Li??n X?? 1953: M???t n??m s??u l??nh t???

Thứ tư - 11/09/2019 22:54
Sau khi Stalin qua ?????i, Li??n X?? c??ng c?? giai ??o???n l??nh ?????o t????p th??? 5 ng?????i cho ?????n khi ??ng Khrushchev n???m tr???n quy???n. BBC Ti???ng Vi????t gi???i thi????u m????t s??? ?? ch??nh t??? cu???n s??ch v?? c??c ngu???n li??n quan v??? Stalin:
Li??n X?? 1953: M???t n??m s??u l??nh t???

Li??n X?? 1953: M???t n??m s??u l??nh t???

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S??ch m???i v???a ra ??? Anh m?? t??? giai ??o???n ?????u ???? quy???n l???c ??? Kremlin sau khi Stalin ??????t t??? v?? b??c b??? gi??? thuy???t r???ng Ph????ng T??y ???? ???b??? l??? c?? h????i??? b???t tay v???i Nikita Khrushchev.

Sau khi Stalin qua ?????i, Li??n X?? c??ng c?? giai ??o???n l??nh ?????o t????p th??? 5 ng?????i cho ?????n khi ??ng Khrushchev n???m tr???n quy???n. BBC Ti???ng Vi????t gi???i thi????u m????t s??? ?? ch??nh t??? cu???n s??ch v?? c??c ngu???n li??n quan v??? Stalin:

Cu???n ???The Last Days of Stalin??? (Stalin nh???ng ng??y cu???i ?????i) c???a Joshua Rubenstein (??H Harvard) v???a ra, nh??n v??o ???cu????c ?????u ???? quy???n l???c sau khi Ho??ng ????? ????? ch???t th??ng 3 n??m 1953???.

Theo c??c b??nh lu????n v???a ????ng t???i tr??n b??o ch?? Anh, t??c gi??? Rubenstein ???? t??i d???ng l???i chi ti???t c??i ch???t c???a Joseph Stalin v?? b??c b??? gi??? thuy???t nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? b??? ?????u ??????c.

???V??o kho???ng 10 gi??? ????m ng??y Ch??? Nh????t, 1 th??ng 3, ng?????i qu???n gia ng??i nh?? ngh??? (dacha) ??? ngo???i ?? Moscow t??m th???y Stalin n???m tr??n n???n nh??, h??n m?? v?? b???? pyjama th???m ?????y n?????c ti???u.???

???B??nh th?????ng, nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? th?????ng l??m vi????c v??o ????m, v?? ?????n tr??a m???i ng??? d????y r???i t??? g???i nh??m c????n v???? v??o. Nh??ng n???u h??? kh??ng ???????c g???i th?? c??ng l?? chuy????n th?????ng b???i Stalin hay kh??ng ????i ??n s??ng v?? c??ng kh??ng y??u c???u c??c th?? k?? ?????n. N???u kh??ng th???y g?? l???, h??? ?????u bi???t l?? c???n tr??nh t???i ??a, kh??ng l??m phi???n nh?? ??????c t??i t??nh kh?? th???t th?????ng.???

???Nh??m v???? s??? n??ng Stalin l??n gi?????ng v?? m????t ng?????i g???i v??o ??i????n Kremlin. Trong v??ng ch??a ?????y m????t gi???, ba nh??n v????t cao c???p nh???t ?????n ngay: Lavrentiy Beria, l?????i ??ao c???a nh?? ??????c t??i, ng?????i tr???c ti???p ch??? ?????o c??c v??? thanh tr???ng cho ??ng ch??? t??? 1930 tr??? v??? sau; Nikita Khrushchev, quan ch???c ph??? tr??ch c??c s??? v??? c???a ?????ng C????ng s???n, v?? Georgy Makenkov, k??? b??? qu?? c??n n????ng, lo c??ng vi????c h??ng ng??y c???a ch??nh ph???.???

Nh??ng h??? ???? th???o lu????n v?? r???i c??n nh?? ??? Kuntsevo tr??? v??? Moscow, ????? Stalin n???m ????, kh??ng g???i b??c s???.

C?? v??? nh?? c??c t??nh to??n quy???n l???c c???a ba nh??n v????t th??n c????n nh???t v???i Stalin b???t ?????u t??? quy???t ?????nh kh?? hi???u ????, ??t ra l?? t??? g??c ?????? y t???.

Ch??? ?????n ng??y h??m sau, khi Stalin ???? b??? li????t v?? m???t gi???ng n??i, c??c b??c s??? m???i ???????c m???i ?????n.

H??? x??c nh????n ngay r???ng Stalin ???? b??? m????t c?? ??????t qu??? nghi??m tr???ng.

Nh??ng c??c nh??n v????t cao c???p nh???t c???a B???? Ch??nh tr??? ?????ng C????ng s???n Li??n X??, nay g???m c??? Nikolay Bulganin v?? Vyacheslav Molotov c??? ?????n ???? h??ng ng??y m?? kh??ng l??m g?? kh??c.

??i???u n??y l??m n??? ra ?????n ??o??n r???ng ai ???? trong s??? n??y ???nh??ng tay v??o c??i ch???t c???a nh?? ??????c t??i???.

Cu???i c??ng, ch??nh th???c th?? Stalin ch???t v??o ng??y 5/3/1953.

C??c t??i li????u kh??c ghi l???i l??c ch???t, Stalin c?? con g??i Svetlana b??n c???nh.

B?? k??? l???i cha b?? ???m??? ???????c m????t m???t, gi?? b??n tay tr??i l??n nh?? ??e d???a???, r???i t??? tr???n.

T???i ????m tang v?? ?????i ng??y 9/3, Vyacheslav Molotov, ng?????i c?? v??? b??? Stalin cho v??o tr???i c???i t???o, ???? ng???i ca nh?? ??????c t??i.

Ban l??nh ?????o 5 ng?????i

???
Stalin v?? con g??i ??t n??m 1936: m??? c???a Svetlana ???? t??? s??t n??m 1932

Nh??ng t??? h??m 06/3, cu????c chia ch??c quy???n ch???c ???? b???t ?????u.

Malenkov ???????c phong l??m Ch??? t???ch H????i ?????ng B???? tr?????ng (th??? t?????ng).

Khrushchev th??i l??m B?? th?? Moscow ????? ph??? tr??ch c??ng t??c ?????ng trong Ban ch???p h??nh trung ????ng.

Beria ti???p t???c ch???c B???? tr?????ng N????i v???, Molotov l??m B???? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao v?? Bulganin l??m B???? tr?????ng Qu???c ph??ng nh??ng c??? ba ng?????i c??ng Lazar Kaganovich ?????u c?? th??m ch???c Ph?? Ch??? t???ch H????i ?????ng B???? tr?????ng.

???B???? ng????? c??ng nhau c???m quy???n v?? trong nhi???u th??ng sau khi Stalin ch???t, Li??n X?? l????p ra m????t ch???c v??? t????p th??? t???i cao trong ?????ng l?? Ch??? t???ch ??o??n c???a Trung ????ng ?????ng, sau ?????i th??nh Ban B?? th??.

C?? quan 5 th??nh vi??n n??y ch??? th??? hi????n v??? tr?? ???th??? nh???t??? hay c??c th??? t??? sau khi t??n tu???i xu???t hi????n tr??n b??o ch??.

Th???i k??? ?????u th?? Malenkov lu??n ?????ng ?????u, sau ???? d???n d???n ch??? th???y Khrushchev lu??n ??? v??? tr?? s??? m????t.

T??? ph???i sang: Stalin, Khrushchev, Beria, Malenkov (h??ng sau), Shkiriyatov v?? Zhdanov

Nh??ng c??c m??u thu???n nhanh ch??ng l???? ra.

Beria, ng?????i ch??? ?????o c??? ch????ng tr??nh v?? kh?? nguy??n t??? m?? Moscow c?? ?? ngh??a chi???n l?????c trong cu????c ?????i ?????u ????ng ??? T??y ???? d??ng n?? l??m b??n ?????p cho quy???n l???c cao nh???t v?? can thi????p c??? v??o ch??nh s??ch ?????i ngo???i.

T??? cu???n s??ch c???a Rubenstein v?? nhi???u t??i li????u sau n??y ???????c ti???t l????, ng?????i ta ???????c bi???t th??m Beria d??? t??nh l??m g??.

D?? l?? k??? gi???t h??ng tri????u ng?????i, Beria t???i t??? ra h??o h???ng v???i ch????ng tr??nh tan b??ng v?? t??? do h??a h??n ai h???t.

Khi x???y ra kh???ng ho???ng Berlin, Beria ???? s???n s??ng tr??? ????ng ?????c cho T??y ?????c ????? ?????i l???y c??c kho???n b???i th?????ng v?? ?????m b???o an ninh cho Li??n X?? t???i ch??u ??u.

Th????m ch?? ??ng ta c??n mu???n ???th??? l???ng??? c??c n?????c Baltic m?? Li??n X?? m???i chi???m t??? sau 1945.

Ng??y 23/6/1953, Khrushchev ra tay v?? Beria b??? nh??m qu??n nh??n do Nguy??n so??i Georgy Zhukov ch??? huy b???t t???i cu????c h???p c???a B???? Ch??nh tr???, t???ng v??o ng???c.

C??c t??i li????u t???i Wilson Center, Hoa K??? c??n gi??? n????i dung th?? Beria g???i cho Malenkov k?? ng??y 1/7 xin nh????n t????i v?? mong ???????c ??n gi???m.

Nh??ng ?????n th??ng 12 c??ng n??m, Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (sinh n??m 1899) b??? b???n ch???t sau phi??n t??a ng???n trong nh?? t?? v???i t????i ???l??m gi??n ??i????p cho Ph????ng T??y???.

V?? b??? cho l?? m???m y???u, Malenkov m???t d???n quy???n l???c.

Th??ng 9/1953, Khrushchev thay Malenkov ??? v??? tr?? B?? th?? th??? nh???t Trung ????ng ?????ng.

Nikita Khrushchev ?????c di???n v??n t???i ?????i h????i 20 ?????ng CS Li??n X?? t??? c??o c??c t????i ??c c???a Stalin

Sau khi t??? m??nh ???? l??n n???m v??? tr?? cao nh???t trong ?????ng, h??n m????t n??m sau, sang t????n th??ng 2/1955, Khrushchev m???i ????a Bulganin, ng?????i ch??? l??m b?? nh??n cho m??nh, v??o v??? tr?? th??? t?????ng thay Malenkov.

V?? c??ng t???i th??ng 3/1958, Khrushchev m???i th???c s??? n???m tr???n quy???n l?? c???m lu??n ch???c th??? t?????ng.

Di s???n c???a Khrushchev

D?? cho th??? ra h??ng tri????u t?? nh??n t??? c??c ???qu???n ?????o ng???c t????? v?? c?? c??? ch??? h??a ho??n v???i Nam T??, Khrushchev kh??ng c???i t??? h???? th???ng ch??nh tr??? Li??n X??.

??ng loay hoay gi???a xu h?????ng d??n t??y v?? th?????ng nh?????ng b???? tr?????c s???c ??p d?? lu????n nh??ng c??ng ph???i l??m h??i l??ng b???? m??y quan li??u X??-Vi???t ng??y m????t ph??nh to.

Kinh t??? Li??n X?? ti???p t???c c?? nhi???u v???n ?????.

V??? ?????i ngo???i, c??c b???t ???n trong ban l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? ???h????u Stalin??? c??ng khi???n Hoa K??? d?????i th???i T???ng th???ng Dwight D. Eisenhower kh??ng th??? t??nh ?????n m????t s??? k???t n???i v?? b???t tay h??a ho??n c?? ?? ngh??a v???i Moscow.

Khrushchev, m????t m????t tuy??n b??? chung s???ng h??a b??nh, m????t kh??c, ???? ph???i ?????i ph?? m???nh tay v???i qu?? tr??nh ???gi???i Stalin??? ??? ????ng ??u d???n t???i c??c cu????c n???i d????y t???i Ba Lan v?? Hungary (1956), l??m rung chuy???n phe c????ng s???n.

T??nh phi??u l??u c???a Khrushchev ???? g??p ph???n g??y ra kh???ng ho???ng t??n l???a Cuba 1962 v???i Hoa K??? th???i Kennedy, ????a th??? gi???i ?????n b??n b??? cu????c chi???n h???y di????t b???ng v?? kh?? nguy??n t???.

D?????i th???i Khrushchev, Li??n X?? c??ng r???n n???t v???i Trung Qu???c c???a Mao khi???n phe c????ng s???n kh??ng bao gi??? c?? th??? h??n g???n ???????c.

Di s???n ????ng k??? nh???t c???a Khrushchev l???i l?? b??i di???n v??n v???ch t????i Stalin t???i ?????i h????i 20 ?????ng C????ng s???n Li??n X?? v??o th??ng 2/1956.

Theo ????ng gi?? c???a Frank Gibney th?? ch??nh ???s??? d??ng c???m??? v???ch tr???n c??c t????i ??c c???a qu?? kh??? ???? khi???n Khrushchev, nh?? l??nh ?????o n??ng d??n t??nh kh?? th?? thi???n, ?????y l???i l???m, cu???i c??ng ???? l??m thay ?????i t????ng lai Li??n X?? v?? th??? gi???i.

Ngu???n: BBC
 

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