Lu???n v??n v??? ?????t (*) - ????? Ho??ng

Thứ hai - 22/04/2019 02:38
PH??????R MIKHAIL??V??CH ????XT??IEPXKI - (Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky - ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????? ) V???I T??C PH???M: "ANH EM NH?? KARAMMAZ???P" (???????????? ????????????????????)

????? Ho??ng
????xt??iepxki - ?????????????????????? , chi???m m???t v??? tr?? l???i l???c trong v??n h???c Nga, nh?? m???t ng?????i k??? t???c truy???n th???ng nh??n ?????o v?? hi???n th???c, nh?? m???t nh?? v??n ph?? ph??n quy???t li???t x?? h???i t?? s???n - ?????a ch???, c???t cao ti???ng n??i m???nh m??? ch??? che con ng?????i b??nh d??? th?????ng b??? cu???c ?????i ?? tr???c l??m nh???c, gi??y x??o v?? ????y ?????a, lu??n lu??n b??? coi khinh, b??? x??c ph???m.
PH??????R MIKHAIL??V??CH ????XT??IEPXKI - (Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky - ?????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????? ) V???I T??C PH???M: "ANH EM NH?? KARAMMAZ???P" (???????????? ????????????????????)

                                                       ????? Ho??ng
    ????xt??iepxki - ?????????????????????? , chi???m m???t v??? tr?? l???i l???c trong v??n h???c Nga, nh?? m???t ng?????i k??? t???c truy???n th???ng nh??n ?????o v?? hi???n th???c, nh?? m???t nh?? v??n ph?? ph??n quy???t li???t x?? h???i t?? s???n - ?????a ch???, c???t cao ti???ng n??i m???nh m??? ch??? che con ng?????i b??nh d??? th?????ng b??? cu???c ?????i ?? tr???c l??m nh???c, gi??y x??o v?? ????y ?????a, lu??n lu??n b??? coi khinh, b??? x??c ph???m.
   ????xt??iepxki ???? t???o n??n m???t lo???i ti???u thuy???t m???i v?? ???? n??u l??n m???t c??ch h???t s???c ?????y ????? v?? s??u s???c nh???ng m??u thu???n c???a ?????i s???ng hi???n ?????i v?? nh???ng rung ?????ng s??u k??n c???a t??m h???n. ???? l?? ti???u thuy???t bi k???ch, ti???u thuy???t c???a nh???ng xung ?????t d??? d???i, gay c???n, s??u s???c, c??ng th???ng... V???i s??? ch??nh x??c nh?? nh?? ph???u thu???t, ????xt??iepxki ???? kh??m ph?? ra ?????i s???ng n???i t??m sau k??n c???a con ng?????i, ch??? ra nh???ng ??i???u ki???n x?? h???i h??nh th??nh n??n t??nh c??ch c???a con ng?????i.
   S??ng t??c c???a ????xt??iepxki c?? ?? ngh??a qu???c t??? l???n lao. Cho ?????n ng??y nay ng?????i ta m???i th???y h???t t???m v??c v?? ?????i c???a nh?? v??n Nga n??y. H??? m???i ????nh gi?? ???????c ph???n n??o quy m?? tri???t l??, c??i nh??n s??u s???c soi th???u nh???ng mi???n b?? ???n trong t??m t?? t??nh c???m v???n s???ng ?????ng v?? th???t l?? ??a d???ng c???a con ng?????i. C??c nh?? v??n tr??n th??? g???i thu???c t???t c??? c??c tr?????ng ph??i: l??ng m???n, hi???n th???c, hi???n sinh ch??? ngh??a ?????u khai th??c m???t n??y, hay m???t kh??c ??? trong t??c ph???m b???t h??? c???a ????xt??iepxki l?? ????? t??? suy t??n m??nh l??n.  B???i v?? ??? ????xt??iepxki kh??ng m???t v???n ????? n??o, kh??ng m???t ?? t?????ng n??o m?? kh??ng ???????c soi r???i, chi???u s??ng, ph??n t??ch ?????y ????? c???a c??c nh??n v???t c???a ????xt??iepxki v?? ???????c ?????y l??n ??? m???c ????? c??ng th???ng.
   Th??? nh??ng, ngay ??? qu?? h????ng, t??? qu???c c???a ????xt??iepxki, ng?????i ta v???n ch??a ????nh gi?? h???t t???m v??c c???a ????xt??iepxki. S??ch c???a ??ng in ra ??t. Nh???ng ng?????i nghi??n c???u v??? ??ng kh??ng nhi???u.??? n?????c ta (Vi???t Nam), nh???t l?? mi???n B???c tr?????c ????y kh?? c?? th???  t??m ra th???y s??ch c???a ????xt??iepxki. T??nh h??nh c???i m??? v??i n??m l???i ????y cho ta ???????c ?????c m???t v??i t??c ph???m  c???a ??ng ???????c chuy???n qua Vi???t ng???. Nh??ng ????xt??i epxki r???t ph???c t???p. T??c ph???m c???a ??ng ?????c r???t h???p d???n nh??ng th???t kh?? hi???u. ?????c v??i ba l???n c??ng ch??a c?? th??? n??i l?? ???? hi???u h???t ?? t??nh c???a ????xt??iepxki g???i g???m, ki???n gi???i. Vi???c kh?? n??y kh??ng ch??? kh?? ?????i v???i ng?????i Vi???t Nam ?????c, nghi??n c???u v??? ????xt??iepxki m?? ngay t???i n?????c Nga v?? ph????ng T??y - nh???ng  h???c gi??? l???n c??ng c?? nh???ng ?? ki???n ????nh gi?? kh??c nhau.
  B???n th??n t??i ???????c ?????c ????xt??iepxki, l??m lu???n v??n v??? ????xt??iep xki l?? m???t ni???m vinh h???nh nh??ng c??ng m???t vi???c l??m qu?? s???c v?? tr??nh ????? c???a m??nh. Nh??ng l?? ng?????i y??u m???n ????xt??iepxki, ng?????i s??ng b??i ??ng, t??i v???n m???nh d???n n??u l??n nh???ng suy ngh??, ki???n gi???i c???a m??nh khi l??m lu???n v??n v??? ????xt??iepxki. 
     ????xt??iepxki ????? l???i cho ?????i ssau h??ng ch???c ki???t t??c, h??ng ch???c nh??n v???t mang t???m v??c th??? k???. Nh??n v???t c???a ??ng s??ng t???o ra kh???ng l??? v??? m???i m???t...Nh???ng nh??n v???t v??? tha, trong s???ch, cao ng???o, ??i???n h??nh cho t??nh c??ch ng?????i Nga v?? c???a nh??n lo???i. V???i nh???ng nh??n v???t ph???n di???n th?? ??ch k???, h???p h??i, t??n nh???n th???c thi c??i ??c ?????n c??ng. V???i t??i n??ng v?? ?????i, v???i nh???ng v???n s???ng tr???i nghi???m phong ph??, v???i tr??i tim gi??u nh??n h???u, ????x t??iepxki  ???? ???o  ra nh???ng nh??n v???t ??i???n h??nh bi???t l???p, kh??ng ai gi???ng ai. M???t Raxk??lmin??v  tham quy???n l???c, th??ch l??m c??i ??c, m???t Ho??ng th??n M??skhin lu??n lu??n day d???t, x??t th????ng tr?????c c??i c???nh ?????i, c???nh ng?????i ??au kh??? qu???n qu???i, m???t Xmer??iak??p c??m th?? con ng?????i, m???t I van Fi??????vits b??ng b??? ????i b??? Ch??a, m???t ??imitri  Fi?????? vits cu???ng lo???n ;m???t Fi????or Pavl??vits ham nh???c d???c. V?? m???t Z??xima k??nh Ch??a s??ng danh v???i t???m l??ng qu???ng ?????i, v??? tha, trong s???ch...
  T??i kh??ng th??? ph??n t??ch h???t c??c nh??n v???t n???i ti???ng c???a ????xt??iepxki m?? ch??? ??i sau ph??n t??ch ????nh gi?? th???u hi???u nh??n v???t Z??xima - Nh??n v???t m?? ????xt??iepxki g???i g???m nhi???u n???i ?????c mong,  l??ng t??? thi???n c???a m??nh cho h???u th???.  Z??xima l?? nh??n v???t trung t??m chi???m m???t ph???n quan tr???ng trong ki???t t??c " Anh em nh?? Karamaz??p" c???a nh?? v??n. ????? hi???u th???u nh??n v???t Z??xima, ch??ng ta kh??ng th??? kh??ng t??m hi???u th??m cu???c ?????i ri??ng c???a ???? xt??iepxki.  B???i v?? khi x??y d???ng nh??n v???t cha Z??xima, ????xt??iepxki ???? l???y m???t ph???n cu???c ?????i c???a m??nh l??n l???n trong b??o t??p ?????i th???t,  l???y kh??t v???ng l?? t?????ng c???a m??nh l??m nguy??n m???u cho nh??n v???t ??i???n h??nh n??y. C?? th??? n??i cha Z??xima l?? hi???n th??n c??? ????xt??iepxki c??? th???i tr??? trai cho ?????n th???i cu???i ?????i. Cha Z??xima hi???n th??n ????xt??iepxki c??? v??? h??nh m???o, c??? v??? t??m t??nh, ?????c v???ng s???ng, c??? v??? n???i kh???, ni???m ??au trong cu???c ?????i.
   ????xt??iepxki sinh ng??y 30 - 10 - 1821 (c?? s??ch ghi l?? 11 -11 - 1821) t???i Matsc??va. N??m 17 tu???i, ??ng v??o tr?????ng c??ng binh t???i Petecbourg. N??m 1844 gi???i ng?? theo nghi???p v??n. ??ng th??nh c??ng ngay t??c ph???m ?????u tay: D??n ngh??o  n??m 1846 . N??m ????xt??iepxki 27 tu???ii b??? b???t gi??? v?? ??ng tham gia v??o m???t nh??m ch???ng l???i ch??nh quy???n Sa ho??ng  v??  b??? ????y ??i Xibiri . Sau b???n n??m kh??? sai, ??ng ph???c v??? v???i t?? c??ch l?? ng?????i l??nh binh nh?? t???i Omask. N??m 1857, k???t duy??n v???i m???t g??a ph??? m???c b???nh lao Marie  Isaeva. N??m 1860 tr??? l???i Petecbourg. N??m 1862 th??m T??y ??u. Ngo??i 40 tu???i k???t duy??n v???i Anna Grigorievna. Anna Grigorievna l?? ng?????i v??? ho??n h???o, ng?????i th?? k?? t???n t???y c???a ????xt??iepxki. ??ng m???t t???i Petecbourg ng??y 28 - 1 - 1881.
 T??? khi sinh th??nh cho ?????n khi m???t, ????xt??iepxki s???ng trong m???t th??? k??? n?????c Nga s??i s???c v???i nh???ng cu???c kh???i ngh??a, cu???c bi???u t??nh. D?? ??m c???a nh???ng cu???c ?????u tranh th??? k??? tr?????c nh?? v???n c??n vang v???ng. Ch??? ????? Sa ho??ng ng??y c??ng t??? r?? s???c m???nh chuy??n ch??? c???a m??nh. Ng???c th???t c???a ch??nh quy???n phong ki???n, t?? b???n ??ang m??? r???ng ????? t???ng giam nh???ng ng?????i ch???ng l???i ch??? ????? ??????ng th???i. ????xt??iepxki ???? tham gia v??o phong tr??o kh???i ngh??a, ho???t ?????ng trong nh???ng h???i k??n ch???ng l???i ch??nh quy???n ??????ng th???i. M???c k??ch ???????c nh???ng c???nh s???ng c???a nh???ng k??? b???o lo???n, ch??nh m??nh ??ng ch???ng ki???n v?? s???ng trong m??i tr?????ng c???a m???t ng?????i t??? t?? gi???m ??n. ????xt??iepxki th???t v???ng tr?????c c??i ??c v?? c?? ph???n b???t l???c khi th???y c??i ??c ho??nh h??nh th??? gian. C??u h???i su???t ?????i tr??n tr??? trong c??i l??ng, c??i t??m linh s??u xa c???a ????xt??iepxki l?? n???i th???ng kh??? c???a con ng?????i. L??m th??? n??o ????? c???u v???t con ng?????i? C??i thi???n c???u v???t con ng?????i hay c??i ??c? C?? Ch??a kh??ng? Nh???ng k??? t??? x??ng l?? ??n nh??n c???a nh??n lo???i, k??? ???y l?? ai? Nh???ng k??? ??ao ph???, nh???ng k??? kho??c ??o ?????u tranh cho t??? do, nh???ng k??? ???y c?? ph???i l?? ??n nh??n c???a nh??n lo???i kh??ng? Con ???????ng ?????n v????ng qu???c c??i thi???n l?? con ???????ng nh?? th??? n??o? ???? l?? c??u h???i v??nh c???u su???t ?????i ????xt??iepxki nung n???u, tr??n tr???, mong mu???n b??y gi???i. V?? ch??nh ki???t t??c "Anh em nh?? Karammar???p", t??c ph???m v?? ?????i nh???t c???a ????xt??iepxki t???ng k???t c??? cu???c ?????i vi???t v??n c???a ??ng. N?? t??? h???i t???t c??? nh???ng ?? t?????ng m?? ????xt??iepxki ???p ???, g???i g???m v?? b??y gi???i. Nh??n v???t cha Z??xima ch??nh l?? c??u tr??? l???i co bao nhi??u n??m ????xt??iepxki g???i g???m. Ch??nh c??i thi???n hi???n th???c v?? c??i thi???n l?? t?????ng, v?? m???t ?????ng Ch??a c???u th??? s??? l?? ??n nh??n c???u r???i con ng?????i ra kh???i u m??, l???m l???c, ra kh???i c??i ??c.
  Nh??n v???t cha Z??xima hi???n l??n trong t??c ph???m h???t s???c hi???n minh v?? h???t s???c s??ng ch??i. Ta bi???t r???ng to??n b??? nh??n v???t c???a ????t??iepxki l?? s??? " t??? ?? th???c" (1), nh??n v???t c???a ????xt??iepxki l?? m???t h??m s??? v?? t???n, kh??ng m???t gi??y n??o tr??ng h???p v???i b???n th??n m??nh. X??y d???ng nh??n v???t cha Z??xima, ????xt??iepxki ????? cho nh??n v???t ph??t tri???n theo s??? t??? th??n v???n ?????ng nh?? ti???n tr??nh ph??t tri???n kh??ch quan c???a n??. Cha Z??xima ?????i l???p v???i t???t c??? c??c nh??n v???t kh??c trong t??c ph???m, nh???ng, nh??n v???t tr??c t??ng nh?? ??imitri Fi??d??r??vits, ham nh???c d???c nh?? Fi?????? Pavl??vits, m???t s??t Ch??a nh??  Ivan Fi??d??r??vits, hoan l???c nh?? Grusence... v?? c??ng kh??c c??? Ali??sa, ng?????i con th??nh k??nh c???a Ch??a m?? Z??xima h???t l??ng y??u m???n. Hai nh??n v???t trung t??m c???a l??ng v??? tha, c???a t??nh nh??n ??i c??n s??t l???i gi???a m???t cu???c ?????i nh??ng nh??c, gi???a m???t gia ????nh ?? tr???c. Nh??ng hai t???m l??ng, hai t??m h???n, hai nh??n c??ch r???t kh??c nhau, r???t ?????c ????o, kh??ng tr???n l???n nhau, m???c d???u r???t h??a ?????ng v???i nhau.. ??o l?? th??nh c??ng c???a ????xt??iepxki khi x??y d???ng nh??n v???t cha Z??xima. Cha Z??xima hi???n th??n c???a c??i thi???n. C??i thi???n ???????c ch???t l???c ???????c tr???c nghi???m  t??? cu???c s???ng th???c, cu???c s???ng c???a nh???ng ng?????i tr???n m???t th???t tr??n tr??i ?????t n??y, ch??? kh??ng ph???i m???t c??i thi???n l??ng nh??n t??? t??? ????u ????u ??? c??i xa x??m hay cao v???i! L??ng nh??n ??i c???a Ali??sa th???t tuy???t v???i v?? th???t kh?? t??m. Ch??? tho??ng qua v??i c??? ch??? c???a nh??n v???t Ali??sa l?? ch??ng trai ???????c ????xt??iepxki d??nh cho nhi???u thi???n c???m. Ali??sa l?? m???t b??ng sen trong v??ng b??n nh?? Karammaz???p. Ali??sa y??u con ng?????i nh??ng kh??ng xa l??? v???i nh???ng kh??t v???ng c???a con ng?????i. Anh c?? l??ng nh??n ??i tr???ng trong, ?????p ?????. Nh??ng c?? m???t ??i???u kh??c cha Z??xima l?? Ali??sa ch??a tr???i qua tr?????ng ?????i th????ng kh??.M?? c??i tr?????ng ?????i th????ng kh?? kia m???i l?? c??i c??m d??? th??? th??ch t???m l??ng nh??n ??i c???a con ng?????i. C??i tr?????ng ?????i kia c??n th??? th??ch c??? Ch??a C???u th??? anh minh n???a. Ali??sa tuy???t h???o nh?? v???y, nh??ng ch??a ph???i hi???n th???c cu???c ?????i. M?? hi???n th???c cu???c ?????i kh??ng ph???i l?? con c???u non.
  Cha Z??xima th?? ng?????c l???i. Cha Z??xima t??? trong b??n ??en cu???c ?????i h??a th??n ????? ?????n v???i c??i thi???n, ????? c?? l??ng nh??n ??i. L??ng nh??n ??i c?? m???t, hi???n minh; l??ng nh??n ??i ???????c tu luy???n n??n th??nh ch??nh qu???. Ch??nh ??i???m n??y n?? th???t h??n l??ng nh??n ??i c???a Ali??sa. M???c d???u l??ng nh??n ??i c???a Ali??sa c??ng th???t cao ?????p. Nh??ng ch??nh cha Z??xima m???c d???u r???t y??u qu?? Ali??sa coi Ali??sa nh?? ng?????i con tinh th???n c???a minh, nh??ng cha Z??xima l?? ng?????i t???ng tr???i nghi???m cu???c ?????i, tu h??nh n??n ch??nh qu???, h??n ai h???t, cha hi???u mu???n c?? l??ng nh??n ??i, mu???n t??? thi???n, t??? t??m, mu???n tr??? th??nh ?????ng cao si??u  th?? ng?????i tu h??nh c??ng ph???i s???ng trong ?????i th???t nh?? nh???ng ki???p ng?????i tr???n m???t th???t kh??c. V?? hi???u h???t c??c l??? t??? nhi??n c???a t???o h??a sinh th??nh, c??ng phu, c??ng ?????c nh?? v???y n??n Tr?????ng l??o Z??xima khuy??n Ali?? sa: - Con c?? tr??ch nhi???m v?? c??ng l???n lao ph???i l??m tr???n trong ?????i, con ph???i l??u l???c nhi???u, con ph???i l???y v???. Con ph???i ch???u ?????ng tr?????c khi tr??? l???i tu vi???n. Ch??a Ki t?? ??? trong con. H??y h???t l??ng v?? Ch??a. Ch??a s??? che ch??? cho con. Con ph???i tr???i qua n???i ??au x??t l???n lao v?? s??? h???nh ph??c trong n???i ??au x??t ???y... H??y t??m h???nh ph??c trong kh??? ??au".
  Cha Z??xima ???? s???ng th???c nh?? th???. ????? c?? ???????c ch???c Tr?????ng l??o trong gi???i tu h??nh, ????? c?? kh??? n??ng ngo???i c???m l???n ?????u ti???p x??c v???i ng?????i n??o ????, Tr?????ng l??o ???? ??o??n ra ???????c ng?????i ???? c???n g??, c?? n???i ????u kh??? nh?? th??? n??o, nh???ng  ??i???u b?? m???t c???a h???, cha ?????n bi???t v?? ch??? che, ngay c??? nh???ng k??? ph???m t???i, Z??xima c??ng quy???n luy???n b???i cha Z??xima ???? t???ng l??n l???n, tr???i n???m trong cu???c ?????i. 
     ?????y ch??nh l?? nh???ng th??nh c??ng nh???t c???a ????xt??iepxki khi x??y d???ng nh??n v???t cha Z??xima... ????xt??iepxki kh??ng th???n th??nh h??a nh???ng ng?????i tu s??. D?? ng?????i ???y ???? th??nh ?????t trong ???????ng kh??? tu. ????xt??iepxki nh??n nh???ng v??? ch??n tu theo c??ch nh??n, c??ch ngh?? c???a ??ng. ????xt??iepxki hi???u th???u cu???c ?????i tr???n t???c h??n.
   Cha Z??xima tr?????c khi tr??? th??nh v??? ch??n tu ?????o cao ?????c tr???ng, Cha ???? s???ng m???t cu???c ?????i th?????ng d??? d???i nh?? bao ki???p ?????i th?????ng kh??c trong m???t x?? h???i m?? c??i ??c ng??? tr???. Cha ???? ????ng l??nh v?? ???? tr??? th??nh s?? quan. Cha ???? t???ng l??m vi???c ??c, ???? t???ng ????nh ng?????i. ????nh g?? l??nh h???u Afanaxi c???a m??nh. Cha l?? s?? quan thi???u ??y Z??xima. Th???i s???ng tr???n t???c, Z??xima s???ng nh?? t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i c??ng gi???i: R?????u ch??, trai g??i, ph?? ph??ch, ng??? ng??o. Z??xima ???? t???ng bu??ng th??? s???ng trong h?????ng l???c v???i t???t c??? ham mu???n c???a tu???i tr???, v?? ch???ng m???c nh?? kh??ng bi???t d???ng l???i. Cu???c ?????i th???c l?? mi???ng ?????t m??u m??? cho c??i ??c sinh s??i n???y n???.  Nh??ng c??i g?? ????? cho cha Z??xima th???c t???nh? ?????n ????y, ta th???y ????xt??iepxki kh??ng ng???i ng???n n??i r???ng s??? c???m h??a  ???? ch??nh l?? l??ng l??nh c???a Ch??a. Z??xima may m???n ham ?????c s??ch v?? c?? ???????c cu???n Kinh Th??nh. Ch??nh nh??? cu???n s??ch n??y, ???? th???c t???nh ??? trong c??i t??m th???c cho m???t k??? s???ng gi???a ?????i m?? c??i ??c ???????c tung ho??nh. Ch??nh l???n g??y ????? m??u ng?????i (m??u Afanaxi)  Z??xima ???? t???nh ng???. Z??xima b???t ??i m???t l???n g??y ????? m??u n???a. Ch??nh nh??? s??? s??m h???i  ???y m?? ???? c???u m???t m???ng ng?????i v?? t???i, c???u m???t gia ????nh ??ang h???nh ph??c.  Z??xima k??u l??n: " M??? ??i! Ru???t th???t c???a con ??i! ????ng l?? m???i ng?????i ?????u c?? l???i v???i t???t c??? m???i ng?????i v?? v??? m???i ng?????i. C?? ??i???u l?? ng?????i ta kh??ng bi???t ???? th??i. N???u ng?????i ta hi???u ra th?? tr???n gian t???c kh???c s??? l?? Thi??n ???????ng. T??i s???p gi???t m???t con ng?????i nh??n h???u, th??ng minh".
   V?? Z??xima ????? c??? b??? l??? ph???c gi???p tr??n d?????i ch??n g?? h???u c???a m??nh xin tha th???. L??ng nh??n ??i c???a v??? tr?????ng l??o c?? t??? m???m m??ng ngay l??c ???y. Ch??nh c??i gi??p tr??n s??m h???i l???n ?????u ti??n c???a k??? l??m vi???c ??c b???t ?????u chu???n b??? ??i v??o con ???????ng thi???n ???????c gi??? g??n m??i su???t ?????i v??? ch??n tu. Sau n??y, khi ??imitri Fi??????r??vits  s???p l??m vi???c hung h??n (tr?????ng l??o Z??xima nh???n ra b???ng tr???c gi??c) Cha Z??xima ???? s???p l???y tr?????c ??imitri nh?? v???y. ?????y ch??nh l?? c??i thi???n ???? chi???n th???ng c??i ??c ngay trong l??ng c??i ??c. C??i thi???n c?? trong c??i t??m linh con ng?????i. Con ng?????i ta bao gi??? c??ng c?? hai m???t. Nho gi??o cho r???ng: " Nh??n chi s?? t??nh b???n thi???n"  (2) l?? c?? h??m ngh??a c???a n?? ????y". Trong con ng?????i c??i ??c, c??i thi???n ??an xen. Ph???i l??m cho c??i thi???n th???ng c??i ??c. ???? ch??nh l?? ?? ????? c???a ????xt??iepxki khi x??y d???ng nh??n v???t tr?????ng l??o Z??xima...
  Nh??n v???t tr?????ng l??o Z??xima c???a ????xt??iepxki kh??c xa cha Phr??l?? trong "Nh?? th?? ?????c B?? Paris" c???a Vicht?? Huyg??, nh?? v??n Ph??p; kh??c cha Ral trong ti???u thuy???t  "Nh???ng con chim ???n m??nh ch??? ch???t" c???a nh?? n??? v??n ng?????i ??c Colleen McCulough . Cha Phr??l?? trong ti???u thuy???t "Nh?? th?? ?????c B?? Paris" c???a V??ch to Huy g?? ???????c nh?? v??n n??y x??y d???ng c??ng phu, th???t th??nh c??ng, nh??ng cha Phr??l?? kh??c cha Z??xima. Cha Phr??l?? kh??ng ??i tr???n con ???????ng  tu h??nh c???a m??nh. T??? v??? ch??n tu, t??? k??? l??m vi???c thi???n ban l??ng nh??n ??i cho ch??ng sinh, cha Phr??l?? tr??? th??nh k??? gi???t ng?????i v?? l??ng ghen t???c, ????? k??? m?? ki???p tu h??nh ch??a g???t s???ch. Conn ???????ng tu h??nh th???t b???i c???a cha Phr??l?? ??i ng?????c l???i v???i con ???????ng c???a cha Z??xima.
 Cha Phr??l?? th??ng minh, uy??n b??c th??u t??m tri th???c c???a nhi???u tri th???c ??????ng th???i. Tr?? tu??? cha phi th?????ng. Cha ??i v??o con ???????ng tu h??nh khi c??n trai tr???. Tu???i tr??? c???a cha tr??i ??i trong s??? say m?? h???c t???p, nghi??n c???u, mu???n chi???m l??nh nhi???u b??? m??n khoa h???c. Nh??ng c??ng t??? ???? cha Phr??l?? d???n d???n m???t l??ng tin v??o Ch??a, v??o c??c b???c th??nh th???n. B???n th??n s???ng ??p x??c t??? nh???, thi???u t??nh th??n gia ????nh, thi???u t??nh ?????ng lo???i, Phr??l?? s???ng nh?? thi???u t??nh t??? nhi??n c???a con ng?????i, tr??i h???n v???i m???i quy lu???t sinh v???t. Phr??l?? tr??? th??nh m???t con ng?????i kh?? khan l???nh l??ng, c?? khi ?????o ?????c gi???. Nguy hi???m v?? c??ng khi m???t b??? ??c th??ng minh m?? thi???u l??ng nh??n ??i. Ch??nh c??i ???? l??m cho Phr??l?? tr??? n??n v??? k???, nhi???u th??? ??o???n ?????c ??c tinh vi. Cu???i c??ng kh??ng ki???m ch??? b???n n??ng nh???c d???c m?? th?????ng ????? ???? ban cho "lo??i s??u b???", Phrolo ???? tr??? th??nh m???t k??? s??t nh??n. Ph?? bu??t m???t ch??ng s?? quan ch???t d?????i l?????i dao oan nghi???t c???a Cha - Ph?? gi??o ch??? Phr??l?? l?? s??? l??n ??n m???nh m??? c???a Vich to Huy g?? ?????i v???i c??i ??c.
    "Ph?? Gi??m m???c Claude Fr??ll?? tuy???t v???ng ?????n m???c m???t c??? l?? tr?? v?? nh??n t??nh. H???n ph??t hi???n ra Esm??ralda ??ang tr?? ???n trong nh?? th??? n??n ???? ??p bu???c v?? ??e d???a c??. V???i s??? che ch??? c???a Quasimodo, Esm??ralda v???n s???ng b??nh an v?? v???n y??u Phoebus. Frollo cho thi s?? Gringoire ?????n ????? l???a c?? ra ngo??i, m???t m???t h???n l???i b??o cho b???n c???nh binh bi???t ????? truy b???t. Frollo ???? ?????t ??i???u ki???n bu???c Esm??ralda ph???i ??ng thu???n m??nh, b???ng kh??ng ??ng s??? giao c?? cho b???n c???nh binh ??ang truy ??u???i c?? r??o ri???t. Esm??ralda quy???t ch???u ch???t ch??? kh??ng ??ng thu???n n??n Frollo ???? giao c?? cho m???t b?? ???n tu ??i??n d???i ???? t??? ch??n m??nh trong ng??i m??? l??? thi??n t??? khi ?????a con g??i c???a b?? b??? ng?????i Boh??mien b???t c??c v?? ????? l???i m???t ?????a tr??? d??? d???ng (b?? ???? ??em ?????a tr??? d??? d???ng ???? ????? tr?????c th???m nh?? th??? ?????c b??, Frollo ???? ??em ?????a tr??? v??? nu??i, ???? l?? Quasimodo). V?? th??? ng?????i ???n tu n??y r???t gh??t b???n Boh??mien n??n Frollo ngh?? r???ng Esm??ralda s??? b??? b?? h??nh h??? cho ?????n ch???t. Nh??ng sau ????, hai m??? con ???? nh???n ra nhau nh??? v???t k??? ni???m (????i gi??y c???a tr??? con m?? Esm??ralda lu??n mang b??n ng?????i l?? do m??? l??m cho). Cu???i c??ng, c???nh binh ???? t??m ???????c n??i ???n n???p c???a hai m??? con. Ng?????i m??? h???t s???c b???o v??? con, nh??ng Esm??ralda v???n b??? b???t ??i v?? b?? ???? ch???t ngay v?? qu?? tuy???t v???ng. Esm??ralda b??? ??em ??i treo c??? m???t l???n n???a. Quasimodo bi???t ???????c ?????u ??u??i c??u chuy???n v?? khi ch???ng ki???n t???n n??? c?????i th??m ?????c c???a ph?? Gi??m m???c khi th???y Esm??ralda b??? ????a ra x??? t???, ???? x?? Frollo ng?? t??? tr??n th??p chu??ng nh?? th??? xu???ng ?????t. Sau ????, Quasimodo ???? ??m x??c Esm??ralda v??o c??ng ch???t chung trong h???m m???. T??m th??ng sau, ng??i m??? b??? qu???t l??n. Khi th???y 2 b??? x????ng, ng?????i ta ???? ?????nh t??ch h??? ra. X????ng c???a Quasimodo tan th??nh b???i."
      Cha Ral trong ti???u thuy???t "Nh???ng con chim ???n m??nh ch??? ch???t" (Ti???ng chim h??t trong bui m???n gai) - (The Thorn Birds) c???a Colleen McCullough th?? l???i tinh vi h??n, t??ng t???n l????ng t??m h??n. Cha Ral gi??? k??n h??nh ?????ng c???a m??nh. ?????y h??nh ?????ng t???i l???i c???a m??nh cho k??? kh??c ch???u t???i. ?????a con c???a cha Ral ????? l???i cho ti???u th?? M?? gil, d?? ti???u th?? t??? nguy???n nh??ng l?? m???t vi???c l??m v?? lu??n m?? gi???i tu h??nh kh??ng cho ph??p!
      "Xuy??n su???t ti???u thuy???t Ti???ng chim h??t trong b???i m???n gai l?? c??u chuy???n t??nh gi???a Meggie v?? v??? cha x??? Ralph. Meggie c??? qu??n ??i t??nh c???m c???a m??nh b???ng c??ch k???t h??n v???i Luke O'Neill - m???t c??ng nh??n trong trang tr???i, nh??ng ch???ng bao l??u sau c?? v?? cha Ralph l???i ??o??n t???, cu???c t??nh c???a h??? ???? g??y ra nhi???u bi k???ch.
Chuy???n t??nh c???a Meggie v???i cha Ralph ch??? c?? th??? di???n t??? trong b???n ch??? "n???i ??au tuy???t v???i" v?? ????? c?? ???????c s??? tuy???t v???i ????, h??? ???? ph???i tr??? gi?? c??? cu???c ?????i. Nh?? trong l???i ????? t???a ???? vi???t: "C?? m???t truy???n thuy???t v??? con chim ch??? h??t c?? m???t l???n trong ?????i, nh??ng h??t hay nh???t th??? gian. C?? l???n n?? r???i t??? bay ??i t??m b???i m???n gai v?? t??m cho b???ng ???????c m???i th??i. Gi???a ????m c??nh gai g??c, n?? c???t ti???ng h??t b??i ca c???a m??nh v?? lao ng???c v??o chi???c gai d??i nh???t, nh???n nh???t. V?????t l??n tr??n n???i ??au kh??? kh??n t???, n?? v???a h???t v???a l???m d???n ??i, v?? ti???ng ca h??n hoan ???y ????ng cho c??? s??n ca v?? ho??? mi ph???i ghen t???. B??i ca duy nh???t, c?? m???t kh??ng hai, b??i ca ph???i ?????i b???ng t??nh m???ng m???i c?? ???????c.Nh??ng c??? th??? gian l???ng ??i l???ng nghe, v?? ch??nh Th?????ng ????? tr??n thi??n ????nh c??ng m???m c?????i. B???i v?? t???t c??? nh???ng g?? t???t ?????p nh???t ch??? c?? th??? c?? ???????c khi ta ch???u tr??? gi?? b???ng n???i ??au kh??? v?? ?????i. ??t ra th?? truy???n thuy???t n??i nh?? v???y" V?? ?????a con trai c???a hai ng?????i c??ng b??? tr???i ?????t l???y ??i (s??ng d??m xu???ng bi???n) n??i l??n n???i bi ??i v?? tang th????ng c???a h???."
     Cu???i c??ng hai k??? ???y kh??ng ai ??i ?????n n?????c c???a Ch??a.H??? ph???i tr??? gi?? cho s??? l???m l???c c???a m??nh.
  ????xt??iepxki trong ?????i m??nh, trong cu???c s???ng c?? ?????o, nh?? v??n ch???ng ki???n kh??ng ??t n???ng ng?????i nh?? cha Phr??l??, cha Ral . Nh??ng  ????xt??iepxki mu???n x??y d???ng m???t nh??n v???t ch??n tu minh tri???t, m???t v??? ch??n tu ??i h???t con ???????ng nh??n ??i tuy???t ?????p c???a m??nh. M?? v??? ch??n tu ???y kh??ng ai kh??c tr???i nhi???u ??au kh??? nh?? ki???p ng?????i th?????ng. Ch??nh ????xt??iepxki c?? d???ng ?? khi x??y d???ng nh??n v???t Z??xima. ??ng n??i v??? ng?????i th???y tu Nga: "V??? ng?????i th???y tu Nga. Th??a c??c cha v?? c??c th???y, ng?????i th???y tu l?? g??? Trong gi???i h???c v???n ng??y nay, t??? ???y n??i ra v???i ?? di???u c???t, m???t s??? ng?????i d??ng n?? nh?? m???t l???i th??a m???. S??? th???t trong gi???i tu h??nh c??ng c?? nhi???u k??? ??n b??m, d??m ????ng v?? ham kho??i l???c, nhi???u k??? lang thang tr?? tr??o. Th??? nh??ng trong gi???i tu h??nh c??ng c?? bao nhi??u ng?????i khi??m nh?????ng v?? hi???n l??nh, kh??t khao s???ng c??ch bi???t v?? n???ng nhi???t nguy???n c???u trong y??n t??nh. Ng?????i ta ??t n??i ?????n nh???ng ng?????i n??y th???m ch?? l??? h???n ??i v?? c??c v??? s??? h???t s???c ng???c nhi??n n???u t??i n??i r???ng nh???ng ng?????i khi??m nh?????ng v?? kh??t khao c???u nguy???n ???y s??? m???t l???n n???a c???u n?????c Nga."
  ??i???u n??y n?? c??ng ????ng v???i ?? nguy???n c???a Ph???t. Kinh Ph???t c?? n??i: "??n chay ni???m Ph???t kh??ng ph???i m???t ??i???u m?? t??n d??? ??oan. ??n chay ni???m Ph???t l?? s??? tu nh??n t??ch ?????c, c???u nh??n ????? th???." (3)
  Cha Z??xima l?? m???t v??? ch??n tu mang b???n t??nh Nga s??u ?????m. T??? khi n??m kh???u s??ng ?????y h??i t??? th???n v??o r???ng s??u v?? xin l???i k??? su??t ch???t tr?????c m??i s??ng c???a m??nh, cha Z??xima ??i v??o tr?????ng ?????i. L???n ??i n??y l?? m???t s??? s??m h???i l???n. M???t s??? s??m h???i nh?? s??? s??m h???i c???a Th??nh Phao l?? tr?????c ????y ???? t???ng h??nh h??? nh???ng ng?????i c?? ?????o. Ch??nh nh??? s??? ??i n??y m?? cha Z??xima c?? ???????c c??i nh??n th???u su???t s??u c??i, th???y t???n n???i ??au trong tim c???a con ng?????i. Ch??nh nh??? ??em th??n m??nh d??ng hi???n cho ?????ng cao c???, t??nh nguy???n nh???n cu???c th??? th??ch s??m h???i ???y m?? cha Z??xima th???ng ???????c s??? ham mu???n tr???n t???c c???a b???n th??n, l??m ch??? ???????c b???n th??n m??nh. Cha Z??xima c??ng cha Anfim ??i h??nh h????ng. Ch??nh cu???c h??nh h????ng nh?? th??? n??y bi???t t??? l???t x??c tr???n t???c c???a m??nh. Cha ???? bi???t gi?? t??? vinh hoa ph?? qu??, ham mu???n ??? ?????i. T??? b??? h???t th???y, c??ng nh?? c???a, t??i s???n cho tu vi???n, ch???p nh???n cu???c s???ng h??nh kh???t l??m ??i???u thi???n ????? chu???c l???i l???i l???m. Ch??nh v?? tr??? v??? ki???p ng?????i d?????i ????y h??? ?????ng, cha Z??xima hi???u th??m v??? h???. S??? g???p l???i ng?????i h???u c???a m??nh ng??y x??a l?? Afnaxi g??y x??c ?????ng l???n trong l??ng cha Z??xima v?? c??? nhi???u th??? h??? sau n??y. Ch??nh cha Z??xima c??ng n??i l??n c???m t?????ng c???a m??nh l??c ????. Ch??nh cha ???? t??? b???ch: " T??i g???p l???i ng?????i l??nh h???u c???a t??i Afanaxi. T??? h???i chia tay v???i anh ?????n nay ???? t??m n??m, t??nh c??? anh nh???n ra t??i v?? ch???y l???i v???i t??i, v?? tr???i ??i! Anh ta m???ng qu??  v?? ????m b??? ?????n t??i: " Cha ??i! ?????i nh??n ??i! ?????i nh??n ?????y ??? C?? ph???i cha ?????y kh??ng?". Ch??ng ta x??c ?????ng v???i cha Tr?????ng l??o. N???u kh??ng c?? ph??t c???i h???i, kh??ng c?? ??i???u ??n n??n, cam t??m l??m ??i???u thi???n ngay khi m??nh ??ang c??n l??m ??i???u ??c tr??n c??i ?????i n??y, kh??ng c?? t???m l??ng v??? tha bao dung, kh??ng c?? t??nh th????ng ????? l?????ng l???n lao, l??m sao m???t k??? t??i t??? c???a m??nh v???n ?????i kh??ng v???i m??nh t??? trong m??u th???t l???i c?? th??? th??nh t??m ?????n nh?? l?? th??nh th???n ban b???o, t??? nguy???n, t??? gi??c ch???y l???i v???i t???m l??ng thanh s???ch nh?? n?????c cam l??? v???y. Ph??t gi???y g???p g??? ???y c???m ?????ng nh?????ng bao, tri ??n nh???ng bao. Ng?????i s?? quan, ng?????i t??? quy???n l???c vinh hoa ph?? qu??, ???????ng binh nghi???p th??ng quan ti???n ch???c d??? d??ng, ti???n c???a nh?? n?????c ???? t??? gi?? h???t th???y v?? ch???p nh???n ?????ng n??m m????i c?? p???c , v?? m???t ?????ng ??n ???????ng c???a ng?????i l??nh h???u c???a m??nh ???? c?? h???o t??m r???t m???c. C??i g?? c?? ???????c ??? t???m l??ng ch??n th??nh c???a ng???????i l??nh h???u c??, ng?????i h???u c?? c???a cha Z?? xi ma? C??i ???? kh??ng ngo??i t???m l??ng nh??n ??i, ?????i t??? bi, b??c ??i c???a Z??xima c??i ph??t ?????u ti??n ?????n v???i Ch??a! Ch??nh vi???c ?????n v???i Ch??a, con ng?????i m???i c?? l??ng thanh s???ch, c?? t??m h???n qu???ng ?????i , c?? t??nh b???ng h???u bao la. Ph??t gi??y cha Z??xima c???m ?????ng l??c ???y c??ng l?? ngu???n kh??i g???i c???m h???ng cho t???m l??ng t???t c???a ng?????i tu h??nh v?? gi??p cho h??? c?? ni???m tin l??m vi???c ngh??a, vi???c thi???n su???t ?????i m?? kh??ng h??? ?????n ??o c??n nh???c ho???c l?? nu???i ti???c. Cha Z??xima sung s?????ng n??i: "T??i nh???n ti???n anh ta, c??i ch??o hai v??? ch???ng v?? ra ??i, l??ng vui s?????ng. Tr??n ???????ng ??i, t??i ngh??: -Tr?????c kia t??i l?? ch??? anh ta, anh ta l?? t??i t???. C??n b??y gi??? gi???a ch??ng t??i l?? s??? h??a h???p v?? ?????i c???a con ng?????i v???i nhau!".
  L??ng nh??n ??i c???a cha Z??xima c??ng  nh?? c??i ch??n ti???n m??? ??? ph????ng ????ng m?? c??? nh??n c?? n??i: "Thi nh?? Th??nh nh??n, Th?????ng thi??n c???u nh??n c??? v?? kh?? nh??n. Th?????ng thi??n c???u v???t c??? v?? kh?? v???t, thi v??? t???p minh" . Ngh??a l??: (Cho n??n Th??nh nh??n, th?????ng kh??o c???u ng?????i, n??n kh??ng c?? ng?????i b??? b???. Th?????ng kh??o c???u v???t n??n kh??ng c?? v???t n??o b??? b???, ???y l?? s??ng b???ng hai) - (4) . ??i h??nh h????ng trong c??i ?????i ?? tr???c, c??i ?????i m?? k??? ??c nhi???u h??n ng?????i thi???n; c??i ?????i ?????y r???y nh???ng h???ng ng?????i nh?? Ivan Fi??????r??vits, Xmer??iak???p, Grusenka, Kh??l?? lac??va..., nh???ng h???ng ng?????i k??m ?????c tin  v?? nhi???u h???ng ng?????i v?? th???n coi khinh ?????ng C???u th???. Cha Z??xima th???y t???n m???t, hi???u th???u ch??n t??, k??? t??c n???i ??au tr???n th???, n???i ??au c???a nh???ng k??? l???m l???c, kh??ng c?? ?????c tin. Cha Z??xima bi???t v?? ngh?? r???ng: "Nh???ng k??? kh??ng c?? ?????c tin th?? kh??ng th??? l?? ng?????i l??m vi???c thi???n ???????c.Kh??ng l??m ???????c vi???c thi???n th?? l??m sao c?? l??ng nh??n ??i b??nh th?????ng, ch??a n??i ?????n ph???i c?? l??ng nh??n ??i minh tri???t. Kh??ng c?? ?????c tin, con ng?????i s??? tr??? n??n lo??i th?? ! Cu???c s???ng tr??n h??nh tin n??y s??? ?????m m??u nhi???u h??n n???a".  Ch??nh cha Z??xima b???ng vi???c l??m c???a m??nh, b???ng s??? hy sinh v?? t??, b???ng s??? t??? c???i t?? quy ch??nh c???a m??nh, cha Z??xima thuy???t ph???c ???????c con ng?????i k??m ?????c tin ho???c kh??ng c?? ?????c tin. H??y nu??i d?????ng l???y ?????c tin trong l??ng m??nh. N???u kh??ng th?? cu???c s???ng c???a m???i m???t con ng?????i s??? th??c lo???n, m?? cu???c s???ng c???a to??n c???ng ?????ng c??ng th??c lo???n,con ng?????i m???t ph????ng h?????ng. ???? c??ng ch??nh l?? m???t ph???n t??m linh s??u th???m c???a ????xt??iepxki gi???i b??y c??ng h???u th???. ????xt??iepxki h?????ng v??? Ch??a C???u th??? v?? tu vi???n. ?? th???c b???nh ho???n v?? ?? th???c t???i l???i d???n ?????n ????xt??iepxki mong mu???n m???t x??  h???i minh tr??? c?? hai th??? l??: " T??n gi??o v?? Nh?? n?????c Qu??n ch???". Quay v??? v???i ?????ng Christ. ????xt??iepxki t??m ???????c c??i thi???n, ??ng quan ni???m c?? ?????c tin v?? c?? c??i thi???n th?? c?? s???c m???nh t???o ra to??n th??? gi???i. S???c m???nh to??n tr??? ???y ch??? c?? ??? Jesus. H??y g???i ?????c tin v??o Ch??a. " ?????c tin ?????n v???i ch??ng ta kh??ng c??n ??? d?????i ph??p lu???t n???a. B???i ch???ng anh em h???t th???y ?????u l?? con c??i c???a ?????c Ch??a Tr???i do ?????c tin t??m ?????n Christ Jesus (5).
   Cha Z??xima l?? hi???n th??n cho m???t con ng?????i Ki t?? gi??o trong s??ng c?? l?? t?????ng, c?? c??ng kh??? luy???n, ?????c ????? hy sinh. Nhi???u ?? ki???n l???p lu???n c???a c??c h???c gi??? cho r???ng ????xt??iepxki d??nh cho Z??xima l?? ng?????i th???y cu???c

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