Lu???n v??n v??? ?????t (3) - ????? Ho??ng

Thứ hai - 22/04/2019 02:47
C??c b??o c??o sai l???ch v??? nh???ng v??? thu ho???ch th???ng l???i v?? n??ng d??n sung s?????ng vui v??? tr??n ng???p c??c khu nh?? ??? ???????c cung c???p ?????y ????? c???a gi???i tinh hoa c???ng s???n c???m quy???n ??? B???c Kinh. Nh??ng trong th???c t???, ch????ng tr??nh c???a Mao ???? d???n t???i m???t trong nh???ng n???n ????i kh???ng khi???p nh???t trong l???ch s???, l??m ch???t ????i kho???ng t??? 16 ?????n 32 tri???u ng?????i. Sau th???m h???a, m?? nh???ng ng?????i s???ng s??t n??i t???i nh?? l?? ???l??n gi?? c???ng s???n???, Mao d???p t???t h???t nh???ng l???i k??u g???i ng???ng t???p th??? h??a n??ng nghi???p. Nh?? ??ng t???ng tuy??n b???: ???n??ng d??n mu???n t??? do nh??ng ch??ng ta mu???n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i???.
l????ng thi???n.Tr?????c m???t vua ??pripba, Phao l?? n??i: "Ch??nh t??i t???ng th???m ngh?? l??m nhi???u ??i???u ????? ch???ng ngh???ch danh Ch??a Ng?????i Xanaret. T??i c??ng ???? l??m nh?? v???y tr???i Gieusalem, ???? nh??n quy???n b??nh c???a c??c th???y t??? l??? v?? b??? t?? nhi???u th??nh ????? v?? l??c h??? b??? gi???t, t??i c??ng b??? th??m ??ng thu???n."
Nh??ng Phao l?? ???? g???p Ch??a. Ch??a ???? x??ng danh: "Ta l?? Jesus m?? ng????i b???t b??? ????y, song h??y ?????ng l??n. Ta s??? gi???i c???u ng?????i kh???i d??n. ????? h?????ng v??? ?????c Ch??a Tr???i h???u cho h??? nh???n ???????c s??? tha t???i ???????c n??n Th??nh b???i c?? ?????c tin v???i ta."(10)
  T??m v??? c??i thi???n, t??m v??? Ch??a, ???????c Ch??a c???m h??a, ???????c c??i thi???n d???n d???t, Phao l?? ???? ??i ?????n con ???????ng ch??n tu v?? cu???i c??ng ?????c ?????o.
  Th??nh Miguel de Manata c??ng v???y. T??? m???t k??? Don Juande tr??c t??ng l??m thui h???i bao nhi???u ?????i con g??i v?? t???i, Miguel de Manata ???? s??m h???i ,  t??? b??? t???t c??? ????? tr??? v??? c??i thi???n . C??ng ?????c h???i l???i ???y ???? ???????c h???u th??? soi x??t. Hai tr??m n??m sau khi ch???t, Miguel de Manata ???????c hi???n Th??nh.
   Cha Z??xima ??i theo c??c v??? th??nh n??y, noi g????ng h??? v?? nh?? ???? ph??n t??ch l?? cha c??ng ?????c ?????o.
  Cha Z??xima khi n??m kh???u s??ng c???a m??nh, kh??ng mu???n l??m ????? m??u ?????ng lo???i, b???ng c??i c???m quan th???u th???. Cha bi???t "d??ng s??ng ????? ????? ra ch??nh quy???n" (11) l?? t??? s??t m??nh v?? t??? s??t nh??n lo???i. K??? nh??n danh t??? do s??? gi???t ch???t t??? do! C??i nhu c???u th???a m??n b???n th??n c???a h??? n???y sinh trong l??ng h??? nhi???u ham mu???n, nhi???u th??i quen v?? ngh??a v?? ngu xu???n, l???m gi??? t?????ng v?? l??. Ng?????i ta s???ng ????? k??? v?? hi???m kh??ch l???n nhau. Ng???a xe, ch???c t?????c, k??? h???u ng?????i h???, danh d??? l??ng tham gi???t ch???t con ng?????i ham quy???n l???c. R???i thay cho r?????u, h??? u???ng m??u ng?????i. Nh???ng k??? ?????u tranh cho nh??n lo???i, gi??nh l???y t??? do ???y l???i r??i v??o v??ng n?? l??? c???a nh???ng th??i quan, ham m???n. ?? t?????ng th???ng nh???t to??n nh??n lo???i c???a k??? ??c, ?? t?????ng ph???c v??? nh??n lo???i c???a h??? ng??y c??ng l???i t???t tr??n th??? gian. Cu???i c??ng t???t c??? l?? t?????ng gi??? v??? ph???c v??? nh??n lo???i ???y chi ??i ph???c v??? cho m???t nh??m ng?????i s???ng bi???t l???p v???i c???ng ?????ng.
   Cha Z??xima hi???u con ??????ng tu h??nh c???a minh   khi m??nh t??? ch???n l?? con ???????ng d???n ?????n t??? do th???t s???, d???n ?????n c??i thi???n. C?? nh?? th??? m???i c?? l??ng nh??n ??i. L??ng nh??n ??i ph???i sinh ra ??? tr??i tim gi??u l??ng nh??n h???u v?? ??? b??? ??c tr??c vi???t c???a b???c ch??n tu hay ng?????i l??m vi???c thi???n. Cha Z??xima bi???t r???ng ngay t??? th???i c??? x??a, nh???ng nh?? ho???t ?????ng c???a nh??n d??n c??ng t??? nh???ng b???c tu h??nh m?? ra. Hi???n t???i c??ng th??? m?? sau n??y c??ng th???. Cha Z??xima khi tr??? v??? c??i thi???n , cha hi???u c??ng vi???c c???a m??nh, c??ng vi???c ch??n ch??nh c???a v??? ch??n tu Nga. Nh???ng ng?????i ??n chay v?? nh???ng ng?????i khi??m nh?????ng v?? hi???n l??nh ???y s??? ?????ng ra ph???c v??? s??? nghi???p v??? ?????i. Nh??n d??n s??? c???u n?????c Nga. T??? mu??n ?????i tu vi???n Nga ??i v???i nh??n d??n. Cha Z??xima b???ng kh??? n??ng th???u th??? c???a m??nh hay ch??nh ????xt??iepxki b???ng thi??n t??i tr???c b??o c???nh t???nh cho nh??n lo???i bi???t nguy c?? c???a k??? l??m ??i???u ??c. Cha Z??xima th???y ???????c ??? n?????c Nga c???a Cha: "Nh???ng nh?? ho???t ?????ng kh??ng t??nh ng?????ng, kh??ng l??m n??n tr?? tr???ng g?? cho d?? ng?????i ???? c?? t???m l??ng ch??n th??nh v?? tr?? tu??? thi??n t??i. H??y nh??? l???y ??i???u ????. Nh??n d??n s??? ??????ng ?????u v???i ng?????i v?? th???n v?? qu???t ????? k??? ????. N?????c Nga ch??nh gi??o th???ng nh???t s??? xu???t hi???n. H??y b???o v??? nh??n d??n v?? ch??m s??c tr??i tim nh??n d??n b???ng ??n ngh??a. H??y v?? nh??n d??n mang Ch??a trong m??nh."
  ????xt??iepxki qu??? c?? c??i nh??n th???u th???.  B???ng gi??c v?? th???c, ??ng bi???t ?????n c??i ????? v??? t???t y???u c???a nh???ng k??? v?? th???n (hay ????ng h??n nh???ng k??? l??m ??i???u ??c). Sau m???t tr??m n??m th???i gian ???? l?? ng?????i th???y c??ng minh ki???m nghi???m c??i nh??n thi??n t??i c???a ????xt??iepxki. ????ng l?? ????xt??iepxki l?? m???t thi??n t??i - thi??n t??i nh??n ??i. ??ng ???? c???m nh???n tr?????c t???t c??? nh??n lo???i. Th??? k??? sau th??? k??? 19, th??? k??? XX, c??i ??c th???ng th??? ho??nh h??nh l???n ??t c??i thi???n. ??i???n h??nh l?? ch??? ngh??a Ph??t x??t v?? ch??? ngh??a C???ng s???n.
   C??i ??c c???a Ch??? ngh??a Ph??t x??t l?? : Ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t l?? m???t h??? t?? t?????ng ch??nh tr??? v?? phong tr??o s??? ????ng m?? mu???n ?????t qu???c gia trong nh???ng thu???t ng??? v??? l???ch s???, v??n h??a, sinh h???c ?????c nh???t, tr??n t???t c??? l?? c??c ?????ng l???c c???a l??ng trung th??nh, v?? mu???n t???o n??n 1 c???ng ?????ng qu???c gia ???????c huy ?????ng..[1] R???t nhi???u ?????c ??i???m ???????c quy cho ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t b???i nhi???u h???c gi??? kh??c nhau, nh??ng nh???ng y???u t??? sau th?????ng ???????c xem nh?? c???u th??nh: ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c h???p h??ich??? ngh??a t?? b???nch??? ngh??a ?????c t??i qu??n s???ch??? ngh??a qu??n phi???tch??? ngh??a ch???ng c???ngch??? ngh??a h???p t??cch??? ngh??a to??n tr???ch??? ngh??a chuy??n ch???[2], ch???ng l???i ch??? ngh??a t??? do v?? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n. C?? r???t nhi???u tranh c??i gi???a c??c h???c gi??? v??? b???n ch???t c???a ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t v?? nh???ng lo???i phong tr??o ch??nh tr??? v?? nh???ng ch??nh ph??? m?? c?? th??? b??? g???i l?? ph??t x??t. Tr??n th???c t??? ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t ??? ??, n??i kh???i ?????u c???a n??, kh??c v???i ??? ?????c, hay "ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t" ??? Nh???t, ??? T??y Ban Nha, v?? m???t s??? n??i kh??c, v?? c??ng nh?? c??c phong tr??o ph??t x??t m???i ph??t tri???n ??? ch??u ??u hi???n nay, xem x??t c??c kh??a c???nh kinh t???, th??? thu???t gi??nh ch??nh quy???n, c????ng l??nh, t?? t?????ng, m?? h??nh nh?? n?????c,... nh??ng c?? ??i???m chung l?? g???n v???i tinh th???n d??n t???c.

Ngo??i c??c ?????c ??i???m chung c???a ch??? ngh??a ph??t x??t nh?? ?????c t??i, chuy??n ch???, ph???n d??n ch???, x??m l?????c, d?? man t??n b???o, ph??t x??t ?????c c?? m???t ??i???m ?????c ????o l?? t??n s??t nh???m ti??u di???t nh???ng ng?????i ch??ng cho l?? ???h??? ?????ng??? d?? h??? kh??ng ph???i l?? ?????i t?????ng chi???n tranh. H??nh vi n??i tr??n xu???t ph??t t??? quan ??i???m ch???ng t???c b???nh ho???n c???c ??oan ??ch k??? c???a Hitler: coi ch???ng t???c German l?? th?????ng ?????ng (ch??ng t??? l???y t??n l?? ng?????i Aryan), c??c d??n t???c Do Th??i, Gypsy, Slav?? l?? h??? ?????ng, c???n gi???t h???t ????? l???y kh??ng gian cho ch??ng sinh t???n. Ph??t x??t Nh???t c??ng c?? quan ??i???m cho d??n t???c Nh???t l?? d??ng d??i th???n th??nh, c???n th???ng tr??? to??n ch??u ?? ????? x??y d???ng ????????i ????ng ????? ngang ng???a v???i ??u, M???; nh??ng ch??a t???i m???c b???nh ho???n nh?? Hitler.
N??m 1933, Hitler ch??? th??? ph???i th??? ti??u nh???ng ng?????i b???m sinh t??n t???t ho???c ?????n ?????n (kh??ng ph???i Do Th??i). Kho???ng 5000 tr??? em lo???i n??y ???? b??? ti??m thu???c ?????c ch???t. N??m 1939, h???n l???p 6 ???Trung t??m T-4???, d??ng kh?? CO (carbon monoxide) gi???t m???i ?????t 20-30 ng?????i thi???u n??ng tr?? tu??? ho???c t??m th???n, r???i ?????t x??c phi tang. Gia ????nh h??? nh???n ???????c b??nh tro h??i c???t v?? th?? chia bu???n n??i ch???t l?? do vi??m ph???i, ph???i ?????t x??c ????? tr??nh truy???n nhi???m. V??? sau, do b??? l???, c??c ?????i di???n t??n gi??o l??n ti???ng ph???n ?????i. Hitler ph???i ng???ng vi???c n??y (8/1941) khi h??n 70 ngh??n n???n nh??n ???? ch???t, nh??ng v???n th??? ti??u ti???p v??i ngh??n t?? ch??nh tr???, t?? h??nh s??? v?? ng?????i Do Th??i theo c??ch c??? ?? k???t lu???n h??? b??? t??m th???n.
Ng?????i Do Th??i di c?? ?????n ?????c t??? th??? k??? I; ?????u th??? k??? XX h??? c?? h??n n???a tri???u ng?????i ??? ?????c, chi???m 1% s??? d??n. Th???a x??a, t??n ????? ?????o Ki T?? ??? ch??u ??u gh??t ng?????i Do Th??i v?? cho r???ng h??? g??y ra c??i ch???t c???a Jesus. Cu???i th??? k??? XIX, xu???t hi???n m???t ???l?? thuy???t sinh h???c??? nh???n ?????nh Do Th??i l?? m???t ch???ng ng?????i kh??c th?????ng, c?? b???n t??nh ?????c ??c di truy???n. N?????c Nga Sa Ho??ng gi???t h???i h??ng ngh??n ng?????i Do Th??i v???i l?? do ???y. Nhi???u ng?????i Do Th??i ch???y sang ?????c, n??i h??? coi l?? qu???c gia v??n minh nh???t. Nh??ng h??? ???? nh???m, v?? sau n??y n??i ????y xu???t hi???n Hitler.
Hitler cho ng?????i Do Th??i l?? lo???i qu??i v???t b?? hi???m qu??? quy???t, chuy??n ?????ng sau gi???t d??y, g??y ra t???t c??? c??c t???i ??c, t??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n cho ?????n n???n m???i d??m. H???n d??ng lu???t ph??p ?????nh t???i h??? v?? ????nh h??? v??? kinh t???. T??? n??m 1931, c??c ?????i Xung k??ch Nazi ???? ?????p ph?? khu ng?????i Do Th??i v?? c??c ng??i m??? c???a h???, c??ng nh?? ng??n ng?????i ?????c t???i mua h??ng ??? c??c c???a hi???u Do Th??i. N??m 1933, Hitler k?? c??c ?????o lu???t c???m ng?????i Do Th??i l??m c??ng vi???c v??n th??, lu???t ph??p, y t???, n??ng nghi???p, ??m nh???c, k???ch n??i, ??i???n ???nh, c???m ph???c v??? trong qu??n ?????i v.v.. Giai ??o???n 1933-1939 ???? ban h??nh h??n 400 ?????o lu???t ch???ng Do Th??i. N??m 1935, Qu???c H???i th??ng qua Lu???t Ch???ng t???c Nuremberg, ho??n to??n lo???i tr??? ng?????i Do Th??i ra kh???i ?????i s???ng x?? h???i. N??m 1937, Goering th???c thi ???Aryan ho?? n???n kinh t??????, ngh??a l?? t???ch thu c??c x?? nghi???p c???a ng?????i Do Th??i. Kho???ng 80% c??c x?? nghi???p n??y ???? chuy???n v??o tay ng?????i ?????c.
T??? 1934, ?????c b???t ?????u xua ??u???i ng?????i Do Th??i. H??ng n??m c?? 8000 ng?????i Do Th??i b??? ????a ?????n Palestine thu???c Anh ??? n??i ???????c Anh h???a l???p ri??ng m???t nh?? n?????c Do Th??i. V??? sau c??c n?????c kh??c kh??ng nh???n n???a, v?? h??? c??ng b??i Do Th??i v?? v?? ???? nh???n qu?? nhi???u; nh?? Ba Lan ch??? trong 20 n??m ???? c?? 400 ngh??n ng?????i Do Th??i ?????n. M???, Anh, Ph??p c?? truy???n th???ng nh???n ng?????i t??? n???n, nay c??ng h???n ch??? nh???n. Vi???c xua ??u???i gi???t h???i ng?????i Do Th??i ch??? ch???m l???i trong th???i gian ?????c t??? ch???c Th??? v???n h???i Olympic 1936; sau ???? l???i ?????y m???nh. Trong ???????m Kinh ho??ng??? 9/11/1938, c??c ?????i Xung k??ch ????nh gi???t, c?????p b??c, ?????p ph??, ?????t ch??y nhi???u c???a hi???u, ?????n th???, nh?? ??? c???a ng?????i Do Th??i ??? Munich. ?????u n??m 1939, Hitler tuy??n b???: ???Ch???ng t???c Do Th??i ??? ch??u ??u s??? b??? hu??? di???t.??? L???c l?????ng SS b???t ng?????i Do Th??i ????a v??? tr???i t???p trung Dachau g???n Munich ????? gi???t d???n h???. Sau khi chi???m Ba Lan, n??i c?? 3,3 tri???u ng?????i Do Th??i, ph??t x??t ?????c b???t ?????u t??ng t???c ????? t??n s??t. ????? gi???u d??n ?????c bi???t vi???c n??y, t??? cu???i 1939, ph??t x??t ?????c ch??? ng?????i Do Th??i v?? ng?????i Gypsy (??? Vi???t Nam quen g???i l?? ng?????i Di-gan, m???t ch???ng t???c g???c Indo-Aryan, n??m 1979 ???????c Li??n H???p Qu???c c??ng nh???n l?? m???t d??n t???c) ??? ch??u ??u v??o c??c tr???i t???p trung ??? Ba Lan.
Cu???c t???n c??ng v??o Li??n X?? ??? n??i c?? 5 tri???u ng?????i Do Th??i ??? ????nh d???u b?????c ngo???t trong ch??nh s??ch ch???ng Do Th??i. Hitler hu???n th??? cho c??c ch??? huy qu??n ?????i: Do Th??i v?? B??n-s??-vich, gi???i tr?? th???c v?? H???ng qu??n Nga ?????u l?? k??? ?????ch ph???i ti??u di???t. L???c l?????ng SS tr??? th??nh ?????i qu??n h??nh quy???t chuy??n nghi???p. Khi ti???n v??o Li??n X??, ch??ng c??? th???y ng?????i Do Th??i l?? b???n ngay. T???i 3 n?????c v??ng Ban-t??ch, ch??ng ph???i h???p v???i c???nh s??t ?????a ph????ng (v???n gh??t Do Th??i) l??m vi???c n??y. Trong 5 tu???n ?????u v??o ?????t Li??n X??, s??? ng?????i Do Th??i b??? ch??ng gi???t nhi???u h??n t???ng s??? ???? gi???t t??? tr?????c ?????n l??c ????. Ng??y 1/8/1941, Heydrich b??o c??o Himmler: ???C?? th??? tin ch???c l?? tr??n m???nh ?????t mi???n ????ng n??y s??? kh??ng c??n ng?????i Do Th??i n???a.??? Sau ???? Himmler ?????n t???n Minsk ????? xem ???bi???u di???n??? c???nh h??nh quy???t: h??ng tr??m ng?????i Do Th??i n???m ??p m???t d?????i r??nh ????o, l??nh SS b???n v??o t???ng ng?????i. Himmler s??? t??i m???t su??t ng??, th??? nh??ng sau ???? h???n hu???n th???: m???i ng?????i c???n thi h??nh ch???c tr??ch lu???t ph??p c???a m??nh; ????? t??? b???o v???, lo??i ng?????i c???n x??c ?????nh k??? n??o l?? c?? h???i, v?? ???? c?? h???i th?? ph???i ti??u di???t s???ch. Khi chi???m Kiev (9/1941), l??nh SS g???i to??n b??? ng?????i Do Th??i t???p trung v??o ngh??a trang r???i x??? s??ng b???n; trong 2 ng??y, ch??ng gi???t ch???t 33.771 ng?????i. V??? sau, Himmler ra l???nh ph???i t??m c??ch gi???t sao ????? ???????? h??nh h??? h??? v??? tinh th???n???. ???S??ng ki???n??? ?????u ti??n l?? d??ng c??c xe t???i b???c k??n, m???i xe ch???a kho???ng 50 ng?????i r???i b??m kh?? CO v??o cho h??? ch???t ng???t.       ?????u 1942, khi ???? gi???t h??n 1 tri???u ng?????i ???h??? ?????ng???, Goering ra l???nh t??ng t???c ????? gi???t h??? v???i m???c ????ch di???t ch???ng. Ch??ng x??y d???ng ??? ????ng ??u 3 trung t??m gi???t ng?????i l?? c??c tr???i t???p trung Belzec, Treblinka, Sobibor. ???D??y chuy???n c??ng ngh?????? m???i l??: d??ng xe l???a ch??? ng?????i ?????n tr???i, l???t h???t qu???n ??o, ????a v??o ph??ng k??n m???i ph??ng 400 ng?????i r???i b??m kh?? CO v??o, x??c ??em ?????t ho???c ch??n. Trung b??nh n???n nh??n ?????n tr???i kh??ng qu?? 3 gi??? l?? b??? gi???t! H??ng ng??y c?? 100 toa xe l???a ch??? ng?????i ?????n, m???i ng??y 3 tr???i n??y ???s???n xu???t??? ???????c 25 ngh??n x??c ch???t! T???ng gi?? tr??? s??? ti???n c?????p t??? n???n nh??n l??n t???i 70 tri???u USD. T??c c???a h??? ???????c ch??? v??? ?????c ????? ch??? t???o lo???i v???i ?????c bi???t. Ba tr???i t???p trung tr??n v??? sau b??? ?????c san b???ng ????? phi tang t???i ??c; x??c ch???t ???????c ????o l??n r???i ?????t. Ti???p ????, ch??ng x??y d???ng tr???i t???p trung Auschwitz I, II v?? III, v???a l?? tr???i lao ?????ng v???a l?? c??c nh?? m??y gi???t ng?????i. Th??ng 3/1944, ?????c chi???m Hungary; l??c n??y Li??n X?? ??ang ????nh ??u???i qu??n ?????c ??? ????ng ??u, nh??ng ch??ng v???n k???p ch??? 280 ngh??n ng?????i Do Th??i ??? Hungary ?????n Auschwitz. Khi qu??n ?????i Li??n X?? gi???i ph??ng tr???i n??y (27/1/1945), ch??? c??n 2800 ng?????i s???ng s??t, trong kho c??n h??n 836 ngh??n ??o kho??c v?? v??y ph??? n???, 370 ngh??n ??o kho??c nam v?? 7 t???n t??c c???a ng?????i ???? ch???t.  
     Hitler c??ng t??n s??t h??ng lo???t ng?????i Gypsy ??? bu???c t???i h??? ph?? ho???i huy???t th???ng ng?????i German. Ch??? nhi???m ???Vi???n nghi??n c???u V??? sinh ch???ng t???c v?? sinh v???t h???c qu???n th?????? l?? b??c s?? Robert Rits ???????c giao nhi???m v??? nghi??n c???u t??m ???ch???ng c??? khoa h???c???. T???t c??? ng?????i Gypsy ?????u ph???i ????ng k?? v???i ch??nh quy???n, r???i ???????c ph??n lo???i theo m???c ????? lai v???i ng?????i ?????c. Cu???i c??ng Rits k???t lu???n: ng?????i Gypsy c?? d??ng m??u ng?????i nguy??n thu???, l??m th??nh m???t giai c???p ????? v?? s???n??? t??? kh??p k??n, c?? khuynh h?????ng ph???m t???i, n??n ????a v??o c??c tr???i t???p trung ????? lao ?????ng, ho???c t???t nh???t th??? ti??u h???. Kho???ng 250-500 ngh??n ng?????i Gypsy ???? ch???t trong c??c tr???i t???p trung.
Th??ng 8/1939, tr?????c khi x??m l?????c Ba Lan, Hitler ra l???nh cho qu??n ?????i ?????c: ???Gi???t h???t b???t c??? ????n ??ng, ????n b??, tr??? con c?? huy???t th???ng Ba Lan ho???c n??i ti???ng Ba Lan; ch??? c?? th??? ch??ng ta m???i gi??nh ???????c kh??ng gian sinh t???n ta c???n???, nh???m l???p m???t ????? ch??? Nazi ??? ????ng ??u, x??y d???ng t???i ????y m???t x?? h???i ???tuy???t ?????i n??ng th??n ho??, thu???n khi???t v??? ?????c t??nh sinh h???c, kh??ng cho ph??p t???n t???i d??n b???n ?????a h??? ?????ng.??? Himmler n??i: ???Ch??ng ta ph???i b???o ?????m ch??? ng?????i ?????c thu???n ch???ng m???i ???????c s???ng ??? mi???n ????ng.??? ????? ????n ??p phong tr??o kh??ng chi???n, ch??ng quy ?????nh: c??? 1 l??nh ?????c b??? gi???t th?? ch??ng s??? gi???t 50-100 ng?????i Ba Lan.
L???c l?????ng SS th??nh l???p ???U??? ban T??ng c?????ng ?????c ho????? (RKFDV) ????? quy ho???ch ?????t ??ai ????ng ??u, th??? ti??u ng?????i Slav?? ??? ???? v?? b??? tr?? ng?????i ?????c ?????n ???. Qu??n ?????c ?????n ????u c??ng ra l???nh cho m???i ng?????i d???n nh?? s???ch s???, chu???n b??? h??nh l?? tu??? th??n trong v??ng 20 ph??t v?? n???p ch??a kho?? nh?? cho ch??ng, r???i ch??ng ch??? h??? ?????n c??c tr???i t???p trung. Nh?? c???a ng?????i Ba Lan ph???i gi??? l???i cho ng?????i ?????c ?????n ??? sau khi h???t chi???n tranh. Ai ph???n ?????i l???p t???c b???n. Ngo??i nh?? treo bi???n: ???Ng?????i Ba Lan, Do Th??i v?? ch?? c???m v??o???. Ru???ng ?????t giao cho qu??n ?????i ?????c qu???n l?? ????? khi l??nh ?????c gi???i ng?? s??? s??? d???ng. T??n Heydrich tr??m SS kh??t ti???ng gi???t ng?????i Do Th??i v??? sau ???? b??? du k??ch Ti???p Kh???c ??m s??t; ????? tr??? th?? v??? n??y, ph??t x??t ?????c ???? g??y ra v??? th???m s??t l??ng Lidice.
T???ng c???ng ph??t x??t ?????c ???? gi???t 13 tri???u d??n th?????ng ????ng ??u; Ukraine ??? 4 tri???u ng?????i (g???n 1 tri???u l?? Do Th??i), m???t n???a s??? d??n Kiev b??? gi???t; Belorussia ??? 2,3 tri???u ho???c 25% s??? d??n; Ba Lan ??? 6 tri???u (m???t n???a l?? Do Th??i, m???t n???a l?? t??n ????? Tin L??nh) ho???c 22% s??? d??n; Li??n X?? ??? v??i tri???u d??n ng?????i Slav?? v?? 3 tri???u t?? binh Nga g???c Slav??. T???i Ba Lan, ch??ng gi???t to??n b??? c??c nh?? b??o, 45% b??c s??, 57% lu???t s??, 40% gi??o s?? ??? nh???ng ng?????i ch??ng cho l?? c?? th??? l??nh ?????o d??n ch???ng l???i ?????c.
Tuy th???, Hitler c?? th??i ????? kh??c ?????i v???i c??c n?????c T??y v?? B???c ??u. V???n ????nh nhau v???i Anh nh??ng h???n t??n tr???ng d??n Anh, v?? h??? c??ng ngu???n g???c ch???ng t???c German. H???n l??c ?????u mu???n ho?? b??nh v???i Anh ????? c??ng ch???ng Li??n X??, nh??ng Th??? t?????ng Churchill ph???n ?????i v?? ???? th???y r?? b??? m???t x??m l?????c c???a h???n. Hitler coi ng?????i Slav?? l?? ???????ng khinh???, nh??ng ch??a c???n di???t ngay nh?? ng?????i Do Th??i. Ng?????i Slav?? do nhi???u d??n t???c h???p th??nh, g???m ng?????i Ba Lan, Ti???p Kh???c, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia v?? Serbi; c??c n?????c c?? ng?????i Slav?? nh?? Hungary, Romania v?? Bulgaria c??n l?? ?????ng minh c???a ?????c, cho n??n vi???c ti??u di???t ng?????i Slav?? kh??c v???i ng?????i Do Th??i. Hitler ch??? tr????ng n?????c ?????c kh??ng x??y d???ng x?? h???i qu?? t???c nu??i n?? l??? m?? t??? lao ?????ng ki???m s???ng trong m???t ???x?? h???i n??ng th??n???.??i ??c ??i???n h??nh th??? hai trong th??? k??? n???i ti???p (th??? k??? XIX) l?? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n.


Ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n l?? m???t h??nh th??i kinh t??? x?? h???i v?? h??? t?? t?????ng ch??nh tr??? ???ng h??? vi???c thi???t l???p x?? h???i phi nh?? n?????c, kh??ng giai c???p, t??? do, b??nh ?????ng, d???a tr??n s??? s??? h???u chung v?? ??i???u khi???n chung ?????i v???i c??c ph????ng ti???n s???n xu???t n??i chung.[1][2][3] Karl Marx cho r???ng ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n s??? l?? giai ??o???n cu???i c??ng c???a l???ch s???, ?????t ???????c qua m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng v?? s???n. Trong x?? h???i c???ng s???n, c??c quy???t ?????nh v??? vi???c s???n xu???t c??i g?? v?? theo ??u???i nh???ng ch??nh s??ch g?? ???????c l???a ch???n m???t c??ch d??n ch???, cho ph??p m???i th??nh vi??n c???a x?? h???i tham gia v??o qu?? tr??nh quy???t ?????nh trong c??? hai l??nh v???c ch??nh tr??? v?? kinh t???. Vi???c s???n xu???t v?? ph??n ph???i c???a c???i ???????c ti???n h??nh c??ng b???ng gi???a c??c c??ng d??n. Karl Marx ch??a bao gi??? mi??u t??? chi ti???t v??? vi???c ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n s??? v???n h??nh nh?? th??? n??o trong vai tr?? m???t h??? th???ng kinh t??? - x?? h???i, nh??ng ng?????i ta hi???u r???ng m???t n???n kinh t??? c???ng s???n ch??? ngh??a s??? d???a tr??n s??? h???u to??n d??n ?????i v???i c??c t?? li???u s???n xu???t.
Ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n c??? g???ng ????a ra m???t gi???i ph??p kh??c cho c??c v???n ????? c???a kinh t??? th??? tr?????ng t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a v?? di s???n c???a ch??? ngh??a ????? qu???c v?? ch??? ngh??a d??n t???c. Marx kh???ng ?????nh r???ng c??ch duy nh???t ????? gi???i quy???t c??c v???n ????? n??y l?? t???ng l???p lao ?????ng (v?? s???n), nh???ng ng?????i m?? theo Marx l?? l???c l?????ng ch??nh t???o ra c???a c???i v???t ch???t trong x?? h???i v?? l?? nh???ng ng?????i b??? t???ng l???p t?? b???n (t?? s???n) b??c l???t, ?????ng l??n l??m t???ng l???p c???m quy???n thay cho gi???i t?? s???n ????? thi???t l???p m???t x?? h???i t??? do, kh??ng ph??n bi???t giai c???p hay ch???ng t???c.[2] Ng?????i lao ?????ng ???? ???????c t??? ch???c th??nh giai c???p th???ng tr??? s??? t?????c b??? quy???n t?? h???u v?? ki???m so??t t?? li???u s???n xu???t v?? l???i ??ch c???a x?? h???i. Theo quan ??i???m c???a nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n, ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n l?? con ???????ng ????? gi???i ph??ng giai c???p, gi???i ph??ng d??n t???c, gi???i ph??ng nh??n lo???i. Th???c hi???n ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n th??ng qua c??ch m???ng, bao g???m c??ch m???ng l???t ????? ch??? ????? "ng?????i b??c l???t ng?????i", v?? c??ch m???ng x??y d???ng x?? h???i m???i.
Trong vai tr?? m???t h??? t?? t?????ng ch??nh tr???, ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n th?????ng ???????c xem l?? m???t nh??nh c???a ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i; m???t nh??m h???c thuy???t tri???t h???c ch??nh tr??? v?? kinh t??? ???????c r??t ra t??? nhi???u phong tr??o ch??nh tr??? v?? tri th???c c?? ngu???n g???c t??? c??c t??c ph???m c???a c??c nh?? l?? thuy???t c???a C??ch m???ng C??ng nghi???p v?? C??ch m???ng Ph??p.[4] Nh??nh kia l?? l?? lu???n c???a c??c ?????ng D??n ch??? x?? h???i hi???n c?? nhi???u ???nh h?????ng t???i T??y ??u v?? B???c ??u. Do c??ng ch???u ???nh h?????ng c???a ch??? ngh??a Marx, c??c ?????ng c???ng s???n v?? D??n ch??? x?? h???i th?????ng c?? quan h??? ?????ng minh v???i nhau th??nh m???t l???c l?????ng chung ???????c g???i l?? c??nh t???.
Ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n b???t ngu???n t??? ph????ng T??y nh??ng c??ng di chuy???n v??? ph????ng ????ng c??ng b??? bi???n ?????i t??y theo t??m l??, v??n h??a v?? nh???ng ??i???u ki???n kinh t??? - x?? h???i c???a ?????a ph????ng m?? n?? ??i qua l??m n???y sinh ra nh???ng tr?????ng ph??i t?? t?????ng c???ng s???n kh??c nhau v???i c??ch hi???u kh??c nhau v??? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n. Nh???ng h??nh th???c n???i b???t c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n, ch???ng h???n nh?? Ch??? ngh??a LeninCh??? ngh??a StalinCh??? ngh??a Mao v?? Ch??? ngh??a Trotsky, ?????u k??? th???a t??? Ch??? ngh??a Marx, nh??ng gi???a ch??ng c?? nh???ng kh??c bi???t t??y theo c??ch hi???u v?? b???i c???nh x?? h???i m?? nh?? l?? lu???n ch???u ???nh h?????ng. Tuy nhi??n, ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n c??ng c?? nh???ng phi??n b???n kh??c kh??ng li??n quan ?????n Ch??? ngh??a Marx, ch???ng h???n Ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n Thi??n ch??a gi??o v?? Ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n v?? ch??nh ph??? (anarcho-communism).
         M???t tr??m n??m k??? t??? cu???c ?????o ch??nh c???a Lenin ??? Nga, th??? ?? th???c h??? d???n th??n cho s??? nghi???p x??a b??? th??? tr?????ng v?? quy???n t?? h???u ???? ????? l???i m???t ch???ng ???????ng d??i h???y di???t v?? ch???t ch??c.
       T???m tu???n n??y m???t th??? k??? tr?????c, ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n chi???m ???????c ????? qu???c Nga, ?????t n?????c l???n nh???t th??? gi???i t???i th???i ??i???m ????. C??c phong tr??o thi??n t??? ????? lo???i ???? lan tr??n trong ch??nh tr??? ch??u ??u tr?????c khi di???n ra cu???c c??ch m???ng ng??y 25 th??ng M?????i n??m 1917 (tr??ng v??o ng??y 7 th??ng M?????i M???t theo l???ch c???i c??ch c???a Nga), nh??ng Vladimir Lenin v?? nh???ng ng?????i bolsheviks c???a ??ng th?? kh??c h???n. H??? kh??ng ch??? mang m???t ni???m tin hoang t?????ng m?? c??n linh ho???t trong chi???n thu???t v?? may m???n h??n c??c ?????i th???.
Ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ??i v??o l???ch s??? nh?? l?? s??? k???t t???i ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, k???ch li???t nh??ng ?????y ch???t l?? t?????ng, v?? h???a h???n m???t th??? gi???i t???t ?????p h??n. Nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n, c??ng nh?? nh???ng ng?????i c??nh t??? kh??c, ?????u ????? l???i cho ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n ???? g??y ra t??nh tr???ng bi th???m c???a n??ng d??n v?? c??ng nh??n c??ng nh?? s??? lan tr??n c???a lao ?????ng nh???p c?? v?? lao ?????ng tr??? em. Nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n nh??n th???y cu???c t??n s??t trong Chi???n tranh Th??? gi???i l???n th??? Nh???t nh?? l?? h???u qu??? tr???c ti???p c???a s??? c???nh tranh kh???c li???t gi???a c??c c?????ng qu???c ????? gi??nh gi???t th??? tr?????ng n?????c ngo??i.
Nh??ng m???t th??? k??? c???m quy???n c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ??? m?? ng??y nay v???n c??n ?????ng v???ng ??? Cuba, B???c H??n v?? Trung Qu???c ??? ???? l??m r?? c??i gi?? ph???i tr??? v??? nh??n m???ng c???a m???t ch????ng tr??nh ch??nh tr??? quy???t t??m l???t ????? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. H???t l???n n??y ?????n l?????t kh??c, n??? l???c x??a b??? th??? tr?????ng v?? quy???n t?? h???u ???? g??y ra c??i ch???t c???a m???t s??? l?????ng ng?????i ????ng kinh ng???c. T??? n??m 1917 ??? ??? Li??n X??, Trung Qu???c, M??ng c???, ????ng ??u, ????ng D????ng, Phi ch??u, Afghanistan v?? nhi???u n?????c ch??u M??? Latin ??? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ???? l??m thi???t m???ng ??t nh???t 65 tri???u ng?????i, theo nghi??n c???u c???n th???n c???a c??c nh?? d??n s??? h???c.
Nh???ng c??ng c??? h???y di???t c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n bao g???m vi???c tr???c xu???t h??ng lo???t, c??c tr???i c?????ng b???c lao ?????ng v?? s??? kh???ng b??? c???a nh?? n?????c c???nh s??t ??? m???t m?? h??nh ???????c l???p ra b???i Lenin v?? ?????c bi???t l?? ng?????i k??? t???c ??ng l?? Joseph Stalin. M?? h??nh n??y ???????c nh??n r???ng nhi???u n??i. D?? ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ???? c??? ?? gi???t ch???t m???t l?????ng l???n ng?????i d??n nh??ng th???m ch?? c??n nhi???u n???n nh??n h??n ???? ch???t v?? n???n ????i ??? h???u qu??? c???a nh???ng d??? ??n t??n b???o v??? c???i t???o x?? h???i.
V???i nh???ng t???i ??c mang ???t???m s??? thi??? n??y, Lenin v?? Stalin ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m c?? nh??n, c??ng nh?? Mao Tr???ch ????ng ??? Trung Qu???c, Pol Pot ??? Campuchia, gia t???c h??? Kim ??? B???c H??n v?? c??c nh?? ?????c t??i c???ng s???n kh??c ??t t??n b???o h??n. Nh??ng ch??ng ta ?????ng b??? qua c??c ?? t?????ng ???? th??i th??c nh???ng k??? ?????c ??c n??y t??n s??t con ng?????i tr??n quy m?? l???n nh?? v???y, c??ng ?????ng qu??n c??i b???i c???nh d??n t???c th??i th??c h??? ??i theo c??c ?? t?????ng n??y. S??? nghi???p ch???ng ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n h???p d???n h??? do t??nh ????ng ?????n c???a ch??nh n?? v?? trong t??m tr?? h???, ???? c??ng l?? c??ng c??? ????? c??c qu???c gia ch???m ti???n nh???y v???t l??n, ?????ng v??o h??ng ng?? c??c c?????ng qu???c.
Gi??? ????y, cu???c c??ch m???ng c???ng s???n ch??? ngh??a ???? l???i t??n, nh??ng m???t tr??m n??m c???a n??, x??t nh?? m???t s??? nghi???p v?? ?????i ch???ng ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, v???n ????i h???i m???t s??? ph??n x??? th??ch h???p.
V??o th??ng Hai n??m 1917, Nga ho??ng Nicholas ????? Nh??? tho??i v??? d?????i ??p l???c c???a c??c t?????ng l??nh, nh???ng ng?????i lo ng???i r???ng c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh v?? tu???n h??nh ????i c??m ??o ??? th??? ???? St. Petersburg ??ang l??m x??i m??n n??? l???c chi???n tranh ch???ng ?????c v?? c??c n?????c ?????ng minh c???a n??. Cu???c C??ch m???ng th??ng Hai, nh?? t??n g???i bi???n c??? ???y, l???p ra m???t ch??nh ph??? l??m th???i kh??ng do ng?????i d??n b???u l??n; ch??nh ph??? n??y c???m quy???n m?? kh??ng c?? m???t ngh??? vi???n d??n c???. N??ng d??n b???t ?????u gi??nh l???y ru???ng ?????t v?? c??c x??-vi???t (t???c l?? c??c ???y ban ch??nh tr???) b???t ?????u ???????c th??nh l???p trong binh l??nh ??? chi???n tr?????ng, c??ng gi???ng nh?? c??c x??-vi???t ???? ???????c l???p ra tr?????c ???? trong c??c nh??m ch??nh tr??? ??? ???? th???.
M??a thu n??m ???y, khi chi???n tranh di???n ra ng??y c??ng d??? d???i, nh???ng ng?????i bolshevik c???a Lenin ???? ti???n h??nh m???t cu???c kh???i ngh??a v?? trang, huy ?????ng ???????c c?? l??? kh??ng qu?? 10.000 ng?????i. Cu???c ?????o ch??nh c???a h??? kh??ng nh???m l???t ????? ch??nh ph??? l??m th???i t??? l??u ???? tr??? n??n d??? s???ng d??? ch???t; thay v?? v???y h??? ch???ng l???i c??c x??-vi???t ch??nh ??? th??? ???? do nh???ng ng?????i x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a ??n h??a h??n th???ng tr???. Cu???c C??ch m???ng th??ng M?????i b???t ?????u l?? m???t cu???c l???t ????? ch???p nho??ng m?? nh???ng ng?????i c??nh t??? c???p ti???n th???c hi???n ????? ch???ng l???i ph???n c??n l???i c???a c??nh t???, th??nh ph???n t??? c??o nh???ng ng?????i bolshevik vi ph???m quy t???c v?? sau ???? ???? b??? ra kh???i c??c x??-vi???t.
Nh???ng ng?????i bolshevik, c??ng nh?? nhi???u ?????i th??? c???a h??? ??? l?? m??n ????? trung th??nh c???a Karl Marx, nh?? t?? t?????ng cho r???ng ?????u tranh giai c???p l?? ?????ng l???c v?? ?????i c???a l???ch s???. C??i m?? ??ng g???i l?? ch??? ????? phong ki???n s??? ph???i nh?????ng ch??? cho ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, r???i ?????n l?????t m??nh, ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n s??? b??? thay th??? b???ng ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n v?? cu???i c??ng l?? m???t th??? gi???i ?????i ?????ng kh??ng t?????ng xa x??m! Marx h??nh dung ra m???t k??? nguy??n m???i c???a t??? do v?? sung t??c, v?? ??i???u ki???n ti??n quy???t c???a n?? l?? s??? ph?? h???y ???ch??? ????? n?? l??? ti???n l????ng??? v?? s??? b??c l???t c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. Nh?? ??ng v?? ng?????i c???ng s??? Friedrich Engels t???ng tuy??n b??? trong Tuy??n ng??n C???ng s???n n??m 1848, h???c thuy???t c???a h??? ???c?? th??? ???????c t??m g???n trong m???t c??u ????n nh???t: b??i b??? quy???n t?? h???u???.
M???t khi ???? gi??nh ???????c quy???n l???c v??o ?????u n??m 1918, nh???ng ng?????i bolshevik t??? ?????i t??n th??nh ?????ng C???ng s???n v?? h??? t??m c??ch bu???c n?????c Nga ph???i c???p t???c ??i l??n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i, ??i t???i giai ??o???n cu???i c??ng c???a l???ch s???. H??ng tri???u ng?????i b???t ?????u t???p s???ng theo nh???ng ph????ng c??ch m???i. Tuy nhi??n kh??ng ai bi???t ch??nh x??c x?? h???i m???i s??? ra l??m sao. ???Ch??ng t??i kh??ng th??? m?? t??? ?????c ??i???m c???a ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i. Ch??ng t??i kh??ng bi???t, ch??ng t??i kh??ng th??? n??i ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i s??? nh?? th??? n??o khi n?? ?????t ?????n h??nh th???c ho??n h???o c???a n?????, Lenin k???t lu???n nh?? v???y v??o th??ng Ba n??m 1918.
Nh??ng v???i h??? c?? m???t ??i???u r?? r??ng: ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i kh??ng gi???ng ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. Ch??? ????? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a thay th??? quy???n t?? h???u b???ng s??? h???u t???p th???, th??? tr?????ng thay b???ng k??? ho???ch h??a v?? c??c ngh??? vi???n ???t?? s???n??? thay b???ng ???quy???n l???c nh??n d??n???. Tuy v???y v??o th???i ??i???m ???? ngay c??? m???t s??? ng?????i c???ng s???n ???? r??t ra k???t lu???n l?? trong th???c t??? kh??ng th??? n??o th???c hi???n ???????c k??? ho???ch h??a khoa h???c. C??n c??ng cu???c t???p th??? h??a quy???n t?? h???u ???? ??em l???i quy???n l???c kh??ng ph???i cho nh??n d??n m?? cho nh?? n?????c.
Qu?? tr??nh do ng?????i c???ng s???n ph??t ?????ng ???? k??o theo s??? b??nh tr?????ng r???ng r??i m???t gu???ng m??y c??ng an m???t v??? ????? x??? l?? c??c v??? b???t b???, l??u ????y trong n?????c v?? h??nh quy???t nh???ng ???k??? th?? giai c???p???. Vi???c t?????c quy???n s??? h???u c???a c??c nh?? t?? b???n c??ng l??m gi??u cho m???t giai c???p m???i c??c c??n b??? nh?? n?????c, nh???ng ng?????i n???m quy???n ki???m so??t t??i s???n qu???c gia. T???t c??? c??c ?????ng ph??i v?? quan ??i???m n???m b??n ngo??i h???c thuy???t ch??nh th???ng ?????u b??? ????n ??p, ch??nh tr??? nh?? l?? m???t c?? ch??? ????? ??i???u ch???nh b??? x??a b???.
Nh???ng m???c ti??u ???????c tuy??n b??? c???a cu???c c??ch m???ng n??m 1917 l?? s??? sung t??c v?? c??ng b???ng x?? h???i, nh??ng s??? ti??u di???t ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n ???? sinh ra nh???ng c?? c???u l??m cho c??c m???c ti??u ???? kh??ng bao gi??? ?????t ???????c.
??? khu v???c ???? th???, ch??? ????? x??-vi???t c?? kh??? n??ng d???a v??o l???c l?????ng c??ng nh??n nh?? m??y c?? v?? trang, nh???ng ng?????i m???i k???t n???p ?????ng ?????y nhi???t huy???t v?? c??ng an ch??m, d???a v??o nh???ng ng?????i tr??? n??n n??ng x??y d???ng th??? gi???i m???i. Nh??ng ??? n??ng th??n, ng?????i n??ng d??n ??? c?? kho???ng 120 tri???u ng?????i nh?? v???y ??? ???? th???c hi???n cu???c c??ch m???ng c???a ri??ng h???, l???t ????? gi???i qu?? t???c v?? thi???t l???p trong th???c t??? quy???n s??? h???u ru???ng ?????t c???a n??ng d??n.
V???i m???t ?????t n?????c b??? t??n ph?? ??ang ??i t???i b??? v???c c???a n???n ????i, Lenin b???t bu???c c??c c??n b??? ?????ng c??n mi???n c?????ng ph???i ch???p nh???n cu???c c??ch m???ng ri??ng r??? c???a n??ng d??n trong th???i ??i???m ????. ??? n??ng th??n m???t n???n kinh t??? g???n gi???ng kinh t??? th??? tr?????ng v???n ???????c cho ph??p v???n h??nh, b???t ch???p s??? ph???n ?????i c???a c??c ?????ng vi??n c???ng s???n thu???n t??y.
Khi Lenin qua ?????i v??o n??m 1924, s??? nh??n nh?????ng v???i n??ng d??n ???? tr??? th??nh v???n ????? c???a Stalin. Cho ?????n n??m 1928, c?? ch??a t???i 1% di???n t??ch ?????t canh t??c ???? ???????c h???p t??c h??a m???t c??ch t??? nguy???n. V??o th???i ??i???m ???y, ph???n l???n c??c nh?? m??y ch??? y???u ?????u ???? do nh?? n?????c l??m ch??? v?? ch??nh quy???n ???? cam k???t m???t k??? ho???ch 5 n??m c??ng nghi???p h??a. C??c nh?? c??ch m???ng b???c t???c khi th???y gi??? ????y Li??n X?? c?? hai h??? th???ng kh??ng t????ng th??ch v???i nhau ??? ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i ??? th??nh ph??? v?? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n ??? l??ng qu??.
Stalin ???? kh??ng tr?? ho??n. ??ng ??p ?????t c??ng cu???c t???p th??? h??a c?????ng b???c tr??n to??n qu???c, t??? ven bi???n Baltic t???i ven b??? Th??i B??nh D????ng, b???t ch???p nh???ng cu???c n???i lo???n c???a qu???n ch??ng n??ng d??n. ??ng ??e d???a c??c c??n b??? ?????ng, b???o h??? r???ng n???u nh?? h??? kh??ng nghi??m t??c trong vi???c x??a b??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, h??? h??y chu???n b??? s???n s??ng ????? giao quy???n l???c cho nh???ng nh?? t?? s???n ??ang n???i l??n ??? n??ng th??n. ??ng k??ch ho???t cu???c chi???n tranh giai c???p ch???ng l???i ???kulak??? (trung n??ng v?? ??i???n ch???), v?? b???t c??? ai b???o v??? h???, ??p ?????t h???n ng???ch (quota) cho vi???c b???t b??? tr??n lan v?? l??u ????y n???i ?????a.
Stalin n??i r?? nguy??n l?? c?? b???n v??? ?? th???c h??? c???a ??ng: ???Ch??ng ta c?? th??? ph??t tri???n n??ng nghi???p theo ki???u kulak, ki???u n??ng tr???i c?? nh??n, b??n c???nh trang tr???i quy m?? l???n??? gi???ng nh?? ??? ???M??? v?? c??c n?????c kh??c??? hay kh??ng? ??ng h???i. ???Kh??ng, ch??ng ta kh??ng th???. Ch??ng ta l?? ?????t n?????c X??-vi???t. Ch??ng ta mu???n x??y d???ng m???t n???n kinh t??? t???p th???, kh??ng ch??? trong c??ng nghi???p m?? c??? trong n??ng nghi???p???.
V?? ??ng ???? kh??ng bao gi??? tho??i lui, ngay c??? khi, do h???u qu??? c??c ch??nh s??ch c???a ??ng m?? ?????t n?????c Nga r??i v??o m???t n???n ????i n???a v??o c??c n??m 1931-1933. T???p th??? h??a c?????ng b???c trong m???y n??m ng???n ng???i ???? ???? c?????p ??i sinh m???ng c???a kho???ng t??? 5 ?????n 7 tri???u ng?????i.
Ti???n l??? kh???ng khi???p c???a Li??n X?? ???? kh??ng ng??n c???n ???????c c??c nh?? c??ch m???ng c???ng s???n kh??c. Mao Tr???ch ????ng, m???t ng?????i c???ng r???n nh?? Stalin, ???? v????n l??n v??? tr?? cao nh???t c???a phong tr??o c???ng s???n Trung Hoa v?? v??o n??m 1949, ??ng v?? c??c ?????ng ch?? c???a ??ng tr??? th??nh ng?????i chi???n th???ng trong cu???c n???i chi???n ??? Trung Qu???c. Mao ???? th???y c??i gi?? nh??n m???ng kh???ng l??? trong cu???c th??? nghi???m c???a Li??n X?? nh?? l?? y???u t??? n???i t???i c???a th??nh c??ng!
Ch??nh s??ch ?????i Nh???y V???t c???a Mao, m???t chi???n d???ch b???o l???c di???n ra t??? 1958 t???i 1962, l?? n??? l???c t???p th??? h??a kho???ng 700 tri???u n??ng d??n Trung Qu???c v?? m??? r???ng c??ng nghi???p v??? n??ng th??n. ???Ba n??m lao ?????ng c???n c?? v?? ch???u ?????ng [????? c??] ng??n n??m th???nh v?????ng???, l?? m???t trong nh???ng c??u kh???u hi???u n???i b???t th???i ????.
C??c b??o c??o sai l???ch v??? nh???ng v??? thu ho???ch th???ng l???i v?? n??ng d??n sung s?????ng vui v??? tr??n ng???p c??c khu nh?? ??? ???????c cung c???p ?????y ????? c???a gi???i tinh hoa c???ng s???n c???m quy???n ??? B???c Kinh. Nh??ng trong th???c t???, ch????ng tr??nh c???a Mao ???? d???n t???i m???t trong nh???ng n???n ????i kh???ng khi???p nh???t trong l???ch s???, l??m ch???t ????i kho???ng t??? 16 ?????n 32 tri???u ng?????i. Sau th???m h???a, m?? nh???ng ng?????i s???ng s??t n??i t???i nh?? l?? ???l??n gi?? c???ng s???n???, Mao d???p t???t h???t nh???ng l???i k??u g???i ng???ng t???p th??? h??a n??ng nghi???p. Nh?? ??ng t???ng tuy??n b???: ???n??ng d??n mu???n t??? do nh??ng ch??ng ta mu???n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i???.
Nh???ng m???t m??t kh???ng khi???p n??y v???n kh??ng ng??n ch???n ???????c s??? l???p l???i t??nh t??n b???o c???ng s???n nh??n danh x??a b??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. Sau khi chinh ph???c ???????c Campuchia v??o n??m 1975, Pol Pot v?? phe Khmer ????? c???a ??ng ta ???? ??u???i h??ng tri???u ng?????i ra kh???i c??c th??nh ph???, ?????y h??? v??? n??ng

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