Ng??y sinh t???ng th???ngGionson

Thứ ba - 27/08/2019 06:54
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1908, T???ng th???ng t????ng lai c???a n?????c M??? ??? Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) ??? ???? ???????c sinh ra trong m???t trang tr???i g???n Stonewall, Texas. Ch??ng trai th?? l???, b???c tr???c ???y l???n l??n ??? m???t v??ng n??ng th??n ngh??o kh?? v?? ???? t???ng theo h???c m???t tr?????ng ?????i h???c s?? ph???m tr?????c khi b?????c ch??n v??o ch??nh tr?????ng
Ng??y sinh t???ng th???ngGionson

27/08/1908: Ng??y sinh T???ng th???ng Lyndon B. Johnson

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Ngu???n: LBJ is born, History.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1908, T???ng th???ng t????ng lai c???a n?????c M??? ??? Lyndon Baines Johnson (LBJ) ??? ???? ???????c sinh ra trong m???t trang tr???i g???n Stonewall, Texas. Ch??ng trai th?? l???, b???c tr???c ???y l???n l??n ??? m???t v??ng n??ng th??n ngh??o kh?? v?? ???? t???ng theo h???c m???t tr?????ng ?????i h???c s?? ph???m tr?????c khi b?????c ch??n v??o ch??nh tr?????ng.

N??m 1937, Johnson gi??nh ???????c m???t gh??? trong H??? vi???n. Th???i gian l??m vi???c trong ch??nh ph??? c???a ??ng b??? gi??n ??o???n b???i Th??? chi???n II, khi ??ng quy???t ?????nh tham gia H???i qu??n v?? gi??nh ???????c Hu??n ch????ng Sao B???c (Sliver Star) v?? ???? d??ng c???m chi???n ?????u ??? Nam Th??i B??nh D????ng. Sau chi???n tranh, ??ng ti???p t???c m???t v??i nhi???m k??? t???i H??? vi???n tr?????c khi ???????c b???u v??o Th?????ng vi???n n??m 1948.

??ng tr??? th??nh L??nh ?????o phe thi???u s??? t???i Th?????ng vi???n n??m 1953. M???t n??m sau, khi ?????ng D??n ch??? l??n ki???m so??t Qu???c H???i, Johnson tr??? th??nh L??nh ?????o ??a s??? t???i Th?????ng vi???n v?? v??o n??m 1960, John F. Kennedy (JFK) ???? ch???n Johnson tham gia li??n danh tranh c??? c???a m??nh. N??m 1963, Johnson b???t ng??? nh???m ch???c T???ng th???ng khi JFK b??? ??m s??t ??? Dallas, Texas. LBJ ???? tuy??n th??? nh???m ch???c tr??n chuy??n c?? Air Force One, b??n c???nh m???t Jacqueline Kennedy suy s???p ??au kh???, v??o ng??y 22/11/1963.

Khi chu???n b??? k???t th??c nhi???m k??? ????ng l??? l?? c???a Kennedy, Johnson ???? c??? g???ng th??ng qua m???t ?????o lu???t m?? ??ng cho r???ng s??? bi???n n?????c M??? th??nh m???t ???X?? h???i V?? ?????i??? (Great Society). N??m 1964, ng?????i M??? ch??nh th???c b???u Johnson v??o v??? tr?? T???ng th???ng v???i t??? l??? phi???u cao nh???t trong l???ch s??? n?????c n??y. Johnson ???? s??? d???ng nhi???m v??? n??y ????? th??c ?????y nh???ng c???i ti???n m?? ??ng tin r???ng s??? t???t h??n cho l???i s???ng c???a ng?????i M???.

D?????i th???i Johnson, Qu???c H???i ???? ban h??nh lu???t ph??p s??u r???ng trong c??c l??nh v???c d??n quy???n, ch??m s??c s???c kh???e, gi??o d???c v?? m??i tr?????ng. Trong Th??ng ??i???p Li??n bang v??o ng??y 04/01/1965, Johnson ???? tr??nh b??y ch????ng tr??nh ngh??? s??? nh???m ch???ng l???i s??? suy ?????i c???a th??nh th???, ngh??o ????i v?? ph??n bi???t ch???ng t???c. ??ng ???? th??c ?????y vi???c t???o ra c??c ?????o lu???t li??n quan ?????n Ch??m s??c S???c kh???e (Medicare/Medicaid, Head Start,) ?????n Quy???n B??? phi???u (Voting Rights Act), D??n quy???n (Civil Rights Act), c??ng nh?? vi???c th??nh l???p B??? Ph??t tri???n Nh?? ??? v?? ???? th??? (Department of Housing and Urban Development) v?? H???i ngh??? Nh?? Tr???ng v??? V??? ?????p Thi??n nhi??n (White House Conference on Natural Beauty).

??ng c??ng ???? k?? ban h??nh ?????o lu???t Qu???c gia v??? Ngh??? thu???t v?? Nh??n v??n (National Foundation of the Arts and Humanities Act), l??m c?? s??? cho Qu??? Qu???c gia v??? Ngh??? thu???t v?? Qu??? Qu???c gia v??? Nh??n v??n (National Endowment for the Arts/National Endowment for the Humanities). Th??ng qua ?????o lu???t C?? h???i Kinh t??? (Economic Opportunity Act), Johnson ???? chi???n ?????u trong ???Cu???c chi???n ch???ng ????i ngh??o??? (War on Poverty) b???ng c??ch th???c hi???n c??c c???i ti???n gi??o d???c m???m non v?? c??c ch??nh s??ch vi???c l??m c??ng b???ng. Johnson c??ng l?? m???t ng?????i ???ng h??? m???nh m??? cho vi???c b???o t???n v?? ????? xu???t t???o ra m???t ???di s???n xanh??? (green legay) th??ng qua vi???c b???o t???n c??c c??ng vi??n t??? nhi??n, c??c kh??ng gian m??? v?? ???????ng b??? bi???n, ?????ng th???i x??y d???ng c??c c??ng vi??n ???? th??? m???i. Ngo??i ra, ??ng c??n ?????y m???nh nghi??n c???u v?? ban h??nh nhi???u ?????o lu???t v??? c??c bi???n ph??p ki???m so??t ?? nhi???m kh??ng kh?? v?? n?????c.

Johnson ???? ?????t ???????c nhi???u m???c ti??u c???a m??nh, d?? v???n c???t gi???m m???c thu???, m???t s??? ch????ng tr??nh c???a ??ng v???n ???????c ??p d???ng cho ?????n ng??y nay. Tuy nhi??n, theo nhi???u c??ch, di s???n ???X?? h???i V?? ?????i c???a Johnson ???? b??? lu m??? b???i vi???c ??ng l???a ch???n ????a m???t l?????ng l???n l??nh M??? tham gia Chi???n tranh Vi???t Nam. N??m 1968, LBJ tuy??n b??? s??? kh??ng t??i tranh c??? T???ng th???ng v?? ???ng vi??n ?????ng C???ng h??a Richard Nixon tr??? th??nh ng?????i k??? nhi???m ??ng, ph???n l???n nh??? v??o l???i h???a r??t qu??n l??nh M??? ra kh???i Vi???t Nam.

19/11/1942: Li??n X?? ph???n c??ng ?????c t???i Stalingrad

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Stalingrad Battle

Ngu???n: ???Soviet counterattack at Stalingrad,??? History.com (truy c???p ng??y 18/11/2015).

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1942, H???ng qu??n Li??n X?? d?????i s??? ch??? ?????o c???a ?????i t?????ng Georgi Zhukov ???? m??? chi???n d???ch Sao Thi??n V????ng, cu???c ph???n c??ng l???n gi??p xoay chuy???n t??nh th??? sang h?????ng c?? l???i cho Li??n X?? so v???i ?????c trong tr???n Stalingrad (17/07/1942???02/02/1943).

Ng??y 22 th??ng 6 n??m 1941, b???t ch???p nh???ng ??i???u kho???n c???a Hi???p ?????c X??-?????c 1939, ?????c Qu???c x?? v???n ph??t ?????ng m???t cu???c x??m l?????c l???n v??o Li??n X??. ???????c h??? tr??? b???i l???c l?????ng kh??ng qu??n tinh nhu???, qu??n ?????i ?????c nhanh ch??ng tr??n v??o l??nh th??? Li??n X??, g??y t???n th???t r???t l???n cho H???ng qu??n v?? nh??n d??n X?? vi???t. V???i s??? h??? tr??? c???a qu??n ?????i c??c n?????c ?????ng minh phe Tr???c, ?????c ???? chinh ph???c ???????c m???t v??ng l??nh th??? r???ng l???n, v?? bao v??y c??c th??nh ph??? l???n c???a Li??n X?? l?? Leningrad v?? Moskva v??o gi???a th??ng 10 c??ng n??m. Tuy nhi??n, ph??a Li??n X?? ???? c???m c??? ???????c, v?? m??a ????ng s???p ?????n ???? bu???c ?????c ph???i t???m d???ng cu???c t???n c??ng.

Trong cu???c t???n c??ng m??a h?? n??m 1942, Adolf Hitler ra l???nh cho T???p ??o??n qu??n s??? 6, d?????i quy???n T?????ng Friedrich von Paulus, ????nh chi???m Stalingrad ??? mi???n Nam Li??n X??, m???t trung t??m c??ng nghi???p v?? l?? tr??? ng???i ng??n ?????c Qu???c x?? ki???m so??t c??c gi???ng d???u qu?? gi?? ??? Caucasus. Th??ng 8, T???p ??o??n qu??n s??? 6 ???? ti???n qua s??ng Volga trong khi Qu??n ??o??n Kh??ng qu??n s??? 4 c???a ?????c oanh t???c Stalingrad th??nh ?????ng ????? n??t, c?????p ??i sinh m???ng c???a h??n 40.000 d??n th?????ng.

?????u th??ng 9, T?????ng Paulus ra l???nh ti???n h??nh c??c cu???c t???n c??ng ?????u ti??n v??o Stalingrad, ?????c t??nh r???ng s??? m???t kho???ng 10 ng??y tr?????c khi qu??n ?????i c???a ??ng chi???m ???????c th??nh ph???. T??? ????y b???t ?????u m???t trong nh???ng tr???n chi???n kh???ng khi???p nh???t v?? c?? th??? n??i l?? quan tr???ng nh???t c???a Th??? chi???n II do n?? l?? b?????c ngo???t trong cu???c chi???n gi???a ?????c v?? Li??n X??.

Trong n??? l???c chi???m ????ng Stalingrad, T???p ??o??n qu??n s??? 6 c???a ?????c ph???i ?????i m???t v???i T?????ng Vasily Chuikov d???n ?????u m???t ??o??n qu??n H???ng binh l???i d???ng th??nh ph??? ????? n??t l??m l???i th??? cho m??nh, bi???n c??c t??a nh?? b??? ph?? h???y v?? ?????ng ????? n??t th??nh c??ng s??? b???o v??? t??? nhi??n. V???i ph????ng ph??p chi???n ?????u m?? qu??n ?????c b???t ?????u g???i l?? Rattenkrieg, hay ???chi???n tranh c???a chu???t,??? c??c l???c l?????ng Li??n X?? chia th??nh c??c ?????i g???m 8 ho???c 10 ng?????i v?? chi???n ?????u gi??nh t???ng ng??i nh?? v?? kho???nh s??n c???a l??nh th???.

Cu???c chi???n ???? ch???ng ki???n nh???ng ti???n b??? nhanh ch??ng trong c??ng ngh??? chi???n tranh ???????ng ph???, ch???ng h???n nh?? s??ng m??y b???n xi??n g??c c???a ?????c v?? m??y bay c?? ?????ng c???a Nga ??m th???m l?????t qua v??? tr?? chi???m ????ng c???a ?????c v?? b???t ng??? th??? bom v??o ban ????m. Tuy nhi??n, c??? hai b??n ?????u thi???u l????ng th???c, n?????c, v???t t?? y t??? thi???t y???u, khi???n h??ng ch???c ng??n ng?????i thi???t m???ng m???i tu???n.

Nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? Joseph Stalin quy???t t??m gi???i ph??ng th??nh ph??? mang t??n ??ng, v?? ?????n th??ng 12, ??ng ra l???nh cho m???t ?????i qu??n ti???p vi???n l???n ti???n ?????n khu v???c n??y. Ng??y 19 th??ng 11, T?????ng Zhukov ph??t ?????ng m???t ?????t ph???n c??ng l???n c???a Li??n X?? t??? trong ?????ng ????? n??t c???a Stalingrad. Ch??? huy qu??n ?????i ?????c ???? ????nh gi?? th???p quy m?? c???a cu???c ph???n c??ng, v?? T???p ??o??n qu??n s??? 6 nhanh ch??ng b??? ??p ?????o tr?????c cu???c t???n c??ng g???m 500.000 l??nh, 900 xe t??ng, v?? 1.400 m??y bay c???a Li??n X??. Ch??? trong ba ng??y, to??n b??? l???c l?????ng h??n 200.000 ng?????i c???a ?????c ???? b??? bao v??y.

Qu??n ?????i ?? v?? Rumani t???i Stalingrad ???? ?????u h??ng, nh??ng ?????c v???n c??? c???m c???, nh???n c???u tr??? h???n ch??? qua ???????ng kh??ng v?? ch??? qu??n ti???p vi???n. Hitler ra l???nh cho Von Paulus gi??? v???ng v??? tr?? v?? phong ??ng l??m th???ng ch???, b???i ch??a bao gi??? c?? th???ng ch??? ?????c Qu???c x?? n??o t???ng ?????u h??ng. N???n ????i v?? m??a ????ng kh???c nghi???t c??ng nh?? qu??n ?????i Li??n X?? t??n nh???n ???? l???y ??i nhi???u m???ng s???ng c???a qu??n ?????i ?????c, v?? ?????n ng??y 21 th??ng 1 n??m 1943, s??n bay cu???i c??ng ?????c c??n chi???m gi??? ???? r??i v??o tay Li??n X??, c???t ?????t ho??n to??n qu??n ?????c v???i ngu???n vi???n tr???.

Ng??y 31 th??ng 1, Von Paulus ?????u h??ng c??ng qu??n ?????i ?????c ??? khu ph??a Nam, v?? ?????n ng??y m??ng 2 th??ng 2 to??n b??? qu??n ?????i ?????c c??n l???i ?????u h??ng. Ch??? c?? 90.000 binh s?? ?????c c??n s???ng, v?? trong s??? n??y ch??? c?? 5.000 ng?????i s???ng s??t qua nh???ng tr???i giam gi??? t?? binh chi???n tranh c???a Li??n X?? v?? tr??? l???i ???????c n?????c ?????c.

Tr???n Stalingrad ???? l??m thay ?????i t??nh th??? trong cu???c chi???n gi???a ?????c v?? Li??n X??. T?????ng Zhukov, ng?????i c?? vai tr?? h???t s???c quan tr???ng trong chi???n th???ng n??y, sau n??y ???? d???n qu??n ?????i X?? vi???t ti???n v??o Berlin. Ng??y m??ng 1 th??ng 5 n??m 1945, v???i t?? c??ch c?? nh??n, ??ng ch???p nh???n s??? ?????u h??ng c???a ?????c ??? Berlin. Trong khi ????, Von Paulus ???? v???n ?????ng c??c t?? nh??n chi???n tranh ng?????i ?????c ??? Li??n X?? ch???ng l???i Adolf Hitler v?? cung c???p l???i khai t???i T??a ??n Qu??n s??? Qu???c t??? t???i Nuremberg v??o n??m 1946. Sau khi ???????c Li??n X?? th??? t??? do v??o n??m 1953, Von Paulus ?????nh c?? t???i ????ng ?????c.

???nh: M???t ng?????i l??nh X?? vi???t v???y c??? ????? tr??n qu???ng tr?????ng trung t??m Stalingrad n??m 1943. Ngu???n: Georgii Zelma | German Federal Archives.

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