??i nh??n v?????t qua nh???ng th??? b??? ngo??i: quy???n l???c, nh???ng b?? hoa, vinh quang v?? nh???ng tr??ng ph??o tay. T??i ch???ng ki???n nh???ng tr???i tr???i t???m giam v?? s??? ?????i tr???ng thay ??en trong b???n ch???t con ng?????i. ??i???u n??y gi??p t??i hi???u ch??nh tr??? ??? m???t m???c ????? s??u s???c h??n???. ??ng T???p ch??? ???????c k???t n???p l??m ?????ng vi??n ch??nh th???c v??o n??m 1974. Song m???t khi ???? v??o ?????ng, ??ng b???t ?????u leo l??n ?????nh m???t c??ch ch???c ch???n.

Ng??y nay, ch??? c?? nh???ng sinh vi??n xu???t s???c nh???t, ??u t?? nh???t c???a Trung Qu???c m???i c?? th??? theo h???c t???i ?????i h???c Thanh Hoa danh gi?? ??? B???c Kinh, song ??ng T???p ???? ???????c nh???n v??o ????y n??m 1975 trong th??nh ph???n ???c??ng n??ng binh???, tr?????c khi ng??i tr?????ng n??y tr??? l???i v???i c??c k??? thi tuy???n sinh ch??nh th???c. (Nhi???u tr?? th???c Trung Qu???c ?????n nay v???n c??n nh??n nh???n ??ng T???p l?? ?????t h???c???). Sau khi t???t nghi???p, ??ng kho??c l??n m??nh b??? qu??n ph???c v?? l??m tr??? l?? cho m???t trong nh???ng ?????ng ch?? th??n t??n nh???t c???a cha ??ng, t?????ng C???nh Bi???u (Geng Biao), t???i v??n ph??ng Qu??n ???y Trung ????ng, m???t tr???i nghi???m mang l???i cho ??ng m???i quan h??? v?? c??ng quan tr???ng v???i gi???i qu??n ?????i. ??ng T???p ??i tr??n m???t con ???????ng s??? nghi???p ??i???n h??nh c???a m???t c??ng ch???c tri???n v???ng. Sau khi r???i v??n ph??ng Qu??n ???y, ??ng l??m Ph?? B?? th?? ??? H?? B???c, g???n B???c Kinh, v?? ??? Ph??c Ki???n, ngay tr??n b??? bi???n ?????i di???n ????i Loan, cu???i c??ng tr??? th??nh Ch??? t???ch c???a t???nh n??y v??o n??m 2000. N??m 2002, ??ng T???p tr??? th??nh Ch??? t???ch r???i B?? th?? c???a Chi???t Giang, m???t t???nh g???n Th?????ng H???i.

Ph??c Ki???n v?? Chi???t Giang n???i b???t ??? Trung Qu???c nh?? l?? hai ???ph??o ????i??? c???a khu v???c t?? nh??n ??ang l??n. Ph??c Ki???n l?? m???t c???ng ???ti???p ????n??? quan tr???ng c??c nh?? ?????u t?? t??? ????i Loan c??ch ???? ch??? m???t eo bi???n. Chi???t Giang l?? n??i ????ng tr??? s??? m???t lo???t c??c c??ng ty t?? nh??n th??nh c??ng c???a Trung Qu???c, bao g???m g?? kh???ng l??? th????ng m???i ??i???n t??? Alibaba v?? nh?? s???n xu???t ?? t?? Geely. Khi ??ng T???p tr??? th??nh l??nh t??? t???i cao c???a Trung Qu???c v??o n??m 2012, truy???n th??ng ph????ng T??y b??m v??o kinh nghi???m c???a ??ng ??? hai t???nh n??y ????? d??? ??o??n v??? s??? t??n tr???ng c???a ??ng T???p d??nh cho kinh t??? th??? tr?????ng. Bloomberg News d???n l???i Lu Guanqiu, m???t doanh nh??n s??? h???u v?? v???n h??nh Wanxiang Group, c??ng ty s???n xu???t linh ki???n ?? t??, cho r???ng ??ng T???p th???m nhu???n tinh th???n t?? b???n Chi???t Giang. ???Khi ??ng T???p tr??? th??nh T???ng B?? th??, ??ng s??? c??ng tr??? n??n c???i m??? h??n v?? d??nh nhi???u s??? ch?? ?? h??n cho c??c doanh nghi???p t?? nh??n v?? sinh k??? c???a ng?????i d??n???, ??ng Lu n??i. Song nghi??n c???u k??? l?????ng c??c b??i ph??t bi???u v?? b??i vi???t c???a ??ng T???p trong th???i gian ??? Ph??c Ki???n v?? Chi???t Giang, ta th???y m???t ng?????i trung th??nh tuy???t ?????i v???i tri???t l?? ch??nh th???ng c???a ?????ng. ??ng T???p lu??n n??i v??? s??? ph??t tri???n c??n b???ng gi???a kinh t??? t?? nh??n v?? nh?? n?????c. Tr??n th???c t???, ??i???u ???? c?? ngh??a l?? ch???ng ????? khu v???c kinh t??? nh?? n?????c ????? gi??? cho n?? kh??ng b??? nu???t ch???ng b???i c??c doanh nghi???p t?? nh??n.

Ph???i ?????n ?????u n??m 2007, khi c??c l??nh ?????o ?????ng ?????t nhi??n chuy???n ??ng T???p sang l??m B?? th?? Th?????ng H???i, th??nh ph??? quan tr???ng th??? hai c???a Trung Qu???c, th?? ??ng T???p m???i n???i l??n nh?? l?? ng?????i k??? v??? ti???m n??ng c???a H??? C???m ????o. Theo truy???n th???ng, ?????i h???i ?????ng v??o cu???i n??m 2007 s??? ch???n m???t ng?????i ????? thay ??ng H??? 5 n??m sau ????, khi ??ng n??y ngh??? h??u sau hai nhi???m k??? l??m Ch??? t???ch n?????c. ??ng T???p xu???t hi???n nh?? m???t ???ng vi??n ???th???a hi???p???. C??c ?????i th??? ch??nh c???a ??ng, L?? Kh???c C?????ng v?? L?? Nguy??n Tri???u, ?????u xu???t th??n t??? ??o??n Thanh ni??n C???ng s???n, gi???ng nh?? ??ng H???. ?????i v???i c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o l??o th??nh c???a ?????ng, ?? t?????ng c?? th??m m???t ng?????i n???a t??? ??o??n thanh ni??n l??n n???m quy???n l??nh ?????o trong su???t m???t th???p ni??n t???i l?? kh??ng th??? ch???p nh???n ???????c, b???i ??i???u n??y s??? l??m gia t??ng quy???n l???c c???a m???t phe nh??m ri??ng l??? trong khi h???n ch??? ???nh h?????ng c???a c??c nh??m c??n l???i.

??ng T???p c?? r???t nhi???u l???i th???. ??ng l?? m???t c??ng ch???c d??y d???n, c?? th??? ch???p nh???n ???????c trong m???t c???a c??c nh??m ch??? ?????o, c??c gia ????nh ch??nh tr??? v?? c??c b???c l??o th??nh c???a ?????ng. ??ng c?? m???t l?? l???ch ?????ng ho??n h???o kh??ng ch??? d???ng l???i ??? v??? th??? c???a cha ??ng. ??ng v?????t qua cu???c C??ch m???ng V??n h??a an to??n v??? m???t ch??nh tr???, cha ??ng ???????c kh??i ph???c danh d??? v?? kh??ng b??? ???v???t nh????? n??o tr??n h??? s?? c???a m??nh. ??ng kh??ng d??nh d??ng g?? ?????n cu???c ????n ??p d?? man b???ng qu??n ?????i ??? Qu???ng tr?????ng Thi??n An M??n h???i n??m 1989. ??ng kh??ng li??n quan ?????n c??c ho???t ?????ng tham nh??ng (d?? ??ng l??m Ch??? t???ch t???nh Ph??c Ki???n h???i nh???ng n??m 1990, th???i ??i???m m?? m???t lo???t c??c l??nh ?????o t???nh n??y d??nh v??o m???t v??? l???a ?????o t??? ????). ??ng ???? t???ng li d???, song ng?????i v??? th??? hai c???a ??ng, B??nh L??? Vi??n, l?? m???t ng??i sao theo c??ch ri??ng c???a b??: m???t ca s?? v??n c??ng qu??n ?????i n???i ti???ng to??n qu???c. ??ng T???p th??? hi???n m??nh ?????y t??? tin v?? n??i chuy???n r?? r??ng trong c??c ho??n c???nh ?????i th?????ng, kh??ng b??? ???nhi???m??? c??c ng??n t??? ng???t ng???t th?????ng th???y trong c??ch n??i chuy???n c???a c??c quan ch???c. Quan tr???ng nh???t, c?? l??? l?? v?? c??c v??? l??o th??nh ?????ng cho r???ng h??? c?? th??? ki???m so??t ???????c ??ng. Theo m???t b??o c??o c???a Reuters, h??? quy???t ?????nh ch???n ??ng T???p v?? cho r???ng ??ng d??? u???n n???n v?? ???thi???u m???t c?? s??? quy???n l???c h???u thu???n???.

Tr??n c????ng v??? l??nh ?????o chu???n b??? k??? nhi???m, ??ng T???p d?????ng nh?? ???? nh???n ???????c ch???p thu???n cho t??i t???p trung quy???n l???c ??? B???c Kinh sau m???t giai ??o???n quy???n l???c b??? ph??n t??n v??? c??c ???l??nh ?????a??? xa x??i, b??? m???c cho tham nh??ng v?? th??n h???u ho??nh h??nh. Song n???u ????y l?? s??? m???nh thu??? ban ?????u c???a ??ng T???p, ??ng ???? ho??n th??nh qu?? m???c s??? m???nh ???y. Kh??ng c?? d???u hi???u n??o h???i n??m 2007 cho th???y r???ng c??c nh?? l??nh ?????o ?????ng c??? t??nh l???a ch???n m???t ng?????i c???ng r???n ????? ????a ?????t n?????c v??o v??ng tr???t t???. M???t ???ng vi??n ???th???a hi???p??? cu???i c??ng l???i tr??? th??nh nh?? l??nh ?????o ?????t th???a hi???p nh???t???.

(C??n ti???p 1 k???)
 

08/07/1965: Taylor t??? ch???c ?????i s??? t???i Vi???t Nam C???ng h??a

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Ngu???n: Taylor resigns Saigon postHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1965, ?????i s??? Maxwell Taylor ???? t??? ch???c t???i Vi???t Nam. C???u ?????i s??? Henry Cabot Lodge ???? thay th??? Taylor. Tr??n c????ng v??? ?????i s???, Taylor ???? th??c ??p ????? ch??nh quy???n d??n s??? ???????c thi???t l???p tr??? l???i sau cu???c ?????o ch??nh qu??n s??? l???t ????? T???ng th???ng Ng?? ????nh Di???m v??o th??ng 11/1963.

M???c d?? ban ?????u Taylor ph???n ?????i vi???c M??? s??? d???ng l???c l?????ng chi???n ?????u, ??ng d???n d???n ???? ch???p nh???n chi???n l?????c n??y. Tuy nhi??n, Taylor ???? c?? m???t cu???c tranh c??i v???i B??? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng Robert McNamara v?? T?????ng William Westmoreland, T?? l???nh Hoa K??? t???i Nam Vi???t Nam, t???i m???t h???i ngh??? ??? Honolulu h???i th??ng 4. ??ng ph???n ?????i s??? thay ?????i trong chi???n l?????c t??? ch???ng chi???n tranh du k??ch sang c??c ho???t ?????ng m???t ?????t quy m?? l???n th???c hi???n b???i c??c ????n v??? c???a Hoa K???. Theo nh?? b??o David Halberstam, cu???c tranh lu???n n??y ????nh d???u ???l???n cu???i c??ng Max Taylor l?? m???t nh??n v???t quan tr???ng, ????ng h??n, l?? l???i t??? bi???t c???a ??ng.???

Khi tr??? v??? M???, Taylor tr??? th??nh c??? v???n ?????c bi???t cho T???ng th???ng Lyndon B. Johnson v?? l?? m???t th??nh vi??n c???a Nh??m C??? v???n C???p cao ??? nh???ng ng?????i ???????c bi???t ?????n v???i c??i t??n ???Nh???ng Ng?????i Th??ng th??i??? (Wise Men) ??? ???????c tri???u t???p v??o th??ng 03/1968 ????? c??? v???n cho t???ng th???ng v??? chi???n tranh.

C??ng trong ng??y n??y: T???ng th???ng Johnson quy???t ?????nh r???ng m???t Hu??n ch????ng Ph???c v??? t???i Vi???t Nam (Vietnam Service Medal) s??? ???????c trao cho nh???ng ng?????i M??? ph???c v??? trong cu???c xung ?????t, m???c d?? kh??ng h??? c?? tuy??n b??? tham chi???n ch??nh th???c n??o. ???? c?? 16.300 l??nh M??? hi???n di???n ??? mi???n Nam Vi???t Nam v??o cu???i n??m 1964. V???i quy???t ?????nh c???a Johnson g???i th??m c??c ????n v??? t??c chi???n, t???ng qu??n l???c c???a M??? ??? Nam Vi???t Nam s??? ?????t con s??? 184.300 v??o cu???i n??m 1965.
 

31/10/1887: T??????ng Gi????i Tha??ch ra ?????i

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31-10-1887-chiang-kai-shek-is-born

Ngu????n: Chiang Kai-Shek is bornHistory.com

Bi??n di??ch: Nguy????n Thi?? Kim Phu??ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1887, t???i Chi???t Giang, Trung Qu???c, T??????ng Gi????i Tha??ch, l??nh ?????o ch??nh ph??? Qu???c D??n ?????ng (giai ??oa??n 1928-1949) ??a?? ra ??????i.

T????ng ????????c hu????n luy????n trong qu??n ?????i Nh???t B???n, T??????ng ????????c ti????p c????n v???i nh???ng l?? t?????ng c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng h??a. Khi tr??? v??? Trung Qu???c, ??ng ???? chi???n ?????u ch???ng l???i tri???u ?????i M??n Ch??u. Sau ??o??, ??ng gia nh???p l???c l?????ng Qu???c D??n ?????ng cu??a T??n D???t Ti??n. C??? T??n v?? T??????ng ??????u tin theo chu?? nghi??a c???ng s???n Li??n X?? v?? th???m ch?? co??n c?? c????u la??i Qu???c D??n ?????ng d???a tr??n m???t m?? h??nh c???a Li??n X??. Sau khi T??n qua ??????i, nho??m c???ng s???n Trung Qu???c, nh???ng ng?????i ???? ???????c k???t n???p v??o ?????ng, ??a?? xa??y ra xung ?????t v???i nho??m c???ng h??a.

Chi??nh lu??c na??y s??? kh??n ngoan ch??nh tr??? c???a T?????ng ????????c th???? hi????n, khi ??ng ng??n ch????n ???nh h?????ng c???a nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n trong ?????ng c???a mi??nh, du?? v????n xem Moskva nh?? m???t ?????ng minh, ma??i cho ?????n khi T??????ng d???n ?????u m???t cu???c ?????o ch??nh nh????m tr???c xu???t nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n, vi?? cho r???ng h??? ???? ????? m???nh ?????? th??ch th???c quy????n ki???m so??t cu??a ??ng trong ?????ng. T??????ng sau ???? ??a?? cu??ng li??nh Qu???c D??n ?????ng h??nh qu??n v??? B???c Kinh, h??nh th??nh m???t ch??nh ph??? m???i do ??ng n????m quy????n.

Th???ng nh???t ?????t n?????c v?? kh??ng ?????? c???ng s???n n????m quy????n gi???? ??a?? l?? ??i????u quan tr???ng nh???t v????i T??????ng, th???m ch?? c??n quan tr???ng h??n ca??c c???i c??ch x?? h???i c???a ??ng, hay cu???c x??m l?????c M??n Ch??u c???a ng??????i Nh???t, ??i???u ??ng ??t n??? l???c ch???ng l???i. Nh??ng khi chi???n tranh to??n di???n v???i Nh???t n??? ra v??o n??m 1937, ??ng bu???c ph???i cu??ng k??? th?? c???ng s???n c???a m??nh l????p l???c l?????ng ?????y lu??i qu??n Nh???t.

Ng??????i Trung Qu???c ???? m???t m??nh chi???n ?????u ch???ng l???i Nh???t B???n trong su????t b???n n??m, cho ?????n khi qu??n ?????ng minh tuy??n chi???n v??o n??m 1941. M???c d?? c??c n?????c ?????ng minh tung h?? T??????ng la?? anh hu??ng d??n t???c, m?? t??? ??ng l?? m???t ???David ch???ng la??i Goliath Nh???t B???n???, nh??ng th????c ra ??ng ta la?? m???t b???o ch??a thi???n c???n, ke?? quan t??m ?????n vi???c duy tr?? quy???n l???c v?? ?????c quy???n c???a m??nh h??n la?? chi???n ??????u ch???ng ????? qu???c Nh???t.

??ng ta t???? ch????i nh???ng n??? l???c c???a T?????ng My?? Joseph Stilwell nh????m t???o ra m???t ?????i qu??n Trung Qu???c hi???n ?????i, chi???n ?????u d?????i quy???n ki???m so??t chung c???a ?????ng Minh va?? Trung Qu???c. T??????ng quan t??m nhi???u h??n ??????n vi???c gia??nh l????y ti????n vi????n tr???? trong ch????ng tr??nh Lend-Lease cho m???c ????ch ri??ng c???a m??nh.

Sau khi ?????ng Minh ????nh b???i qu??n Nh???t, T??????ng quay l???i chi???n ?????u ch???ng Mao Tr???ch ????ng v?? nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n. N??m 1949, khi m???t ??????t n?????c c???a m??nh v??o tay c???ng s???n, T??????ng ??a?? cha??y sang ????i Loan, n??i ??ng thi???t l???p m???t ch??? ????? ?????c t??i kha??c ??? m????t Trung Qu???c th???? hai.

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T???i sao T?????ng Gi???i Th???ch ch???n ????i Loan?

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