L?????ng Ti???n s?? Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng

Thứ ba - 17/09/2019 22:25
Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng (1909-1997) l?? m???t lu???t s??, nh?? gi??o d???c, nh?? nghi??n c???u v??n h???c Vi???t Nam. N??m 23 tu???i (1932), ??ng ????? li??n ti???p hai b???ng Ti???n s?? t???i Ph??p, ???????c khen ng???i l?? m???t t??i n??ng hi???m c??.
??ng h???c ti???ng Ph??p t??? nh???, tr?????c h???c tr?????ng Paul Bert, sau h???c tr?????ng Albert Sarraut, H?? N???i
L?????ng Ti???n s??  Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng

Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng (1909-1997) l?? m???t lu???t s??, nh?? gi??o d???c, nh?? nghi??n c???u v??n h???c Vi???t Nam. N??m 23 tu???i (1932), ??ng ????? li??n ti???p hai b???ng Ti???n s?? t???i Ph??p, ???????c khen ng???i l?? m???t t??i n??ng hi???m c??.
??ng h???c ti???ng Ph??p t??? nh???, tr?????c h???c tr?????ng Paul Bert, sau h???c tr?????ng Albert Sarraut, H?? N???i.

N??m 1926, ??ng ????? T?? t??i tri???t h???c (16 tu???i), h???ng ??u, ???????c h???c b???ng sang Ph??p h???c Lu???t v?? V??n ch????ng t???i Tr?????ng ?????i h???c T???ng h???p Montpellier (1927). N??m 1929, ??ng ????? C??? nh??n v??n ch????ng, v?? n??m sau ????? C??? nh??n Lu???t (1930).

Ti???p theo, ??ng d??? ?????nh thi tuy???n Th???c s?? (concours d'Agr??g??) ????? d???y h???c, nh??ng v?? qu???c t???ch Vi???t Nam n??n kh??ng ???????c thi. Sau ????, ??ng s???a so???n l??m lu???n ??n Ti???n s?? qu???c gia (doctorat d'??tat). Trong th???i gian l??m lu???n ??n, ??ng th???c t???p lu???t s?? t???i to?? Ph??c th???m Montpellier.

Th??ng 5 n??m 1932, ??ng b???o v??? lu???n ??n Ti???n s?? Lu???t, v???i lu???n ??n ch??nh: L'Individu dans la vieille cit?? annamite (C?? nh??n trong x?? h???i Vi???t Nam c???) v?? lu???n ??n b??? t??c: Essai de synth??se sur le Code de L?? (T???ng lu???n v??? lu???t ?????i L??). Th??ng 6 n??m 1932, ??ng b???o v??? lu???n ??n ti???n s?? v??n ch????ng v???i lu???n ??n ch??nh: Essai sur la valeur dramatique du th????tre d'Alfred de Musset (Gi?? tr??? bi k???ch trong tu???ng c???a A. Musset) v?? lu???n ??n b??? t??c: L'Annam dans la litt??rature fran??aise, Jules Boissi??res (Vi???t Nam trong c??c t??c ph???m c???a Jules Boissi??res.
Ca ng???i th??nh t???u ki???t xu???t n??y, ng??y 29 th??ng 5 n??m, nh???t b??o Le petit Meridional xu???t b???n ??? th??nh ph??? Montpellier ???? ????ng b??i di???n v??n c???a Ch??? t???ch H???i ?????ng gi??m kh???o tr?????ng ?????i h???c c???a th??nh ph???, nh???n x??t v??? lu???n ??n c???a m???t nghi??n c???u sinh Vi???t Nam, trong ???? c?? c??u mang t??nh ngo???i l???: "Lu???n v??n c???a Ng??i qu??? l?? m???t t??c ph???m ph??p l??, h??n n???a c??n l?? m???t t??c ph???m ph??p l?? v?? v??n h???c. N???n t???ng c???a t??c ph???m th???t l?? v???ng v??ng v?? kh??ng h??? c?? m???t l???i ch??? tr??ch n??o. C??? h??nh th???c c??ng th???t x??n l???n... C??ng tr??nh nghi??n c???u c???a Ng??i th???c s??? l?? m???t t??c ph???m v??n h???c ho??n ch???nh"....

Sau n??y, trong T??? ??i???n v??n h???c (b??? m???i), GS. Nguy???n Hu??? Chi c??ng ???? vi???t r???ng: "Vi???c ??ng ????? hai b???ng Ti???n s?? trong c??ng m???t n??m ???????c b??o ch?? Ph??p l??c b???y gi??? r???t ca ng???i, v?? ngay ?????n ng?????i Ph??p k??? t??? khi c?? h???c v??? n??y c??ng ch??a m???t ai m???i ??? tu???i 23 ???? gi???t ???????c "l?????ng khoa Ti???n s??"
Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng
Tham lu???n ?????c t???i cu???c h???p M???t tr???n T??? qu???c
??? H?? N???i ng??y 30.10.1956.
Th??a c??c qu?? v???,
H???i ngh??? M???t tr???n Trung ????ng h???p ????? nghi??n c???u c??c sai l???m trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t v?? ch??nh s??ch s???a ch???a sai l???m ???y. H??m nay t??i ???????c ????c k???t tr?????c to??n th??? H???i ngh??? c??c ?? ki???n m?? trong m?????i ng??y v???a qua t??i ???? tr??nh b??y trong t??? th???o lu???n, v???i tinh th???n th???n tr???ng c???a ng?????i tr?? th???c kh??ng bao gi??? qu??n tr??ch nhi???m c???a m??nh tr?????c nh??n d??n v?? l???ch s??? n?????c nh??.
T??i ph???n kh???i ???????c nghe b???n ph?? b??nh c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng do ??ng Tr?????ng Chinh ?????c tr?????c H???i ngh???. Nh??ng t??i c??ng ph???i th?? r???ng l??ng ph???n kh???i c???a t??i m???t ph???n b??? gi???m ??i, v?? t??i nh??? l???i k???t qu??? tai h???i c???a c??c sai l???m ???? ph???m trong c??ng cu???c C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t. T??i xin ph??p c??c v??? ???????c k??nh c???n nghi??ng m??nh tr?????c k??? ni???m nh???ng ng?????i v?? t???i ???? ch???t oan, kh??ng ph???i v?? b??n tay c???a ?????ch m?? ch??nh c???a ta. Trong cu???c kh??ng chi???n anh d??ng c???a ta, nh???ng ?????ng b??o ???? hi sinh, c?? th??? n??i ???????c, ch???t v???i trong l??ng chan ch???a n???i vui s?????ng v?? ch???t cho s??? nghi???p gi???i ph??ng d??n t???c kh???i nanh vu???t c???a ?????ch. H??? ch???t v?? ?????ch, cho ta, ???? l?? c??i ch???t t??ch c???c, c??i ch???t v??? vang, c??i ch???t oanh li???t m?? T??? qu???c ghi nh??? mu??n thu???. Tr??i l???i, c??c ng?????i ch???t oan v?? c??c sai l???m trong cu???c C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t n??y, l??c t???t th???, cay ?????ng ??au x??t v?? ch???t v???i m???t ?? danh. Ch??ng ta ???? xo?? b??? c??i ?? danh ????, nh??ng con ch??u c???a c??c n???n nh??n t??i n??o m?? kh??ng ng???m ng??i? ??au ?????n h??n, b??y gi??? ta l??m th??? n??o m?? bi???n c??i kh??? c???c c???a ng?????i t???t th??? th??nh m???t ni???m an ???i cho h??? ???????c? N???u ch??ng ta duy t??m v?? tin r???ng linh h???n c??n t???n t???i th?? m???t ph???n n??o ta chu???c l???i ???????c t???i l???i c???a ta. Nh??ng ta duy v???t v?? c??c ng?????i ???y l??c ch???t c??ng l?? duy v???t. Do ????, c??i n???i kh??? c???c c???a h??? ta bi???t r?? r???ng b??y gi??? ta kh??ng th??? n??o th??? ti??u ???????c n???a. Quy???n h???n c???a ta kh??ng t???i ????. Nh??ng c??i g?? ta c?? th??? l??m ???????c, ta c???n l??m, ????? nh?? l?? ?????n b?? m???t ph???n n??o s??? t???n thi???t c???a c??c ng?????i ???y, v?? ch???ng minh ta th???m th??a n???i ??au kh??? c???a h??? khi h??? t??? tr???n l?? ta c????ng quy???t r??t b??i h???c kinh nghi???m ??au ?????n v?? s???a ch???a c??c sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng m?? h??? l?? n???n nh??n.
V???i tinh th???n c???a m???t ng?????i trong qu???n ch??ng, c???a m???t ng?????i c??ng d??n ??au kh??? tr?????c bao nhi??u c??i ch???t oan c???a ng?????i v?? t???i, t??i xin ph??p tr??nh b??y m???y ?? ki???n x??y d???ng. Ch??? y???u t??i s??? ph?? ph??n v?? truy nguy??n c??c sai l???m trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t, nh??ng theo ?? t??i c??c sai l???m n??y ch??? l?? bi???u hi???n ??i???n h??nh v?? bi ????t nh???t c???a nh???ng thi???u s??t trong s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng. Do ???? t??i xin ???????c g??p ?? ki???n x??y d???ng quan ??i???m l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng.
T???i sao t??i l???i tin nh?? v???y? L?? v??, kh??ng nh???ng trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t ch??ng ta ???? ph???m sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng m?? c??? trong nhi???u khu v???c kh??c n???a. Trong c??c khu v???c n??y, sai l???m c??ng ???? ????a m???t s??? ng?????i trong qu???n ch??ng ?????n c??i ch???t th?? th???m. Do ????, n???u ch??? c???c b??? ho?? c??c sai l???m, ch??ng ta kh??ng th??? r??t ???????c b??i h???c kinh nghi???m, ch??ng ta s??? khi???m khuy???t v???i s??? t??n nhi???m c???a t???t c??? c??c ?????ng vi??n ?????ng Lao ?????ng, v???i s??? mong ?????i c???a to??n d??n. Ch??ng ta ph???i ki??n quy???t kh??ng cho c??c sai l???m ???y t??i di???n v?? t??c h???i n???a. ???? l?? nhi???m v??? t???i thi???u c???a ch??ng ta ?????i v???i c??c ng?????i ???? ch???t oan.
T??nh h??nh n?????c ta hi???n th???i ra sao? T??nh h??nh ???y c?? bi quan kh??ng? ???? l?? v???n ????? nh???n ?????nh th??i. Nh??ng c??i ch??? y???u l?? ta kh??ng nh??n t??nh h??nh ??y v???i con m???t bi quan. V???y s??? th???t kh??ch quan nh?? th??? n??o? Nh??n v??o n??ng th??n, ta th???y hi???n th???i t??nh tr???ng thi???u ??o??n k???t r???t ph??? bi???n. V?? thi h??nh sai ch??nh s??ch c???i c??ch, ta ?????i l???p c??c t???ng l???p trong giai c???p n??ng d??n, c??n b??? c?? v?? m???i, chi b??? c?? v?? m???i c???a ?????ng. Trong khi ?????p tan giai c???p ?????a ch???, ta kh??ng ph??n bi???t ?????i x???, ta ????? cho ch???t ch??c th?? th???m nh???ng ng?????i ho???c gi?? c??? ho???c th?? ???u m?? ta kh??ng ch??? tr????ng ti??u di???t. Ta ch??? c???n ?????c l???i c??c b??i gi??o hu???n cho ?????ng b??o n??ng th??n trong b??o Nh??n D??n l?? ta ????? hi???u m???t m??i n??ng th??n hi???n gi??? ra sao. Nh??n v??o c??c c??ng x?????ng, c??ng tr?????ng, ta th???y g??? C??? ?????c b??o Nh??n D??n th??i, ta th???y Ch??nh ph??? g???i c??c ph??i ??o??n ??i th??m c??c anh ch??? em c??ng nh??n, u??? l???o h???, b???t bu???c thi h??nh quy ch??? lao ?????ng m?? Ch??nh ph??? ???? ban ra. Ngh??a l?? th??? n??o? Ngh??a l?? giai c???p c??ng nh??n ???? ph???i lao ?????ng s???n xu???t hai n??m nay m?? kh??ng ???????c b???i d?????ng ????ng m???c. L???ng nghe d?? lu?????n ?????ng b??o H?? N???i th??i, ta ???????c bi???t r???ng c?? it ra m???t doanh nghi???p qu???c gia l??ng ph?? bao nhi??u tri???u trong khi d?????i ch??? ????? Ph??p thu???c, c??ng doanh nghi???p ???y mang l???i cho th???c d??n ????? qu???c c??c s??? l??i kh???ng l???.
V??? M???u d???ch n???a n??m nay, ?????ng b??o ca th??n nh?? th??? n??o, ta ???? bi???t. N??o ch??n ??p c??c nh?? kinh doanh t?? nh??n, n??o l??ng ph?? bao ngh??n tri???u trong khi th???c hi???n ch??nh s??ch, n??o t??n nh???n v???i c??c ng?????i b??n s???c lao ?????ng cho m??nh, n??o ????a ra th??? tr?????ng s???a h?? m?? kh??ng bao gi??? ngh?? ?????n t??nh m???nh c???a ng?????i ???m, c???a tr??? s?? sinh, n??o tung ra b?? h???ng, thu???c l?? m???c, ph???m ?????n s???c kh???e c???a nh??n d??n, n??o b???t l???c tr?????c hi???n t?????ng v???t gi?? ng??y c??ng l??n trong khi nhi???m v??? c???a m??nh l?? ph???i b??nh ???n n??. C?? th??? n??i ???????c, su???t ng??y ????m kh??ng ????u l?? kh??ng c?? l???i o??n tr??ch M???u d???ch.
V??? h??? kh???u th?? c??n b??? t??? v??? kh??ng ph???i l?? nh???m duy tr?? tr???t t??? an ninh, ph?? v??? c?? s??? c???a ?????ch, tr??i l???i qu???y nhi???u nh??n d??n, t???o ra m???t ?????i s???ng th??nh th??? ??i??u ?????ng cho t???t c???. N???u c??c v??? c???n nh???ng d???n ch???ng c??? th???, t??i ch??? xin nh???c l???i h??? s?? m??nh m??ng, thu l?????m c??c th???c m???c cay ?????ng c???a ?????ng b??o Th??? ???? trong ?????i h???i l???n th??? ba c???a nh??n d??n H?? N???i v???a h???p c??ch ????y hai th??ng.
N??i v??? ch??nh s??ch kh??i ph???c kinh t???, ta th???y g??? S??? v???n m?? c??c nh?? c??ng th????ng mang ra kinh doanh ch??? l?? m???t ph???n ti ti???u, s??? c??ng nh??n l??m vi???c trong c??c doanh nghi???p t?? nh??n kh??ng c?? ngh??a l?? g??. Tr??i l???i ta th???y t???t c??? m???t phong tr??o c??c nh?? t?? b???n thu h???p ho???t ?????ng c???a h???, ho???c ???chuy???n h?????ng??? b???ng c??ch ????m ra quay ch???, b??n n?????c m??a, hay d???t v??i th?????c v???i v??? v???n, ho???c ????ng c???a ??n v??o v???n ????? kh???i ?????ng ch???m ?????n S??? Lao ?????ng v?? v???n ????? c??ng nh??n, v???i S??? C??ng th????ng v?? v???n ????? ????ng k?? v?? nguy??n li???u s???n xu???t, v???i S??? T??i ch??nh v?? thu??? kho?? ?????c bi???t. Thu??? b??? sung ???? ????a bao nhi??u ng?????i ?????n ch??? ph?? s???n, c?? k??? ?????n ch??? t??? s??t. C??c ng?????i ti???u th????ng bu??n th??ng b??n m???t, ?????y chi???c xe h??ng ti???u tu??? trong ph??? c??ng ??????????c??? n???p thu???, c??ng nh?? c??c ng?????i su???t ng??y l??m vi???c ??? c??ng s??? hay c??ng x?????ng, t???i v??? th???c ????m d???t v??i th?????c ki???m th??m ti???n ????? th??n. H??ng tr??m, h??ng ngh??n c??ng ch???c c?? v??? h??u, v???i gia ????nh c???a h???, tr?????c ????y s???ng b???ng l????ng h??u tr??, hai n??m nay kh??ng ???????c ai chi???u c??? ?????n, ch???t d???n ch???t m??n, c?? ng?????i ????m ?????u xu???ng s??ng t??? t???, c?? ng?????i hai l???n u???ng ?????c d?????c ????? quy??n sinh.
C??n nh?? c??c c??n b??? th?? ta c?? c???n n??i ?????n kh??ng? Ta c??? tr??ng m???t m??i, qu???n ??o h???, ta ch??? c???n h???i con s??? nh???ng ng?????i qua c??c ph??ng kh??m b???nh, c??c b???nh vi???n, ta li???c m???t nh??n h??? ??n u???ng nh???ng g?? trong b???a c??m, l?? ta ????? hi???u kh??? c???c c???a h???.
Ta qu??n th??? n??o ???????c c??c ?????ng b??o t???p k???t ra ngo??i B???c, s??? ph???n con c??i h??? ??? H?? N???i, H???i Ph??ng, s??? ph???n ch??nh c???a h??? bi ????t qu?? n???i! Kh??? c???c nh???t cho c??c anh ch??? em l?? kh??ng n????ng t??a ???????c v??o m???t ?????i s???ng gia ????nh ????? khu??y kho??? trong l??c th???m s???u.
C??c hi???n t?????ng tr??n ????y c?? ????ng kh??ng, t??i ch??? y??u c???u c??c v??? ?????c b??o Nh??n D??n, nghi??n c???u c??c h??? s?? ch???ng ch???t l??n ??? M???t tr???n Th??nh H?? N???i sau ?????i h???i l???n th??? 3 v???a r???i, nghe ng??ng l???i than phi???n c???a qu???n ch??ng, nh??n nh???n c??c quang c???nh di???n ra d?????i m???t c???a c??c v??? l?? c??c v??? ????? hi???u r???i. Qu??? th???c nh?? ??ng Tr?????ng Chinh ???? tuy??n b???, uy t??n c???a ch??nh ph???, c???a ?????ng b??? t???n thi???t r???t nhi???u. Th??? t???i sao ?????ng b??o ch??ng ta l???i kh??? c???c? Ph???i ch??ng v?? c??n b??? c???a ch??ng ta non, h???p h??i, ch??a th???m nhu???n l?? lu???n c??ch m???ng, kh??ng t??n tr???ng gi?? tr??? c???a con ng?????i, c??c nhu c???u v?? ????i h???i ch??nh ????ng c???a n??? Ph???i ch??ng v?? ta ??ang m???c tr???m tr???ng b???nh ???u tr?? c???a c??ch m???ng? C??c ??i???u ???? l?? c??, ta kh??ng h??? ch???i v?? ta c??ng kh??ng th??? ch???i c??i ???????c. Nh??ng nh???n ?????nh nh?? v???y v???n c??n h???i h???t. Ta ph???i ??i s??u h??n n???a. Khi trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t c???a ta, ta th???y bao nhi??u ng?????i b??? t?? t???i, b??? gi???t oan, trong ???? bao nhi??u ng?????i d??n ??u t?? ???? t???ng g??p ph???n kh??ng nh??? v??o s??? nghi???p c??ch m???ng, khi hi???n th???i ??? n??ng th??n v???n c?? ng?????i b??? ????nh ?????p, ng?????c ????i, khi ta kh??ng x??y d???ng ???????c ??o??n k???t gi???a c??c ?????ng b??o, th?? ta ph???i nh???n ?????nh r???ng c??c sai l???m ta ???? m???c trong cu???c C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t n??y ch??? l?? nh???ng bi???u hi???u c???c ????? c???a c??c sai l???m ta ???? ph???m, v?? c??c sai l???m ???y n??u l??n, nh?? t??i tr??nh b??y tr??n ????y, m???t v???n ????? c???c k??? quan tr???ng l?? v???n ????? l??nh ?????o c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng.
Do ????, t??i y??u c???u c??c v??? cho ph??p t??i b???t ?????u nghi??n c???u c??c sai l???m trong C???i C??ch ???? r???i sau khi truy nguy??n c??c sai l???m ???y, ????? ?????t m???y ?? ki???n v??? v???n ????? l??nh ?????o.
I. V???n ????? ph??p l?? trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t
Ta ???? sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t, ta c?? th??? tr??nh ???????c sai l???m ???y m?? v???n b???o ?????m ???????c ???????ng l???i c??n b???n c???a c??ch m???ng kh??ng? T??i gi??? nh???i c????ng quy???t r???ng c??.
???????ng l???i c??ch m???ng c???a ta ????i h???i g??? Ru???ng ph???i tr??? v??? ng?????i c??y. ??i???u n??y r???t ????ng kh??ng ai c?? th??? ch???i c??i ???????c. N??ng d??n l?? ?????i ??a s??? trong nh??n d??n, n??ng d??n l?? qu??n ?????i ch??? l???c c???a c??ch m???ng, nh???t ?????nh c??ch m???ng kh??ng th??? n??o th??nh c??ng ???????c n???u ta kh??ng tho??? m??n nhu c???u thi???t y???u v?? c???p b??ch c???a n??ng d??n. Kh??ng c???n ph???i l?? m???t nh?? ch??nh tr??? cao, m???t nh?? c??ch m???ng th???o, c??ng nh???n th???y ??i???u ???y. Ch??? c???n nh??n l???ch s??? c??ch m???ng t??? th???i k??? c??? ?????i ?????n gi??? l?? ????? hi???u r???i.
Nh?? v???y v??? nguy??n t???c, ta t??n th??nh ch??? tr????ng C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t.
V??? ph????ng ph??p, ta c?? n??n ban ??n cho n??ng d??n kh??ng? Nh???t ?????nh l?? kh??ng. N??ng d??n ta trong bao ngh??n n??m ???? kh??? c???c d?????i ch??? ????? b??c l???t phong ki???n v?? m???t tr??m n??m nay d?????i ch??? ????? b??c l???t th???c d??n. ?????ng b??o n??ng th??n ta l???m than nh?? v???y, ???? m???t h???t kh?? th??? con ng?????i. Ta c???n kh??i ph???c kh?? th??? c???a ng?????i n??ng d??n, x??y d???ng cho h??? tinh th???n ch??? nh??n ??ng tr??n ?????t n?????c. Do ???? ta th???y c???n thi???t ph???i ph??t ?????ng t?? t?????ng c???a h??? ????? h??? nh???n ???????c ph??n minh k??? th?? c???a h???, ????? h??? v??ng d???y n???m l???y quy???n th??? ??? n??ng th??n.
Nh??ng t??? ????y tr??? ??i, ta th???y kh???i ph??t c??c sai l???m. Sai l???m n??y, ??ng Tr?????ng Chinh ???? nh???n th???y l?? ??? ch???: ta qu??n h???n ta hi???n th???i n???m ch??nh quy???n v?? ch??nh quy???n ???y, n???u ta bi???t s??? d???ng n??, khai th??c n?? m???t c??ch s??ng su???t, nh???t ?????nh ta v???n th??nh c??ng nh??ng ta tr??nh ???????c bao tai ho??? l??m ta ??au kh??? hi???n th???i. Con ???????ng ??ng Tr?????ng Chinh ???? ??i ????? ti???n t???i k???t lu???n ???y l?? con ???????ng ch??nh tr???. C??c anh em t??i l?? nh???ng nh?? lu???t h???c, ch??? l?? nh?? chuy??n m??n v?? l?? lu???n tr??n c?? s??? chuy??n m??n th??i, ???? tr??ng th???y k???t lu???n ???y ngay t??? khi ch??nh s??ch ph??t ?????ng v?? C???i C??ch ???????c ????? ra. T???i sao? V?? gi???i ph??p ch??nh quy???n c??? th??? l?? gi???i ph??p ph??p l??, ?????m b???o th???ng l???i ho??n to??n c???a c??ch m???ng n???u ta bi???t mang n?? ra ph???c v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? c??ch m???ng.
Ta mu???n g??? T??m k??? th?? c???a n??ng d??n, c???a c??ch m???ng ????? ti??u di???t n??. Nh??ng ?????ng th???i n???u ta bi???t lo xa, nh??n xa, ta c??ng kh??ng qu??n r???ng c??ng l?? c???a c??ch m???ng, mu???n b???o to??n ???????c uy t??n v?? th???ng l???i c???a c??ch m???ng, ph???i bi???t ????nh ????ng ?????ch. Khi ????a ra kh???u hi???u ???th?? ch???t 10 ng?????i oan c??n h??n ????? s??t m???t ?????ch??? th?? kh???u hi???u n??y kh??ng nh???ng qu?? t??? m???t c??ch v?? l?? m?? ph???n l???i c??ch m???ng l?? ?????ng kh??c n???a. Mu???n ch???ng minh ??i???u n??y ta ch??? c???n nh??n th???c t???: k???t qu??? sai l???m ta ???? ph???m khi th???c hi???n kh???u hi???u n??y r???t t???n thi???t cho uy t??n c???a c??ch m???ng v?? cho b???n th??n bao nhi??u chi???n s?? c??ch m???ng. N???u kh??ng ph???i ???? l?? ph???n l???i c??ch m???ng th?? l?? g???
Kh???u hi???u c???a ph??p l?? th?? kh??c h???n: ???Th?? 10 ?????ch s??t c??n h??n m???t ng?????i b??? k???t ??n oan???. Th??? ta c?? lo ng???i r???ng 10 ?????ch s??t kh??ng? Kh??ng, v?? ta n???m ch??nh quy???n, v?? c??ch m???ng ta ???? th??nh c??ng. Nh?? v???y k??? th?? c???a c??ch m???ng ch???ng s???m th?? ch???m, nh???t ?????nh ho???c c???i thi???n, gi??c ng???, ho???c l???t v??o l?????i c???a ta. Kh???u hi???u n??y l???i ??? ch???: kh??ng m???t ng?????i oan n??o b??? k???t ??n. Do ????, kh??ng c?? c??c k???t qu??? c???c k??? tai h???i di???n ra hi???n th???i.
L??m th??? n??o th???c hi???n ???????c kh???u hi???u ???y? Kinh nghi???m ph??p l?? c???a h??ng ngh??n n??m l???ch s??? th??? gi???i cho ta bi???t r???ng ta c?? ph????ng ph??p ????? t??m ????ng ?????ch m?? ????nh, kh??ng ????nh tr??n lan, kh??ng ????nh ng?????i v?? t???i. T??i xin ph??p nh???c t??m t???t sau ????y c??c nguy??n t???c c??n b???n m?? ph??p l?? n??u l??n ????? ?????t m???c ????ch ???y.
M???t nguy??n t???c ?????u ti??n l?? kh??ng h??nh ph???t c??c t???i ???? ph???m qu?? l??u r???i m?? b??y gi??? m???i kh??m ph?? ra. T???i sao? V?? r???ng v???n ????? b???ng ch???ng kh?? gi???i quy???t ???????c. Tang v???t ???? m???t, nh??n ch???ng c?? ng?????i ???? t??? tr???n, c?? ng?????i kh??ng nh??? r?? c??c s??? vi???c h??? ???? m???c k??ch. H??n n???a, s??? d?? h??nh lu???t ph???t c??c t???i, l?? v?? c??c t???i ???y ???? x??m ph???m v??o tr???t t??? x?? h???i: t??c h???i cho n???n nh??n v?? g??y t??c d???ng x???u trong qu???n ch??ng. Nh??ng khi t???i ???? ph???m qu?? l??u, tr???t t??? x?? h???i h???t b??? x??m ph???m r???i, n???n nh??n kh??ng c??n ??au kh???, t??c d???ng x???u c???a t???i c??ng h???t, th???i gian ???? h??n g???n c??c v???t th????ng. B??y gi??? l???i v???ch chuy???n c?? th?? kh??ng nh???ng kh?? thu th???p ???????c b???ng ch???ng k???t t???i m?? l???i g??y m???t s??? n??o ?????ng trong x?? h???i kh??ng c???n thi???t. Ch??nh x?? h???i th???y ???qu??n??? l???i h??n l?? ???nh??????.
M???t nguy??n t???c th??? hai l?? tr??ch nhi???m c???a ph???m nh??n th?? ch??? m???t m??nh ph???m nh??n ph???i ch???u, kh??ng c?? tr??ch nhi???m chung c???a v??? con, c???a gia ????nh. N??u tr??ch nhi???m tru???c h??nh lu???t c???a c??c ng?????i ???c?? quan h?????? v???i ph???m nh??n kh??ng nh???ng l?? b???t c??ng m?? l???i c??n g??y c??c s??? rung ?????ng v?? ??ch trong x?? h???i. H??n 400 n??m nay kh??ng m???t n?????c T??y ph????ng n??o l??m vi???c ???? n???a. Tr??ch nhi???m tr?????c h??nh lu???t ch??? l?? m???t tr??ch nhi???m c?? nh??n m?? th??i. Kh??ng nh???ng th???, v??? ph????ng di???n nh??n ?????o, th?? c??c ph???m nh??n qu?? gi?? ???????c mi???n ngh???, mi???n t??? v?? c??c v??? th??nh ni??n ???????c chi???u c???.
M??t nguy??n t???c th??? ba l?? mu???n k???t ??n m???t ng?????i ph???i c?? b???ng ch???ng x??c ????ng. Ph???i c?? nh??n ch???ng l?? nh???ng k??? ???? m???c k??ch s??? ph???m ph??p v?? cung khai m???t c??ch c??? th???, r?? r??ng, ch???c ch???n. M???t nh??n ch???ng th??i ch??a ?????, ??t ra c??ng ph???i c?? hai nh??n ch???ng cung khai ph?? h???p v???i nhau m???i ???????c coi l?? ????ng k???. Cung khai c???a c??c nh??n ch???ng ph???i ??n kh???p v???i nhau v?? trong qu?? tr??nh ph???m ph??p c??c tang v???t thu ???????c ph???i c?? t??c d???ng h???p l??, s??t h???p v???i k???t qu??? do cu???c ??i???u tra mang l???i.
M???t nguy??n t???c th??? t?? l?? th??? t???c ??i???u tra, x??t x??? ph???i b???o ?????m quy???n l???i c???a b??? t??? nh??n. B??? t??? nh??n c?? quy???n nh??? lu???t s?? b??o ch???a cho m??nh, v?? khi thi???u ??i???u ki???n nh??? lu???t s??, khi n??o l?? m???t tr???ng t???i, To?? ph???i c??? lu???t s?? b??o ch???a kh??ng, cho b??? can. Trong t???t c???, giai ??o???n ??i???u tra ??? tr??nh ????? c??ng an th???m v???n trong ph??ng d??? th???m, bu???c t???i tr?????c to??, quy???n l???i c???a c??ng t??? vi???n ngang v???i quy???n l???i b??? can, ngh??a l?? n???u c??ng t??? vi???n ????a h???t l?? l??? ????? bu???c t???i, b??? can ????a h???t l?? l??? ????? minh oan. Cu???c ?????u l?? di???n ra trong t???t c??? qu?? tr??nh ??i???u tra, truy t???, x??t x??? gi???a c??ng t??? vi???n v?? lu???t s??. C??c v??? th???m ph??n ng???i x??t x??? ph???i l?? v?? t??, ?????ng gi???a ????? theo r??i cu???c ?????u l?? di???n ra d?????i m???t m??nh. Nh?? th??? m???i nh???n ?????nh ????ng v?? x??? c??ng minh. To?? ??n x??t x??? kh??ng ch???u l???nh c???a ai trong khi x??t x???, ch??? bi???t x??t x??? theo l????ng t??m c???a m??nh v?? c??n c??? v??o t??i li???u trong h??? s??, sau khi nghe hai ti???ng chu??ng bu???c t???i v?? g??? t???i. Ng?????i th???m ph??n ph???i ???????c ????? ?????m b???o ????? l??m nhi???m v??? c???a m??nh m?? kh??ng s??? ai khi???n tr??ch hay g??y kh?? kh??n cho m??nh ???????c. Khi ??i???u tra th???m v???n, tuy???t ?????i c???m kh??ng ???????c d??ng ph????ng ph??p tra kh???o, ????nh ?????p, h??nh h??? b??? can, m???m cung cho b??? can, do??? n???t hay d??? d??? h???n. Khi n??o c?? ??i???u nghi ng??? th?? b??? can ???????c mi???n ngh???. N???u b??? k???t ??n th?? c??n quy???n ch???ng ??n l??n to?? tr??n. N???u b??? k???t ??n t??? h??nh th?? l???i c??n quy???n xin ??n gi???m tr?????c v??? Ch??? t???ch Ch??nh ph???. Con ng?????i c???a b??? can, trong t???t c??? qu?? tr??nh truy t??? v?? x??t x??? ph???i ???????c t??n tr???ng tri???t ?????, khi b??? can ra tr?????c to?? th?? kh??ng ???????c xi???ng x??ch h??? v?? kh??ng l??c n??o ???????c d??ng nh???c h??nh ?????i x??? v???i h???.
Theo m???t nguy??n t???c c??n b???n, kh??ng ph???i v?? m???t ng?????i t??c h???i cho m???t ng?????i kh??c m?? ng?????i ???y ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m tr?????c h??nh lu???t. T??c h???i cho ai th?? ch??? n??u tr??ch nhi???m v??? ph????ng di???n d??n s???, ngh??a l?? b???i th?????ng th??i ??? c???a ng?????i ???? t??c h???i. Mu???n truy t??? ng?????i ???y ????? thi h??nh h??nh lu???t ?????i v???i h???n th?? ph???i ch???ng minh r???ng h???n ph???m m???t t???i, ngh??a l?? ph???m v??o m???t ??i???u kho???n n??o qui ?????nh trong h??nh lu???t, v?? h??nh lu???t kh??ng bao gi??? c?? t??c d???ng ?????i v???i qu?? kh??? c???: n???u h??nh ?????ng c???a m???t ng?????i di???n ra trong th???i k??? m?? h??nh lu???t ch??a quan ni???m l?? m???t t???i th?? ng?????i ???y kh??ng th??? mang ra truy t??? ???????c. Kh??ng nh???ng b??? can ph???i ph???m m???t t???i ???? qui ?????nh r???i trong ph??p lu???t, m?? ta l???i c??n ph???i x??t xem r???ng l??c ph???m t???i ???y b??? can c?? ?? th???c, c?? ?? ch?? ph???m ph??p hay kh??ng, hay l?? v?? t??nh m?? ph???m ph??p. S??? ?????i x??? trong hai tr?????ng h???p ???y kh??c nhau.
L??c t??i nh???c l???i c??c nguy??n t???c n??y th?? c?? v??? cho r???ng nh?? th??? l?? phi???n ph???c, ph???c t???p. D?? nhi??n r???i, nh??ng t???t c??? v???n ????? l??: ta c?? mu???n gi???t ng?????i v?? t???i kh??ng? N???u kh??ng th?? kh??ng th??? n??o l??m kh??c ???????c. H??n n???a, mu???n nh???n ?????nh v???n ????? cho ????ng, ta kh??ng n??n ?????ng v??o v??? tr?? m???t ng?????i hi???n th???i kh??ng d??y d??a v???i ph??p lu???t, m???t ng?????i ??? m???t c????ng v??? ch??nh quy???n.Ta ph???i ?????ng v??o c????ng v??? c???a b??? t??? nh??n; l??c ???y v???n ????? r???t s??ng t???, kh??ng nh???ng ta ????i thi h??nh c??c nguy??n t???c ph??p lu???t, ta c??n c??? g???ng t??m hi???u th??m c??c nguy??n t???c m???i ????? ?????m b???o ng?????i oan kh???i b??? ch???t.
N???u mang ra ??p d???ng c??c nguy??n t???c ???y v??o cu???c C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t c???a ta, ta s??? l??m th??? n??o? Th??? t???c c???i c??ch c??? di???n b??i nh??ng s??? tr???ng tr??? b???n c?????ng h??o gian ??c hay ph???n ?????ng, ta s??? kh??ng giao cho m???t to?? ??n nh??n d??n, ?????c bi???t nh?? ta ???? l??m v???i t???t c??? s??? thi???u s??t v??? ph????ng di???n ph??p l?? m?? ta ???? bi???t. Tr??i l???i, sau khi ph??t ?????ng t?? t?????ng c???a n??ng d??n, ta s??? nghe l???i h??? t??? c??o k??? th?? c???a h???. Ta s??? u??? nhi???m to?? ??n nh??n d??n th?????ng l???p c??c h??? s??, ????? to?? ??n, v???i b??? m??y v?? kinh nghi???m c???a n??, ti???p t???c ??i???u tra, ki???m tra, l???y cung ch???ng, truy t???, lu???n t???i, x??t x???. Ta ?????m b???o tri???t ????? cho b??? t??? nh??n quy???n b??o ch???a c???a h???, ta y??u c???u c??c lu???t s?? l??m tr??n nhi???m v??? c???a h???, ta t??n tr???ng tri???t ????? con ng?????i c???a b??? t??? nh??n. Ta ch??? th?? gh??t v?? k???t ??n, tr???ng ph???t t???i c???a n?? ???? ph???m th??i. Ta tin t?????ng ??? to?? ??n, ta ?????m b???o cho c??c v??? th???m ph??n l??m vi???c ngo??i s??? ??i???u khi???n c???a ch??nh quy???n, m???t c??ch bi???t l???p, t??i n??i bi???t l???p ch??? kh??ng ph???i ?????c l???p, theo l????ng t??m c???a c??c v??? v?? c??n c??? v??o h??? s?? v?? k???t qu??? c???a cu???c th???m v???n.
II. C??c nguy??n nh??n sai l???m
Theo nh?? t??i nh???n ?????nh, v???i ch??? quan c???a t??i, c??c nguy??n nh??n sai l???m thu???c hai lo???i, c?? lo???i tr???c ti???p, nh??ng n???u ta ph??n t??ch lo???i n??y th?? ta s??? ??i t???i m???t lo???i th??? hai m?? theo t??i l?? nh???ng nguy??n nh??n ch??nh, ta c???n ch?? ??.
C??c nguy??n nh??n tr???c ti???p ta tr??ng th???y ngay. S??? d?? m?? khi nghi??n c???u ch??nh s??ch c???i c??ch, ta kh??ng ngh?? ?????n gi???i ph??p ph??p l?? ????a ra ????? ??i???u ho?? v???i gi???i ph??p ch??nh tr???, ph???i ch??ng l?? v?? ta kh??ng bi???t gi???i ph??p ph??p l??? N???u kh??ng th?? l?? s??? thi???u s??t nghi??m tr???ng c???a c???p l??nh ?????o. Nh??ng t??i tin r???ng kh??ng ph???i nh?? th??? ????u. S??? d?? ta kh??ng ????? ?? ?????n gi???i ph??p ph??p l?? l?? v?? ba l?? do:
1. Quan ??i???m ta-?????ch, th??-b???n c???a ta r???t m?? h???
2. Ta b???t ch???p ph??p lu???t, l???y ch??nh tr??? l???n ??t ph??p l??
3. Ta b???t ch???p chuy??n m??n
Quan ??i???m b???n-th??, ta-?????ch m?? h??? ??? C??c hi???n t?????ng tr??n tr?????ng qu???c t??? v?? trong n?????c r???t nhi???u v?? r?? r???t.
Tr??n tr?????ng qu???c t???, trong c??c n?????c d??n ch??? c???a ta th??i, ta th???y nh???ng ??i???u l??m ta suy ngh??. Ta th???y ch???ng h???n nh???ng ng?????i su???t ?????i hi sinh cho s??? nghi???p c??ch m???ng, gi??? nh???ng tr???ng tr??ch trong ch??nh th??? c??ch m???ng, r???i b???ng nhi??n ph???i tru???t quy???n, khai tr??? ra kh???i ?????ng, t???ng giam, th???m ch?? c?? khi b??? gi???t n???a. R???i ??t l??u sau, ta l???i th???y c??c ng?????i ???y ???????c kh??i ph???c c??ng quy???n, ?????ng t???ch, c????ng v???, ng?????i n??o b??? k???t ??n t??? h??nh r???i th?? ???????c an t??ng l???i ??? c??c ????i k??? ni???m c??c li???t s?? m?? T??? qu???c ghi t??n mu??n ?????i.
Trong n?????c ta, qua cu???c C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t ta th???y bao nhi??u c??c chi???n s?? c??ch m???ng th??nh t??ch l???ng l???y, c?? ng?????i ng???c g???n t???i hai huy ch????ng kh??ng chi???n (??? ngo???i th??nh H?? N???i) b??? k???t ??n l?? ph???n ?????ng, c?????ng h??o gian ??c v??, sau khi nh???n t???i, b??? t???ng giam hay b??? h??nh h??nh. ???y l?? kh??ng n??i ?????n c??c ng?????i trong qu???n ch??ng b??? hi sinh oan. ?????i v???i c??c n???n nh??n n??y, ta c?? th??? m???t ph???n n??o hi???u c??c sai l???m ???? ph???m, v?? h??? thi???u hay kh??ng c?? th??nh t??ch c??ch m???ng hay kh??ng chi???n. Nh??ng ?????i v???i c??c ?????ng vi??n ??u t??, tinh hoa c???a d??n t???c, l??c b??? x??? tr?? nh?? ta ???? bi???t, th?? ta t??? h???i trong ?????u ??c c???a nh???ng ng?????i x??? h??? c?? c??i g?? m?? ta g???i l?? l?? t??nh kh??ng? Ngay m???t th?????ng d??n, kh??ng ph???i l?? m???t nh?? ch??nh tr??? hay v??n ho??, ch??? s??? d???ng c??i l??? ph???i c???a m??nh th??i, c??ng kh??ng th??? n??o h???n h???p ng?????i x???u v???i k??? t???t nh?? v???y ???????c. Ta ph???i ?????t v???n ????? r???ng c??n b??? t??? tr??n xu???ng d?????i, tham gia C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t, kh??ng ph???i l?? ng?????i ??i??n cu???ng, c??ng kh??ng ph???i l?? ng?????i ch??? m??u, d???ng t??m ph?? ho???i. N???u nh?? th??? th?? ta s??? g???i h??? ?????n b??c s?? chuy??n m??n ch???a b???nh th???n kinh, hay ?????n c??ng t??? vi???n c???a c??c to?? ??n. Nh??ng kh??ng ph???i nh?? th???, ta tin nh?? v???y. Do ????, k???t lu???n m?? ta ti???n t???i, d?? mu???n hay kh??ng, l?? c??c c??c c??n b??? ???y c?? m???t quan ??i???m r???t m?? h??? v??? ta-th??, b???n-?????ch.
C??n g?? ??au ?????n h??n l?? c??u ta ???????c nghe ???ta ????nh c??? ta n???a???. N???u nh?? v???y th?? ta c???n ph???i nh???n r???ng ta kh??ng ph??n bi???t ???????c b???n v?? th??. Ta ?????c l???i c??c b??i g???n ????y ????ng trong b??o Nh??n D??n c???a c??c ?????ng ch?? b??? x??? tr?? oan, ho???c c??c ?????ng ch?? ???y n??i, ho???c kh??ng n??i, nh??ng ta ?????u hi???u c??c ?????ng ch?? ???y nghi ng??? nh???ng ng?????i k???t ??n c??c ?????ng ch??, kh??ng ph??n bi???t ???????c b???n v?? th??. V?? v???y n??n ????nh c??? b???n, gi???t c??? b???n.
T??i th???y ????y l?? m???t ??i???u c???c k??? quan tr???ng. Nguy??n do ??? ????u? Ph???i ch??ng ??? m???t tinh th???n c???nh gi??c qu?? cao ?????n n???i m?? qu??ng, ??? m???t t??? khuynh m?? ta th?????ng m???c trong giai ??o???n ???u tr?? c???a c??ch m???ng? ????y kh??ng ph???i l?? n??i v?? l??c m?? ta c???n ph??n t??ch s??u s???c ??i???u ???y. Ch??? y???u l?? ta nh???n th???y r???ng m???t nguy??n nh??n sai l???m l?? ??? trong quan ??i???m th?? b???n r???t m?? h???. N???u ta kh??ng k???p s???a ch???a sai l???m, x??y d???ng l???i quan ??i???m th?? b???n, m???t ng??y kia ta s??? l???i ph???i kh??c tr??n k??? ni???m c???a nh???ng v??? c?? c??ng nh???t v???i c??ch m???ng, v???i nh??n d??n. Ta c????ng quy???t kh??ng th??? n??o ????? t??nh tr???ng ???y t??i di???n ra ???????c.
B???t ch???p ph??p lu???t ??? Gi??o s?? Ba Lan Mahelli n??i chuy???n ??? B??? T?? ph??p, cho ta bi???t r???ng b??n Ba Lan, khi c??ch m???ng th??nh c??ng, c??c nh?? ch??nh tr??? b???t ch???p ph??p lu???t. H??? quan ni???m r???ng h??? ????? t??i n??ng ????? ?????m nh???n c??c c????ng v??? l??nh ?????o trong ng??nh t?? ph??p, ????? b?? bu???c t?? ph??p ph???c v??? tri???t ????? ch??nh tr??? m?? kh??ng ?????m x???a ?????n c??c nguy??n t???c c??n b???n c???a ph??p l??. K???t qu??? l?? ch???ng bao l??u b??? m??y t?? ph??p x???c x???ch, kh??ng nh???ng kh??ng c???ng c??? ???????c ch??nh th??? c??ch m???ng, ng?????c l???i, t??c h???i qu?? nhi???u g??y bao nhi??u kh?? kh??n cho ch??nh quy???n c??ch m???ng. Sai l???m ???y ???????c u???n n???n k???p th???i: ho??n c???nh kh??ch quan ???? d???y m???t b??i h???c cho ch??? quan c??c nh?? ch??nh tr???, ????? l??nh ?????o chuy??n m??n ph???i nh???p tr?????ng h???c t???p, tr?????c non 2 n??m, sau 5 n??m, ????? qua ph??p l??, ph???c v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? c??ch m???ng.
??i???u n??y kh??ng l??m ch??ng ta ng???c nhi??n. Trong giai ??o???n ?????u ti??n, ch??nh tr??? say s??a v???i c??c th???ng l???i ???? thu ???v?? d?? nhi??n c??c th???ng l???i ???y v?? ?????i??? l??m v??o t??nh tr???ng t??? m??n v?? bao bi???n.
Nh??ng qu???n tr??? m???t n?????c, ?????c bi???t m???t n?????c ??ang x??y d???ng ch??nh quy???n c??ch m???ng, ngh??a l?? m???t c??i g?? v?? c??ng m???i m??? v?? kh?? kh??n ??? kh??ng gi???ng nh?? l?? ????? ra ???????ng l???i v?? kh???u hi???u tranh ?????u c??ch m???ng v?? v???n ?????ng qu???n ch??ng l??m c??ch m???ng. Hai khu v???c ho???t ?????ng ???y tuy quan h??? m???t thi???t v???i nhau, nh??ng m???i ng??nh ho???t ?????ng c?? k??? thu???t v?? quy lu???t c???a n??. L??c nh?? ch??nh tr??? bao bi???n, b???t ch???p ho??n c???nh kh??ch quan kinh nghi???m x????ng m??u c???a l???ch s???, th?? ch???ng s???m th?? mu???n ta th???y di???n ra nh???ng tai h???i hi???n th???i l??m ch??ng ta ??au x??t. Tr??n con ???????ng bao bi???n v?? t??? m??n ???y, c??c nh?? ch??nh tr??? ???? b??? th??c ?????y b???i nh???ng th??nh ki???n ?????i v???i ph??p l?? v?? tin r???ng ph??p l?? l?? c??i g???y ch??? d??ng ????? ch???c b??nh xe, kh??ng hi???u r???ng, tr??i l???i, ch??nh ph??p l?? gi??p xe kh???i l???t, kh???i g??y tai n???n. Nguy h???i h??n l?? ch??nh tr??? t??? ?????t m??nh l??n tr??n ph??p lu???t. Ngay trong tr?????ng h???p ch??nh tr??? sau khi ?????t m??nh l??n tr??n ph??p lu???t, c??n gi??? v???ng th??i ????? ch??n ch??nh, c??ng ???? g??y ra bao kh?? kh??n r???i. Ph??p lu???t ch??? y???u ????? ra nh???ng c??i g?? c?? th??? l??m ???????c, c??i g?? kh??ng ???????c ph??p l??m, do ???? nh??n d??n v???ng t??m bi???t r?? ???????ng m?? ??i. Nh??ng t??m h???n qu???n ch??ng ch??? ???????c ???n ?????nh khi n??o qu???n ch??ng bi???t r?? r???ng c??i g?? b?? bu???c m??nh c??ng ?????ng th???i b?? bu???c nh?? c???m quy???n. Tr??i l???i, khi ph??p lu???t ch??? g?? b?? qu???n ch??ng m?? kh??ng g?? b?? nh?? c???m quy???n th?? nh?? c???m quy???n m???i l??c c?? th??? v??? ra c??c ???????ng m???i m?? qu???n ch??ng ch??a t???ng bi???t. V?? v???y qu???n ch??ng hoang mang: c??i g?? h??m qua l??m ???????c, ng??y mai v???i s??? ?????c ??o??n c???a nh?? c???m quy???n c?? th??? b??? coi l?? phi ph??p. Hoang mang ???y l??n t???i c???c ????? khi t??c d???ng c???a s??? thay ?????i th??i ????? n??y c???a nh?? c???m quy???n kh??ng nh???ng ???nh h?????ng ?????n t????ng lai, m?? l?? ???nh h?????ng c??? v??? qu?? kh??? n???a. ???? l?? tr?????ng h???p nh?? c???m quy???n, l??c t??? ?????t m??nh l??n tr??n ph??p lu???t, gi??? th??i ????? ch??n ch??nh ????ng m???c, hu???ng h??? l?? khi nh?? c???m quy???n s??? d???ng quy???n th??? c???a m??nh m???t c??ch l???ng quy???n, nh?? ??ng Tr?????ng Chinh ???? nh???n ?????nh. Quy???n x??? t??? ng?????i m???t c??ch ????n gi???n nh?? v???y tr??i v???i lu???t ph??p: ???? ch??? l?? m???t gi???i ph??p ch??nh tr??? m?? th??i. N???u m?? c??c ng?????i s??? d???ng quy???n ???y l???i kh??ng s??? d???ng v???i tinh th???n ch??nh s??ch c???a l??nh ?????o, s??? d???ng m???t c??ch l???ng quy???n th?? k???t qu??? th??? n??o, hi???n th???i ta ???? tr??ng th???y r??.
B???t ch???p chuy??n m??n ??? C??c nh?? ch??nh tr??? b???t ch???p ph??p lu???t. Nh??ng n???u c??c v??? ???y tranh th??? ?? ki???n c???a c??c nh?? chuy??n m??n v?? cho ph??p c??c nh?? chuy??n m??n ????? ?????t ?? ki???n th?? c??c nh?? chuy??n m??n c??ng s??? y??u c???u c??c nh?? ch??nh tr??? n??n ch?? ?? ?????n ph??p lu???t, v?? d??ng ph??p lu???t ph???c v??? c??ch m???ng.
Nh??ng ti???c thay, trong 10 n??m v???a qua, ta th???y m???t t??nh tr???ng qu??i g???. Ch??nh tr??? ??m ???nh ?????u ??c ch??ng ta ?????n n???i hai ch??? ???l???p tr?????ng??? l??m ta m???t ??n m???t ng???. N???u ???????c d??ng m???t h??nh ???nh ???duy t??m???, t??i v?? l???p tr?????ng nh?? c??i oan h???n ng??y ????m theo ??u???i k??? n??o ???? h??m h???i ng?????i ch??? c???a n??. C?? m???t ??i???u l???, l?? c??c anh em c??ng n??ng, c??c v??? l??nh t??? kh??ng bao gi??? n??i ?????n l???p tr?????ng trong sinh ho???t h??ng ng??y. Tr??i l???i, c??c c??n b??? v?? ?????ng vi??n ti???u t?? s???n kh??ng lo ng???i g?? b???ng s??? m???t l???p tr?????ng. V?? v???y, ????? nh??? ?????n n??, m??? mi???ng ra l?? n??u l???p tr?????ng r???i. ???? l?? tinh th???n t??? ti c???a m???t giai c???p m???t kh?? th???, qu??n r???ng m??nh ?????ng trong h??ng ng?? c??ch m???ng. D?? sao, ??? Vi???t Nam ch??ng ta c??ng ???? x???y ra nh???ng s??? vi???c nh?? sau ????y, ta c???n ghi nh??? ????? con ch??u ta c?????i mu??n thu???: khi ch???n m???t ng?????i v???n l??i ?? t??, ta kh??ng h???i ng?????i ???y c?? b???ng v???n l??i v?? ???? v???n l??i bao n??m, ta ch??? h???i : ???C?? l???p tr?????ng kh??ng???? K???t qu??? l?? t??? hai n??m nay, ri??ng trong th??? ???? H?? N???i, h??ng tr??m tai n???n x???y ra do c??c ng?????i v???n l??i ?? t?? c?? l???p tr?????ng m?? kh??ng n???m chuy??n m??n. Khi ????a t???i b???nh vi???n m???t b???nh nh??n c???p c???u, v???n ????? mang ra th???o lu???n tr?????c ti??n l??: B???nh nh??n thu???c th??nh ph???n giai c???p n??o? Ch???a cho ?????a ch??? th?? ???m???t l???p tr?????ng???. ????? n?? ch???t m???i ch???ng minh m??nh c?? ???l???p tr?????ng giai c???p??? (hi???n t?????ng do B.S. Nguy???n Xu??n Nguy??n ????a ra).
T???i sao c?? nh???ng hi???n t?????ng qu??i g??? nh?? v???y? L?? v?? ch??nh tr??? chi???m ????ng t???t c??? c??c khu v???c trong nh???n th???c c???a ch??ng ta l??m ch??ng ta m???t c??? c??i nh??n ?????o t???i thi???u c???a con ng?????i, l??m ch??ng ta kh?????c t??? c??c ch??n l??. Ch??n l?? cho bi???t r???ng ch??nh tr??? kh??ng th??? n??o thay th??? ???????c cho chuy??n m??n, kh??ng l??m ???????c vi???c c???a chuy??n m??n. N???u nh?? v???y th?? ??t ra ch??nh tr??? c??ng h???i ?? c???a chuy??n m??n m???i l?? ph???i. Nh??ng kh??ng. Ch??nh tr??? nghi ng??? chuy??n m??n, kh??ng tin ??? chuy??n m??n. L??c th?? cho r???ng chuy??n m??n l?? do v??n ho?? v?? khoa h???c t?? s???n ????? qu???c x??y d???ng, l?? v?? d???ng (???? l?? m???t sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng c??c ng?????i tin nh?? v???y ch??a ?????c L??-nin). L??c th?? cho r???ng c??c nh?? chuy??n m??n kh??ng ph???i xu???t hi???n ??? t???ng l???p c?? b???n, c??ng hay n??ng, th?? kh??ng c?? ?????m b???o v?? th??i ????? l???ng ch???ng, l???p tr?????ng l???ng l???o, d?? l?? 10 n??m nay h??? ???? b?????c ch??n v??o ???????ng c??ch m???ng v?? ch???ng minh nhi???t t??nh c???a m??nh ?????i v???i s??? nghi???p gi???i ph??ng d??n t???c, ki???n thi???t qu???c gia.
Theo ?? t??i, ????y l?? m???t v???n ????? then ch???t. C??c anh em tr?? th???c kh??ng chi???n th?????ng ph??n n??n r???ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng thi???u t??n nhi???m h???. H??? ??au kh??? m?? nh???n th???y r???ng m???c d???u h??? ???? tr???i qua bao nhi??u th??? th??ch, ch???u ?????ng bao nhi??u hi sinh, tr???i qua bao nhi??u gian nguy, ?????ng v???n ch??a tin ??? h???. N??o h??? c?? y??u s??ch g?? qu?? ????ng ????u? H??? c?? ????i l??m B??? tr?????ng hay ?????i s??? ????u? Kh??ng. ?????i ??a s??? c??c anh em tr?? th???c n??i chung, kh??ng m?? ?????c c??c c????ng v???, c??ng t??c l???ng l???y ????u, h??? vui l??ng nh?????ng ch??? cho c??c nh?? ch??nh tr???, c??c ?????ng vi??n. H??? ch??? thi???t tha ????i h???i ???????c mang kh??? n??ng chuy??n m??n v?? kinh nghi???m c???a h??? ra ph???c v??? nh??n d??n m?? th??i. H??? ch??? thi???t tha mong mu???n ???????c b???o to??n danh d??? tr?? th???c c???a h??? v?? c??i t??? do t?? t?????ng m?? h??? quan ni???m l?? c???n thi???t cho nh??n ph???m c???a ng?????i tr?? th???c m?? th??i. H??? ???? t???ng nghe th???y ?????ng tuy??n b???: Ng?????i tr?? th???c l?? v???n qu?? c???a d??n t???c. Nh??ng h??? c???m th???y v???n ???y qu?? qu?? ?????n n???i ph???i c???t n?? ??i th???t k???, gi??? g??n n?? trong m???t b??n ???nh, m???t ho??ng h??n tr?????ng c???u. N???u c?? ai cho r???ng t??i n??i kh??ng ????ng, t??i c??? ????? ngh??? ng?????i ???y quay m???t nh??n chung quanh, ??? c??c c????ng v??? c??ng t??c trong ch??nh th??? c???a ta. C?? m???t ch??? n??o m?? ng?????i tr?? th???c ngo??i ?????ng n???m ???????c th???c quy???n kh??ng? T??c d???ng ???hi???u h?????? hay ???c?????i g???t??? th?? c??, m?? l???i c?? nhi???u. Nh??ng ngay ??? c??c c????ng v??? ???y, ngo??i vai tr?? hi???u h???, c?????i g???t, ng?????i tr?? th???c c?? m???t tr??ch nhi???m g?? kh??ng, c?? quy???n n??i g?? l??m g?? kh??ng, qu???n ch??ng ???? bi???t v?? mi???n t??i gi??? nh???i.
Ch??nh tr??? ch??n ??p chuy??n m??n nh?? th??? n??o? xua ??u???i ng?????i tr?? th???c ra ngo??i con ???????ng c??ch m???ng ra sao, l???ch s??? kh??ng chi???n ???? cho ta kinh nghi???m ??au ?????n. N??m 1949, phong tr??o t?? ph??p li??n khu III tan v??? v?? ch??nh quy???n quan ni???m t?? ph??p ph???i thu???c s??? ??i???u khi???n c???a m??nh. N??m 1951, phong tr??o qu??n y, d??n y li??n khu IV s???p ????? v?? c??c ch??nh tr??? vi??n ????a v??o c??c b???nh vi???n ???? ????n ??p chuy??n m??n, th??c ?????y c??c b??c s?? c?? c??ng v???i c??ch m???ng, v???i kh??ng chi???n, ph???i g???t n?????c m???t m?? r???i b??? kh??ng chi???n. ???? kh??ng ph???i l?? ch??? tr????ng c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng. Nh??ng c?? m???t ??i???u l??m ta suy ngh??: sao m??i b??y gi??? sau 10 n??m ?????ng m???i nghi??n c???u m???t ch??nh s??ch cho tr?? th???c? ??i???u ???y ch???ng t??? r???ng t??? khi c??ch m???ng th??nh c??ng, ta ch??a ????nh ????ng gi?? ng?????i tr?? th???c, ch??a ?????t v???n ????? tr?? th???c. Do ????, l??m th??? n??o khai th??c ???????c t???t c??? kh??? n??ng c???a ng?????i tr?? th???c ????? h??? mang chuy??n m??n ra ph???c v??? nh??n d??n?
Tr??n ????y, t??i n??i v??? ng?????i tr?? th???c t??? chi???n khu tr??? v???. ?????i v???i ng?????i tr?? th???c v???n ??? trong Th??? ????, ta th???y s??? thi???u t??n nhi???m ???y l???i c??n tr???m tr???ng h??n n???a. Bao l???n ta nghe ti???ng chua cay c???a c??c anh em ???y ph??n n??n b??? coi nh?? l?? k??? th??, m???c d???u c??c anh em v?? y??u n?????c ???? kh???c ph???c m???i lo s??? do tuy??n truy???n c???a ?????ch g??y ra v?? ??? l???i v???i ch??ng ta. Ta ????? cho c??n b??? h??? kh???u x??m ph???m ?????n danh d??? c???a c??c anh em, ta kh??ng t??m c??ch n??o s???a ch???a sai l???m ta ???? ph???m ?????i v???i anh em. ??? c??c c??ng s??? t??nh tr???ng ch??n ??p c???a ch??nh tr??? ?????i v???i chuy??n m??n ???? ????a ?????n c??i danh t??? bi ????t l??m cho ta ??au l??ng: ???h??? L??u, h??? Kh??ng???. Kh??ng ??o??n k???t ???????c c??c anh em, ta l???i c??n c?? th??i ????? ??p m???, nh??ng nh???ng (ta t?????ng nh?? v???y l?? th?????ng s??ch), th???m ch?? ta l???i c??n nghi ng??? c??c anh em. Ta kh??ng hi???u r???ng l??m nh?? v???y, ta b???t c??ng v???i c??c anh em, ta kh??ng t??n tr???ng l???i ???? h???a qua ch??nh s??ch ti???p qu???n v?? c????ng l??nh M???t Tr???n, ta ?????y c??c anh em xa r???i ta, ta v?? t??nh n??m xu???ng b??? ti??u c???c c??i v???n chuy??n m??n c???a c??c anh em tr?? th???c trong Th??? ????.
???? l?? nh???ng nguy??n nh??n tr???c ti???p. ????o s??u h??n n???a, ta th???y r???ng s??? d?? c?? nh???ng hi???n t?????ng nh?? ta v???a ph??n t??ch tr??n ????y, ch???ng qua ch??? v?? s??? l??nh ?????o c???a ta thi???u d??n ch???, xa l??a qu???n ch??ng.
Ch??nh th??? ta thi???u d??n ch??? nh?? th??? n??o, ta ???? t???ng bi???t. Vai tr?? c???a c??c v??? B??? v?? Th??? tr?????ng ngo??i ?????ng nh?? th??? n??o, c??c v??? ???? l??m ???????c nh???ng g?? trong H???i ?????ng ch??nh ph???, trong c??c ng??nh chuy??n m??n m?? c??c v??? ???y ph??? tr??ch, ta kh??ng n??n ??i qu?? s??u. Ta ch??? c???n li???c m???t nh??n qua c??ng vi???c l??m trong m???i B???, ta ch??? c???n nghe ti???ng than phi???n c???a c??c c??n b???, c??ng ch???c l??m vi???c trong c??c B??? l?? ta hi???u. Ta c??ng bi???t r???ng ch??? tr????ng c???a ?????ng c?? l??? kh??ng ph???i nh?? v???y ????u, nh??ng trong th???c t??? c??ng t??c, m???i anh em ta ti???p x??c v???i c??c v??? B??? hay Th??? tr?????ng ngo??i ?????ng, ?????u nh???n th???y r???ng quy???n h??nh c???a c??c v??? ???y h??nh nh?? kh??ng ph???i l?? quan tr???ng cho l???m. Nh???n ?????nh nh?? v???y c?? l??? ta l???m ?????y. Nh???t ?????nh ta l???m. Nh??ng d?? sao c?? ???d?? lu???n??? kh??ng ai ch???i c??i ???????c. Do ????, n???u ch??? tr????ng c???a ?????ng kh??ng ph???i nh?? v???y th?? ??t ra ?????ng c??ng mang tr??ch nhi???m kh??ng l??m th??? n??o ????? ti??u tan c??i d?? lu???n tai h???i m?? ch??ng ta th???y t???n t???i t??? th???i k??? kh??ng chi???n ?????n gi???. Nh??ng c??ng c?? ??i???u ch???c ch???n kh??ng ai ch???i c??i ???????c, l?? c??c v??? B??? hay Th??? tr?????ng kh??ng c?? tr??ch nhi???m g?? tr?????c Qu???c h???i, tr?????c nh??n d??n, ch??? c?? tr??ch nhi???m tr?????c Ch??nh ph??? m?? th??i. Ch??a bao gi??? ta th???y v??? B??? tru???ng n??o b??? l???t ????? c???. Ph???i ?????i ?????n c??c sai l???m ?????c bi???t nghi??m tr???ng trong C???i c??ch m???i th???y hai v??? Th??? tr?????ng ph???i r??t lui kh???i H???i ?????ng Ch??nh ph???. C??c hi???n t?????ng ???y ch???ng t??? r???ng Ch??nh ph??? ta ch??a th???c hi???n ???????c d??n ch??? trong khi l???p H???i ?????ng Ch??nh ph???, v?? c??c v??? B??? hay Th??? tr?????ng ?????u ???????c c??? hay b??? tru???t, ngo??i s??? tham gia tr???c ti???p hay gi??n ti???p (qua Qu???c h???i) c???a qu???n ch??ng.
T??nh tr???ng c???a Qu???c h???i l???i r?? h??n n???a. M?????i n??m Qu???c h???i ???? th??nh l???p. C??c v??? ?????i bi???u Qu???c h???i c??n ph???n ???nh ???????c ?? nguy???n c???a qu???n ch??ng kh??ng, qu???n ch??ng c?? t??n nhi???m ??? Qu???c h???i n???a kh??ng, ???? l?? m???t v???n ?????. Nh??ng d?? v???n ????? ???y ta gi???i quy???t nh?? th??? n??o ??i n???a, c?? m???t ??i???u ch???c ch???n l?? m???t Qu???c h???i gi?? 10 n??m r???i m?? v???n t???n t???i ngo??i s??? can thi???p c???a qu???n ch??ng, s??? l???a ch???n c???a qu???n ch??ng, ch???ng minh r???ng qu???n ch??ng 10 n??m nay ???? b??? tru???t quy???n c??? ?????i bi???u c???a m??nh r???i. D?? nhi??n trong th???i k??? kh??ng chi???n, b???u l???i Qu???c h???i l?? m???t ??i???u kh??ng l??m ???????c. V?? hi???n th???i, Nam-B???c b??? t???m chia c???t, do ???? s??? b???u l???i to??n th??? Qu???c h???i c??ng l?? kh?? kh??n. Nh??ng d?? sao ri??ng ??? c??c mi???n gi???i ph??ng n??y, n???u ta ch?? ?? ?????n quy???n ng?????i d??n c??? ?????i bi???u c???a h??? th?? nh???t ?????nh ta ph???i cho ph??p ng?????i d??n b??? phi???u r???i. T??? khi ho?? b??nh tr??? l???i, 2 n??m ???? qua, m??i b??y gi??? tr?????c phong tr??o qu???n ch??ng ????i th???c hi???n d??n ch???, ta m???i ngh?? ?????n quy???n b??? phi???u c???a ng?????i d??n v?? b??? sung Qu???c h???i.
N??o c?? th??? th??i ????u? Ngay c??i Qu???c h???i ta ??ang c?? hi???n th???i, ta c?? th???c hi???n d??n ch??? v???i n?? kh??ng? Ch???c ch???n l?? kh??ng. Th???nh tho???ng ta m???i h???p Qu???c h???i, v?? trong c??c bu???i h???p ???? ta ch??? th???y Ch??nh ph??? ????a ra c??c b??o c??o ????? Qu???c h???i nghi??n c???u, x??y d???ng, hay c??c ch??nh s??ch ????? Qu???c h???i t??n th??nh v?? b??? khuy???t. Quy???n l???p ph??p c???a Qu???c h???i ??? ????u? Quy???n ????? ra ???????ng l???i, ch??? tr????ng trong n???i tr???, ngo???i giao, quy???n n??u tr??ch nhi???m c???a Ch??nh ph??? v?? c??c B???, quy???n l???a ch???n nh??n vi??n trong H???i ?????ng Ch??nh ph???, b???y nhi??u quy???n, Qu???c h???i c?? ???????c h?????ng d???ng kh??ng? D?? lu???n qu???n ch??ng quan ni???m r???ng Qu???c h???i ch??? c?? quy???n th??ng qua c??c ch??nh s??ch m?? th??i. C??n nh?? c??c s???c l???nh hay ?????o lu???t th?? th?????ng th?????ng, quy???n th??ng qua ???y ch??? thu???c ban Th?????ng tr???c c???a Qu???c h???i. N???u Qu???c h???i l?? t??? ch???c cao nh???t c???a qu???n ch??ng, ?????i di???n cho qu???n ch??ng, th?? ta ph???i kh??ch quan nh???n th???y r???ng, v???i vai tr?? v?? c??ng y???u ???t c???a Qu???c h???i hi???n th???i, quy???n d??n ch??? c???a qu???n ch??ng kh??ng ???????c th???c hi???n.
N??i ?????n M???t tr???n th?? t??nh h??nh c??ng t????ng t???. M???t tr???n hi???n th???i l?? t??? ch???c qu???n ch??ng c?? l??? s??t t??nh h??nh qu???n ch??ng nhi???u nh???t. Nh??ng ta c?? ????? n?? ????ng vai tr?? c???a n?? kh??ng? Kh??ng. T??c d???ng c???a n?? l?? ?????ng vi??n qu???n ch??ng ????? t??n th??nh, ???ng h??? v?? thi h??nh c??c ch??nh s??ch. ?????ng v??? ph????ng di???n n??y, n?? l??m tr??n nhi???m v??? c???a n??. N?? x???ng ????ng v???i t??n nhi???m c???a ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph???. Nh??ng ho???t ?????ng c???a n?? nh?? th??? ch??? c?? m???t chi???u th??i. Ta ch??a khai th??c c??c kh??? n??ng c???a n??. Ta ch??a nh???n th???y b???n ch???t c???a n??. N?? c?? th??? l?? li??n l???c ???hai chi???u??? gi???a qu???n ch??ng v?? ?????ng, Ch??nh ph???. M???t m???t nh?? n?? th?????ng l??m, n?? ?????ng vi??n qu???n ch??ng ????? th???c hi???n c??c ch??? tr????ng c???a ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph???. Nh??ng m???t kh??c, n?? c?? th??? l?? c?? quan ph???n ???nh l??n ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph??? c??c ?? ki???n, th???c m???c, nguy???n v???ng c???a qu???n ch??ng, g??p ph???n x??y d???ng c??c ch??nh s??ch, n??i l??n ti???ng n??i c???a qu???n ch??ng, cung c???p t??i li???u ngu???n g???c ??? qu???n ch??ng, t??ch c???c gi??p ????? c???p l??nh ?????o tr??nh kh???i ch??? quan, th???t ch???t li??n l???c gi???a c???p l??nh ?????o v?? qu???n ch??ng. Nh??ng mu???n ????? cho n?? ????ng vai tr?? ???y, ta ph???i ???d??n ch?????? ?????i v???i n??, ngh??a l?? ph??t ?????ng t??? do t?? t?????ng c???a n??, ????? n?? m???nh d???n n??i l??n ?? ki???n c???a qu???n ch??ng, d?? l?? c??c ?? ki???n tr??i ng?????c v???i nh???n ?????nh c???a c???p l??nh ?????o. Nh??ng t??? tr?????c t???i nay, ta kh??ng l??m nh?? v???y. Ta th???y kh?? ch???u khi n?? th??? th??? ???ch??? th??? th??? th??i??? nh???ng l???i l??m ta m???t ph??t ch???c t???nh gi???c m???ng ch??? quan m?? ta trong c???p l??nh ?????o ??ang say s??a. V?? v???y ta ch??? th?????ng cho ph??p n??, ch??? khuy???n kh??ch n?? ph??? ho??? ta, t??n ?????ng ta v???i th??i ????? c???a ?????a con khen hay khi m??? n?? h??t. T??m l???i, ta kh??ng d??n ch??? v???i n??. Do ????, ta h???n ch??? kh??? n??ng c???a n??, n?? kh??ng gi??p ??ch g?? cho c???p l??nh ?????o.
Thi???u d??n ch??? l?? g??? L?? xa r???i qu???n ch??ng, l?? giam h??m m??nh v??o ng???c th???t c???a ch??? quan. T???i sao m???t ch??nh th??? c??ch m???ng l???i c?? th??? ph???m sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng nh?? v???y ???????c?
Tr?????c ????y, ta kh??ng tr??? l???i ???????c. Nh???ng ng?????i k??nh y??u c??ch m???ng r???t ng???c nhi??n khi th???y c?? k??? ??i t??m t??? do, r???i b??? h??ng ng?? c??ch m???ng ????? l??n sang ph??a t?? b???n. Ngay trong th??? ???? ta hi???n th???i, qua ?????i h???i l???n th??? 3 c???a M???t tr???n Th??nh, ta th???y ph???n ???nh ?? mu???n c???a bao nhi??u ?????ng b??o mu???n ??i Nam. Ta ngh?? ?????n c??c ?????ng b??o, trong th???i k??? kh??ng chi???n, g???t n?????c m???t m?? tr??? v??? H?? N???i. N???u c??ch m???ng mang l???i cho h??? ??nh s??ng v?? h???nh ph??c, sao l???i c?? ng?????i lo ng???i tr?????c c??ch m???ng, ??au ?????n v?? c??ch m???ng? C??c ng?????i ???y kh??ng ph???i thu???c th??nh ph???n k??? th?? c???a c??ch m???ng, tr??i l???i thu???c th??nh ph???n c?? b???n trong nh??n d??n, nh?? n??ng d??n, c??ng nh??n. Th??? th?? ????u l?? ch??n l??? ???? l?? m???t v???n ????? m?? tr?????c ????y ta ch??? ?????t th??i v?? kh??ng gi???i quy???t ???????c.
B??y gi??? sau ?????i h???i l???n th??? 20 c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X??, sau c??c cu???c b???o ?????ng ??? Berlin, Poznan, b??n Ti???p, b??n Hung, ta hi???u r?? v???n ?????, ta gi???i quy???t ???????c n??. Chung quy, m???c d???u c??ch m???ng l?? t???t ?????p, mang l???i h???nh ph??c cho d??n t???c, s??? d?? v???n c?? ng?????i xa l??nh c??ch m???ng, ch???ng qua l?? v?? ch??nh th??? c??ch m???ng m???c tr???m tr???ng b???nh xa l??a qu???n ch??ng, thi???u d??n ch???, do ???? ??i c??ng ng??y c??ng s??u v??o t??nh tr???ng quan li??u, m???nh l???nh, duy tr?? m???t th??i ????? l??nh ?????o h???p h??i, ?????c ??o??n, c?? khi ?????c t??i. Th??i ????? m???t chi???u kh??ng mu???n, kh??ng cho ph??p ai n??i c??i g?? tr??i ng?????c ??t nhi???u v???i ?? ki???n nh???n ?????nh, th??nh ki???n c???a m??nh. M??nh t??? ph???, t??? h??o m??nh c?? ?????c quy???n t??m th???y v?? g??n gi??? ch??n l??. ???? l?? t???t t??? cao t??? ?????i c???a nh?? c??ch m???ng. Ta bay b???ng l??n tr???i xanh c???a ???o t?????ng, ta ch??? tin ??? ta. Trong t?? t?????ng, ta kh??ng khinh qu???n ch??ng, nh??ng trong h??nh ?????ng, qu??? th???t con m???t kh??ch quan nh???n th???y ta b???t ch???p qu???n ch??ng. Th???m ch??, khi ta nghe th???y m???t ti???ng n??o t??? qu???n ch??ng n??i l??n r???ng ta nh???m, ta l??m nh?? th??? n??y m???i ph???i, l???p t???c ta th??t ngay ???? l?? ti???ng c???a ?????ch. S??? d?? quan ??i???m b???n th?? c???a ta m?? h???, v?? ????u ta c??ng tr??ng th???y ?????ch, ch???ng qua l?? v?? ta qu?? t??? ph???, ta s??ng b??i ta qu?? ????ng m?? th??i. B??y gi??? ta bi???t r?? l?? n???u b???nh ???y ph??? bi???n trong h??ng ng?? c??ch m???ng hi???n th???i th?? tr??ch nhi???m ch??nh l?? Stalin ph???i ch???u. V?? t??? cao, t??? ?????i, t??? ph???, t??? m??n, Stalin kh??ng cho ph??p ai d??n ch??? v???i m??nh, ????u c??ng tr??ng th???y ?????ch. K???t qu??? th??? n??o ta ???? bi???t: kh???u hi???u n??u l??n, th??t l??n, g??o l??n l??: ????? cao c???nh gi??c. V?? l???i d???ng t??nh th??? ???y, ta bi???t B??ria ???? l??m nh???ng g??, ph???m t???i ??c nh?? th??? n??o.
N???u kh??ng c?? quy???t ngh??? l???n th??? 20 c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X??, n???u kh??ng c?? nh???ng sai l???m c???c k??? tai h???i trong C???i C??ch, ta ch??a m??? m???t ???????c, ta s??? c??n th???y bao nhi??u m??u oan ch???y th??nh su???i th??nh s??ng, bao nhi??u ng?????i k??nh y??u c??ch m???ng m?? v???n ??au s??t r???i b??? c??ch m???ng. Tuy ta ph???i tr??? m???t gi?? qu?? cao, nh??ng b??y gi??? ta bi???t r?? nguy??n do c???a c??c ??au kh??? c???a ta: ta thi???u d??n ch???.
III. Ph????ng h?????ng s???a ch???a c??c sai l???m
Qua l???ch s??? tranh ?????u c???a qu???n ch??ng hai ngh??n n??m nay, ta th???y c??i g?? m?? nh??n b???n c???a lo??i ng?????i ????i h???i thi???t tha nh???t, ???? l?? m???t ?????i s???ng v???t ch???t t????ng ?????i ?????y ????? ??m ???m, ???? l?? m???t ?????i s???ng tinh th???n t????ng ?????i ???n ?????nh, c?? ?????m b???o v?? t??? do. H???nh ph??c c???a lo??i ng?????i x??y d???ng tr??n c?? s??? d??n sinh v?? d??n quy???n. T??i mu???n nh???n m???nh ??? ????y v??? v???n ????? d??n quy???n. Ta ???????c bi???t t??? hai th??? k??? nay ch??? y???u trong v???n ????? d??n quy???n l?? v???n ????? d??n ch???, ngh??a l?? quy???n c???a ng?????i d??n l??m ch??? tr??n ?????t n?????c, ?????ng th???i l?? quy???n c???a con ng?????i ???????c s???ng theo c??c nhu c???u thi???t y???u v?? ch??nh ????ng c???a nh??n b???n. T??? cu???c C??ch m???ng t?? s???n Hoa K??? cu???i th??? k??? 18, C??ch m???ng t?? s???n Ph??p 1789, t???i cu???c C??ch m???ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a c???a Nga, qu???n ch??ng n???i d???y, mang x????ng m??u ????? gi??nh k??? ???????c ch??? ????? d??n ch???. Sau cu???c ?????i chi???n l???n th??? hai, Hi???n ch????ng Li??n hi???p qu???c ????c k???t nh???ng th??nh qu??? c???a c??c phong tr??o l???ch s??? tranh ?????u cho d??n ch??? v?? ?????t c??c n?????c v??n minh tr?????c tr??ch nhi???m c???a h??? ????? th???c hi???n v?? ?????m b???o c??c nguy??n t???c d??n ch???. ?????i v???i c??c n?????c t?? b???n ta kh??ng ng???c nhi??n th???y ch??? ????? d??n ch??? th???c hi???n v???i nh???ng thi???u s??t quan tr???ng. Nh??ng ta c?? quy???n ng???c nhi??n khi ta th???y c??c thi???u s??t ???y c??ng xu???t hi???n trong c??c n?????c ???? ho??n th??nh cu???c C??ch m???ng d??n ch??? nh??n d??n v?? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a. ?????i h???i l???n th??? 6 c???a H???i Qu???c t??? c??c lu???t gia d??n ch??? h???p trong th??ng 5 v???a r???i t???i Bruxelles ???? l???y l??m ti???c m?? nh???n th???y r???ng trong t???t c??? c??c n?????c, d?? t?? b???n hay x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a, m???c d???u c??c Hi???n ph??p, c??c b??? lu???t tuy??n b??? tr???nh tr???ng, t??n tr???ng th???c hi???n, ?????m b???o th???c hi???n c??c nguy??n t???c d??n ch???, tuy nhi??n c??c nguy??n t???c n??y v???n b??? d??y x??o. V?? v???y trong t???t c??? c??c n?????c, qu???n ch??ng tranh ?????u k???ch li???t.
??? n?????c ta, trong b???n Tuy??n ng??n ?????c l???p, trong Hi???n ph??p c??ng nh?? trong c??c s???c l???nh, ?????o lu???t, nguy??n t???c d??n ch??? ???? ???????c ban b???. Nh??ng qua phong tr??o ph??t huy d??n ch??? m?? Ch??nh ph??? ch??? tr????ng, qua ?????i h???i nh??n d??n th??? ???? l???n th??? 3, c??c ?????i h???i M???t tr???n Trung ????ng, M???t tr???n Th??nh, qua th??ng c??o c???a H???i ngh??? l???n th??? 10 c???a Trung ????ng ?????ng Lao ?????ng, c???a Ch??nh ph??? v.v., nh??n d??n nh???n th???y, v?? ?????ng c??ng nh?? Ch??nh ph??? x??c nh???n r???ng ta thi???u s??t v??? d??n ch??? kh?? nhi???u. V?? c??c thi???u s??t ???y, ta ph???m c??c sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t nh?? t??i ???? tr??nh b??y tr??n ????y. Nguy??n nh??n s??u s???c c???a c??c sai l???m ???y, ta c?? th??? quy k???t ???????c. S??? d?? ?????i s???ng tinh th???n c???a ta kh??ng ???????c ???n ?????nh, l??c n??o ta c??ng n??m n???p lo s??? c??c h??nh ?????ng ???l???ng quy???n??? c???a nh?? ??????ng c???c, l?? v?? ta thi???u m???t ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? ph??n minh, kh??ng ????? ra ngh??a v??? v?? quy???n l???i c???a m???i ng?????i, ?????ng th???i c??? c???a c???p l??nh ?????o n???a. S??? d?? c???p l??nh ?????o c?? th??? ph???m ???????c c??c sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng trong C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t, t???n th???t cho x????ng m??u, m??? h??i n?????c m???t c???a ?????ng b??o, cho uy t??n c???a ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph???, l?? v?? ng?????i d??n kh??ng c?? quy???n, kh??ng c?? ph????ng ti???n n??i l??n ?? ki???n c???a m??nh, tham gia x??y d???ng c??c ch??nh s??ch c???a Ch??nh ph???.
Do ????, ph????ng h?????ng s???a ch???a c??c sai l???m l?? m???t ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? ch??n ch??nh, m???t ch??? ????? d??n ch??? th???c s???.
M???t ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? ch??n ch??nh ??? ??? ????y, ch??a ph???i l??c v?? ch??? ????? t??i tr??nh b??y ?? ki???n v??? v???n ????? ph??p tr???. Ta s??? c?? d???p kh??c. ??? ????y, t??i ch??? mu???n tr??nh c??c qu?? v??? m???t nh???n x??t.
?????ng Lao ?????ng v?? ch??nh ph??? c?? nh???n th???y c???n thi???t, trong ch??nh s??ch s???a ch???a c??c sai l???m trong C???i C??ch, ph???i ???t??ng c?????ng ch??? ????? ph??p tr?????? c???a ta. T??i e r???ng trong t?? t?????ng l??nh ?????o, s??? nh???n th???c v??? v???n ????? ph??p tr??? ch??a ???????c r?? v?? ?????y ?????. Ch??nh tr??? v???n coi ph??p lu???t nh?? m???t ???b?? con ngh??o???. Ch??? ???t??ng c?????ng??? l?? m???t ch???ng minh. Tuy r???ng trong n?????c ta c?? m???t B??? T?? ph??p, c?? c??c to?? ??n, c?? lu???t l???, nh??ng ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? h???u nh?? kh??ng c??. ???? l?? m???t ??i???u t??i s??? nghi??n c???u s??u s???c h??n khi n??o t??i tr??nh b??y ?? ki???n v??? ch??? ????? ph??p tr???, m???t ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? ch??n ch??nh. Theo ?? t??i, th?? v???n ????? kh??ng ph???i l?? t??ng c?????ng m?? l?? x??y d???ng.
M???t ch???ng minh kh??c trong ch??nh s??ch S???a Sai trong C???i C??ch n??y, t??i v???n th???y ch??nh tr??? l???n ??p ph??p l??. Tr?????c h???t b???c th?? c???a ??ng H??? Vi???t Th???ng t??? ph?? b??nh v?? xin r??t lui kh???i M???t tr???n Trung ????ng ch??? l?? m???t gi???i ph??p ch??nh tr??? m?? th??i. Trong cu???c m???n ????m v???i c??c v??? ?????i bi???u ?????n h???p h???i ngh??? n??y, t??i nh???n th???y kh??ng ai ???th??ng??? v??? ?? ki???n v?? bi???n ph??p ??ng H??? Vi???t Th???ng tr??nh b??y c???. Ri??ng v??? ph???n t??i l?? m???t nh?? lu???t h???c, t??i ch??a th??? n??o nh???n ?????nh ???????c tr??ch nhi???m c???a ??ng Th???ng. C?? th??? tr??ch nhi???m c???a ??ng ???y r???t l???n, c?? th??? r???t nh???. ?????ng tr??n tinh th???n ph??p l??, s??? nh???n t???i l???i c???a m???t ng?????i kh??ng ????? ????? qui ?????nh tr??ch nhi???m c???a ng?????i ???y. Trong C???i C??ch, khi nh???ng ?????ng vi??n ??u t?? b??? ??o??n C???i c??ch g??n cho l?? ph???n ?????ng, ra tr?????c nh??n d??n, c?? ng?????i c??ng nh???n t???i trong khi bi???t l?? m??nh oan. Ta n??n r??t kinh nghi???m v???a qua, s???a sai kh??ng ph???i l?? ph???m c??c sai l???m kh??c. Do ????, ?????ng tr??n m???t l???p tr?????ng ph??p tr??? ch??n ch??nh, t??i ????? ngh??? ph???i l???p m???t u??? ban ??i???u tra g???m c??c v??? ?????i bi???u Qu???c h???i, M???t tr???n, ?????ng Lao ?????ng v???i s??? c???ng t??c c???a c??c v??? th???m ph??n cao c???p, gi??u kinh nghi???m ????? l???p m???t h??? s?? theo ph????ng ph??p ph??p l?? ???? nh???n ?????nh, tr??n qu?? tr??nh ??i t??? l??nh ?????o qua ch??? ?????o ?????n ch??? th???c hi???n ch??nh s??ch, tr??ch nhi???m ??? ch??? n??o v?? do nh???ng ai ph???i ch???u. Sau khi k???t th??c cu???c ??i???u tra, u??? ban ???y s??? ph??n t??ch tr??ch nhi???m ch??nh tr??? v?? tr??ch nhi???m ph??p l??. Ai ch???u tr??ch nhi???m ch??nh tr??? s??? tr??? l???i tr?????c Qu???c h???i bi???n th??nh To?? ??n t???i cao. Ai ch???u tr??ch nhi???m ph??p l?? s??? tr??? l???i tr?????c c??c to?? ??n t?? ph??p. D?????i con m???t c???a qu???n ch??ng theo d??i x??y d???ng cu???c ??i???u tra v?? x??t x???, c??ng l?? ph??t huy, kh??ng c??n ai th???c m???c n???a.
C?? ng?????i h???i l??m th??? ????? l??m g???? T??i xin ph??p tr??? l???i. L??m th??? ????? r??t kinh nghi???m. T??i c???m th???y ngay hi???n th???i ta ch??a r??t ???????c kinh nghi???m ????u. Ch??nh tr??? kh??ng nh???ng l??nh ?????o ph??p l?? ??????? l?? ????ng??? nh??ng v???n l???n ??t ph??p l??, thay th??? cho ph??p l??, nh?? trong tr?????ng h???p ??ng H??? Vi???t Th???ng, nh?? th??? l?? ta v???n m??? c???a cho c??c sai l???m m???i c??n nguy h???i h??n n???a. Kh??ng nh???ng th???, ta bi???t r???ng nhu c???u c??ng l?? thu???c nh??n b???n con ng?????i v??n minh. T??? ng?????i b??? x??? tr?? oan cho ?????n c??c ng?????i ch??? ch???u thi???t gi??n ti???p v?? c??c sai l???m, c?? th??? n??i ???????c r???ng to??n d??n ?????i ch??? c??ng l??. M???t bi???n ph??p ch??nh tr??? xu??? xo?? kh??ng tho??? m??n ???????c ai. B???ng ch???ng ??? n??ng th??n, ta ???????c bi???t t??nh h??nh ???c??ng th???ng???. Phong tr??o tr??? th??, t??? x??? di???n ra kh???p m???i n??i, k??o ch??ng ta tr??? v??? qu?? kh??? c???a l???ch s???. C??n nh?? c??c ?????ng vi??n b??? x??? tr?? sai, t??m h???n c??c anh em nh?? th??? n??o, ta ch??? c???n ?????c l???i b??o Nh??n D??n. Tuy r???ng c??c anh em k???t th??c c??c b??i t?????ng thu???t l???i ??au kh??? c???a m??nh b???ng nh???ng l???i ph???n kh???i, nh??ng c??c l???i n??y kh??ng l??m ta qu??n ???????c c??c l???i ph???n u???t, chua x??t, cay ?????ng m?? c??c anh em n??i l???i v???i ta t??? ?????u b??i. Nh??ng bi ????t h??n h???t l?? c??c chi???c kh??n tr???ng ch??t tr??n ?????u h??? h??ng th??n th??ch c???a nh???ng anh em b??? x??? t???, nh???ng b??n th??? v???n d???ng trong nh??, c??c th???n th???c ph?? v??? im l???ng c???a c??c ????m hiu qu???nh, c??c ng??y c??ng gi??? nh???c l???i h??ng n??m bi k???ch th?? th???m ???? di???n ra trong gia ????nh v?? cu???c C???i C??ch. Nh??n d??n ????i h???i c??c ng?????i c?? c??ng ???????c th?????ng v?? c??c ng?????i c?? t???i ph???i ?????n t???i. Tr??ch nhi???m c???a t???t c??? m???i ng?????i t??? tr??n xu???ng d?????i, t??? d?????i l??n tr??n, ph???i ???????c qui ?????nh r?? r??ng, d???t kho??t. Nh?? th??? m???i y??n ???????c l??ng d??n, nh?? th??? m???i thu ph???c ???????c nh??n t??m. Kinh nghi???m l???ch s??? d???y ta ??i???u ???y. Trong ch??nh s??ch s???a ch???a sai l???m, ta kh??ng th??? qu??n ???????c b??i h???c l???ch s???. Qu???n ch??ng im l???ng ?????i ch??? c??ng l??.
Ch??ng ta thi???t tha mong ?????c ??? ch??nh tr??? m???t nh???n ?????nh ????ng v??? vai tr?? c???a ph??p lu???t ph???c v??? c??ch m???ng. Kinh nghi???m ??au ?????n v???a qua b?? bu???c ta ph???i x??y d???ng l???i quan ??i???m ????????ch??? tr??n c?? s??? ph??p l?? v?? ph??p tr???. C??c sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng ta ???? ph???m b???t ngu???n ??? m???t quan ??i???m ch??nh tr??? v??? ?????ch. Quan ??i???m ???y linh ?????ng qu??, ???bi???n ch???ng??? qu??, n??n ta kh??ng bi???t ph??n t??ch ?????ch v?? ta, do ???? ta ????nh c??? ta n???a. Mu???n tr??nh c??c sai l???m h??m qua ?????ng t??i di???n ng??y mai, ta c???n x??c ?????nh theo h??nh lu???t th??? n??o l?? ?????ch. L??c ???? ta m???i ????nh ????ng ?????ch, v?? c?? ????nh ????ng ?????ch ta m???i c???ng c??? ???????c ta, ???n ?????nh ???????c nh??n t??m, duy tr?? l???i tr???t t??? v?? an ninh ??? th??n qu??, ki???n thi???t l???i ??o??n k???t gi???a c??c t???ng l???p nh??n d??n ??? th??n qu?? c??ng nh?? ??? th??nh th???, ?????m b???o cho qu???n ch??ng m???t ?????i s???ng t??? do, tho??t kh???i m???i s??? ??e do??? c???a ???l???ng quy???n???, b??nh v???c c??c quy???n c??n b???n v?? thi???t y???u c???a con ng?????i.
T??m l???i, n???u ch??nh tr??? gi??c ng???, vui l??ng t??n tr???ng ph??p ly, thi???t l???p m???t ch??? ????? ph??p tr??? trong ???? ch??nh tr??? v???n l??nh ?????o ph??p l??, nh??ng ?????ng th???i n??u th???t cao g????ng ph???c t??ng ph??p l?? v?? ph??p tr??? th?? nh???t ?????nh ch??nh tr??? kh??i ph???c ???????c uy t??n v?? ???????c qu???n ch??ng nhi???t li???t ???ng h???.
M???t ch??? ????? th???c s??? d??n ch??? ??? Th??? n??o l?? m???t ch??? ????? th???c s??? d??n ch???? ???? l?? m???t ch??? ????? trong ???? ng?????i d??n ???????c l??m ch??? tr??n ?????t n?????c kh??ng nh???ng trong hi???n ph??p, m?? c??? trong th???c t??? n???a. ????y kh??ng ph???i l?? l??c l?? ch??? m?? ta ??i s??u v??o v???n ?????. Ta ch??? c???n nh???n th???y r???ng trong giai ??o???n hi???n th???i, qu???n ch??ng c?? ????i h???i c??i g?? qu?? ????ng ????u, ch??? y??u c???u c?? m???t ??i???u th??i, l?? ???????c ????m tho???i v???i c???p l??nh ?????o, ???????c ????? ?????t l??n c???p l??nh ?????o, ?? ki???n v??? c??c ch??nh s??ch do c???p l??nh ?????o x??y d???ng. C??c v??? l??nh t??? ???? bao l???n khen d??n ta t???t. M?? d??n ta t???t th???t. B???ng ch???ng l?? ??i???u t??i v???a nh???c l???i ????y. Trong khi qu???n ch??ng c?? quy???n ????i h???i ??? m???t ch??nh th??? c??ch m???ng r???t nhi???u, nh??n d??n ta ch??? c?? m???t y??u c???u m?? ai c??ng ph???i nh???n l?? ch??nh ????ng. T???i sao nh??n d??n ch??? c?? c??i y??u c???u nh??n nh???n ???y m?? th??i? L?? v?? nh??n d??n th??ng c???m v???i c???p l??nh ?????o ph???i ??????ng ?????u v???i bao kh?? kh??n. Nh??ng n???u nh??n d??n ch??? ????? ra c?? m???t y??u c???u, y??u c???u ???y thi???t y???u. T??i tin r???ng c???p l??nh ?????o c??ng nh???n th???y nh?? v???y. T??i kh??ng qu??n l???i c???a ??ng Tr?????ng Chinh ?????c b???n t??? ph?? c???a ?????ng Lao ?????ng t???i H???i ngh??? n??y. Ta nghe th???y c???p l??nh ?????o th?? nh???n tr?????c H???i ngh??? r???ng Trung ????ng ?????ng ???? ph???m sai l???m l?? xa qu???n ch??ng, ch??? ti???p x??c v???i qu???n ch??ng qua b??o c??o c???a c??c c??n b??? ?????ng vi??n m?? th??i. Ta ph???i nh???n ?????nh r???ng ????y l?? m???t sai l???m nghi??m tr???ng. Do ????, cu???c C???i C??ch Ru???ng ?????t c???a ta ???? g???p c??c th???t b???i cay ?????ng. Tr??i v???i l???i ta th?????ng n??i, ta ???? thi???u d??n ch??? v???i nh??n d??n.
Nh??n d??n nh???t ?????nh kh??ng ????? t??nh tr???ng tai h???i ???y k??o d??i n???a. T??i xin ph??p H???i ngh??? g??p m???t s??? ?? ki???n ????? ch???m d???t t??nh tr???ng ????. T??i kh??ng ?????t v???n ????? d??n ch??? n??i chung. T??i ch??? ch?? ?? ?????n y??u c???u thi???t tha nh???t hi???n th???i c???a qu???n ch??ng l?? ???????c ph???n ???nh l??n ?? nguy???n c???a m??nh. Theo ?? t??i, ????? th???c hi???n v?? ?????m b???o y??u c???u v?? c??ng ch??nh ????ng ???y, ch??? c???n ba gi???i ph??p.
1. M???t ch??? ????? b??o c??o c???a c??n b???. ?????ng t??n nhi???m ??? c??n b???. ????ng! kh??ng t??i n??o kh??c ???????c. V???y ph???i ?????t c??c c??n b??? c?? nhi???m v??? b??o c??o tr?????c tr??ch nhi???m c???a h???. M???t b??o c??o kh??ng ph???n ???nh trung th??nh s??? th???c v???i c??c kh??a c???nh c???a n??, v???i c??c ??u v?? khuy???t ??i???m c???a n??, r???t tai h???i. C???p l??nh ?????o c???n ????? cao c???nh gi??c v???i c??c con s??? th???ng k??, c??c ?????ng c?? b???t ch??nh c???a c??n b??? mu???n thi ??ua th??nh t??ch, v???? m??? d?????i, v???a l???a tr??n, do ???? ????a ra m???t h??nh ???nh qu?? h???p c???a th???c t???. Ta ph???i ti???n t???i gi???i ph??p nh???n ?????nh r???ng ng?????i n??o h???u ?? xuy??n t???c s??? th???t v?? ?????ng c?? b???t ch??nh, c?? th??? b??? truy t??? v??? t???i gi??? m???o ???????c.
2. M???t ch??? ????? cho c??c ??o??n th??? nh??n d??n ???????c quy???n m???nh d???n n??i l??n ?? ki???n c???a qu???n ch??ng m?? h??? t???p h???p. T??? tr?????c t???i nay, ta c?? th??? v?? ?????ng Lao ?????ng nh?? m???t c??y r???t to, l?? ru???m ra che h???t ??nh s??ng c???a m???t tr???i, khi???n ngay m???t ng???n c??? c??ng kh??ng m???c d?????i ch??n n?? ???????c. V?? v???y, Qu???c h???i c??ng nh?? M???t tr???n kh??ng th??? ????ng ???????c vai tr?? c???a m??nh. ??? ????y, t??i ch??? xin ph??p n??i v??? M???t tr???n c???a ta th??i. C??c v??? ???? th???y r???ng t??? khi th??nh l???p M???t tr???n Li??n Vi???t cho ?????n M???t tr???n T??? qu???c, ch??ng ta ch??? c?? nhi???m v??? ?????ng vi??n qu???n ch??ng thi h??nh ch??nh s??ch m?? th??i. ???? l?? m???t nhi???m v???. Nh??ng d?? sao ch??? c?? m???t chi???u. Ta l?? gi??y li??n l???c gi???a c??c c???p l??nh ?????o v?? qu???n ch??ng. N???u ng?????c l???i, ta c?? quy???n li??n l???c gi???a qu???n ch??ng v?? c???p l??nh ?????o, ngh??a l?? ph???n ???nh l??n ?????ng v?? Ch??nh ph??? ?? ki???n th???c m???c, nguy???n v???ng c???a qu???n ch??ng, c??ng t??c c???a ta th??? n??o c??ng t???t ?????p h??n, ho??n h???o h??n. Ta g???n li???n l??nh ?????o v?? qu???n ch??ng, do ???? l??nh ?????o s??t h???p v???i th???c t??? h??n. T??i xin ph??p ?????t m???i v??? u??? vi??n tr?????c tr??ch nhi???m c???a m??nh. Ch??ng ta ???ng h??? Ch??nh ph???, nh??ng ch??ng ta c??ng l?? ?????i bi???u c???a nh??n d??n. C??ng t??c c???a ch??ng ta c?? hai m???t, ch??ng ta kh??ng th??? ch??? l???ch v??? m???t b??n ???????c. Qu???n ch??ng kh??ng cho ph??p ch??ng ta l??m nh?? v???y, mu???n theo r??i c??ng vi???c ta l??m v?? ch??ng ta l??m ?????i bi???u c???a qu???n ch??ng, ???????c qu???n ch??ng t??n nhi???m. Qu???n ch??ng giao quy???n cho ch??ng ta, ch??ng ta ph???i x???ng ????ng v???i s??? u??? quy???n ???y. ta s??? d???ng quy???n ???y th??? n??o, qu???n ch??ng ????i ki???m so??t ta.
????? ?????t m???c ????ch n??y, t??i xin ph??p ????? ngh???: m???t l?? m???i u??? vi??n ph???i c?? nhi???m v??? ph???n ??nh l??n M???t tr???n ?? ki???n c???a qu???n ch??ng. M???t tr???n ph???i c?? nhi???m v??? ????? ?????t l??n c???p l??nh ?????o nh???ng ph???n ???nh c???a c??c u??? vi??n v?? b??o cho c??c v??? ???y th??i ????? c???a c???p l??nh ?????o gi???i quy???t v???n ????? ra sao, s??? d???ng c??c ph???n ???nh ???y nh?? th??? n??o. khi M???t tr???n h???p h???i ngh???, ph???i cho ph??p qu???n ch??ng ?????n b??ng th??nh: ????? qu???n ch??ng ki???m so??t c??ng vi???c c???a M???t tr???n l??m v?? th??i ????? c???a c??c u??? vi??n. D?? nhi??n c??c ng?????i b??ng th??nh ???y kh??ng c?? quy???n tham gia th???o lu???n, ch??? ???????c nh???p h???i tr?????ng cho t???i khi h???t s??? gh??? d??nh cho qu???n ch??ng, v?? ph???i t??n tr???ng k??? lu???t c???a h???i ngh???. Ngo??i ra, b??o ch??, ?????c bi???t b??o ch?? c???a M???t tr???n nh?? t??? C???u Qu???c, ph???i ph???n ???nh trung th??nh n???i dung c???a c??c cu???c th???o lu???n v?? ????ng c??c tham lu???n c???a c??c v??? u??? vi??n.
3. M???t ch??? ????? t??? do ng??n lu???n, xu???t b???n b??o ch?? ??? Ta ph???i ????? ph??ng tr?????ng h???p c??c c??n b??? kh??ng b??o c??o, c??c u??? vi??n M???t tr???n kh??ng ph???n ???nh ?? ki???n c???a qu???n ch??ng. Do ????, ta th???y c???n thi???t ph???i cho ph??p qu???n ch??ng n??i l??n ti???ng n??i c???a m??nh qua b??o ch??. C?? ng?????i lo ng???i r???ng t??? do ng??n lu???n n??y m?? ai c??ng th???y c???n thi???t c?? th??? b??? s??? d???ng m???t c??ch b???a b??i. V??? ??i???u n??y ta ph???i suy ngh??. M???i lo ng???i tr??n ????y xu???t ph??t t??? ?????ng c?? n??o? N???u l?? ?????ng c?? t???t ???ngh??a l?? do m???t nhi???t t??nh ?????i v???i c??ch m???ng g??y ra??? ta hoan ngh??nh. Nh??ng ta c??ng s??? tr??? l???i r???ng trong m???t ch??nh th??? d??n ch??? mu???n s??? d???ng t??? do n??o, d?? nhi??n ph???i n??u tr??ch nhi???m c???a ng?????i s??? d???ng t??? do ???y tr?????c ph??p lu???t. N???u s??? d???ng v???i tinh th???n tr??ch nhi???m h???p ph??p, ta kh??ng c?? quy???n k??u ca g??, tr??i l???i, ta hoan ngh??nh. N???u l???m d???ng m???t c??ch v?? tr??ch nhi???m, ta ???? c?? to?? ??n ????? nghi??m tr???. V???y ta kh??ng lo ng???i. Nh??ng n???u m???i lo ng???i xu???t ph??t t??? m???t ?????ng c?? b???t ch??nh, nh???m m???c ????ch th??? ti??u c??c t??? do d??n ch???, th?? t??i ch??? c???n khuy??n nh??? ng?????i lo ng???i nh?? v???y n??n ?????c l???i l???ch s??? c??c phong tr??o c??ch m???ng trong h??n m???t th??? k??? nay. H??? s??? nh???n th???y r???ng ch??a bao gi???, ch??a ai c?? th??? ng??n c???n ???????c m???t phong tr??o qu???n ch??ng tranh ?????u ????i c??c t??? do d??n ch???.
Kh??ng nh???ng ta c??ng nh???n c??c t??? do d??n ch???, ta l???i c??n cung c???p ph????ng ti???n ????? th???c hi???n c??c t??? do ???y. Th?? d??? t??? do ng??n lu???n. Ta c?? c??c b??o c???a Ch??nh ph???, c???a ?????ng, c???a M???t tr???n, ta l???i c?? c??c b??o c???a t?? nh??n, ta gi??p ????? cho c??c b??o ???y gi???y v?? m???c in ?????y ?????, ta l???i c??n qu???ng c??o cho c??c b??o ???y l?? ????ng kh??c n???a. C??c c?? quan tuy??n truy???n, b??o ch?? c???a ta kh??ng bao gi??? t??m kh?? d??? cho c??c b??o ???y, v?? khi n??o c??c b??o ???? ???????c h??ng v???n ?????c gi??? hoan ngh??nh, ta r???t l???y l??m sung s?????ng v?? trong th??m t??m ta, ta l?? nh???ng ng?????i d??n ch???.
C??c bi???n ph??p t??i ????? ngh??? tr??n ????y ?????u nh???m m???c ????ch c???ng hi???n c??c c???p l??nh ?????o m???t nh???n th???c ????ng v?? s??t th???c t??? m?? c???p l??nh ?????o kh??ng c?? ??i???u ki???n bi???t ?????n m???t c??ch tr???c ti???p. S??t v???i th???c t??? c???a qu???n ch??ng, c???p l??nh ?????o th??ng c???m v???i qu???n ch??ng, ??i ????ng ???????ng l???i c???a qu???n ch??ng, ???????c qu???n ch??ng t??n nhi???m, ???ng h???, m???n y??u.
Th??a c??c qu?? v???,
T??i n??i ???? qu?? l??u, nh??ng t??i tin c??c v??? c??ng tha th??? cho, v?? bi???t r???ng t??i l?? m???t ng?????i thi???t tha ?????n s??? nghi???p c???a c??ch m???ng v?? ti???n ????? c???a d??n t???c. C??c ?? ki???n c???a t??i, d?? sai hay ????ng, t??i c??? th??nh kh???n ????? ?????t l??n c??c v???, g???i l?? ????? g??p ph???n v??o h???i ngh???, m???t ph???n nh??? m???n nh??ng chan ch???a m???t ni???m hi v???ng v?? tin t?????ng v?? bi??n ??? t????ng lai c???a ?????t n?????c.
Lu???t s?? Nguy???n M???nh T?????ng
H?? N???i, ng??y 30-10-1956
Ngu???n Viet-studies

???nh: Gs Ngy???n M???nh T?????ng th???i tr???


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