L???n v??n v??? ?????t (**) - ????? Ho??ng

Thứ hai - 22/04/2019 02:51
Stalin n??i r?? nguy??n l?? c?? b???n v??? ?? th???c h??? c???a ??ng: ???Ch??ng ta c?? th??? ph??t tri???n n??ng nghi???p theo ki???u kulak, ki???u n??ng tr???i c?? nh??n, b??n c???nh trang tr???i quy m?? l???n??? gi???ng nh?? ??? ???M??? v?? c??c n?????c kh??c??? hay kh??ng? ??ng h???i. ???Kh??ng, ch??ng ta kh??ng th???. Ch??ng ta l?? ?????t n?????c X??-vi???t. Ch??ng ta mu???n x??y d???ng m???t n???n kinh t??? t???p th???, kh??ng ch??? trong c??ng nghi???p m?? c??? trong n??ng nghi???p???.
V?? ??ng ???? kh??ng bao gi??? tho??i lui, ngay c??? khi, do h???u qu??? c??c ch??nh s??ch c???a ??ng m?? ?????t n?????c Nga r??i v??o m???t n???n ????i n???a v??o c??c n??m 1931-1933. T???p th??? h??a c?????ng b???c trong m???y n??m ng???n ng???i ???? ???? c?????p ??i sinh m???ng c???a kho???ng t??? 5 ?????n 7 tri???u ng?????i.
Stalin n??i r?? nguy??n l?? c?? b???n v??? ?? th???c h??? c???a ??ng: ???Ch??ng ta c?? th??? ph??t tri???n n??ng nghi???p theo ki???u kulak, ki???u n??ng tr???i c?? nh??n, b??n c???nh trang tr???i quy m?? l???n??? gi???ng nh?? ??? ???M??? v?? c??c n?????c kh??c??? hay kh??ng? ??ng h???i. ???Kh??ng, ch??ng ta kh??ng th???. Ch??ng ta l?? ?????t n?????c X??-vi???t. Ch??ng ta mu???n x??y d???ng m???t n???n kinh t??? t???p th???, kh??ng ch??? trong c??ng nghi???p m?? c??? trong n??ng nghi???p???.
V?? ??ng ???? kh??ng bao gi??? tho??i lui, ngay c??? khi, do h???u qu??? c??c ch??nh s??ch c???a ??ng m?? ?????t n?????c Nga r??i v??o m???t n???n ????i n???a v??o c??c n??m 1931-1933. T???p th??? h??a c?????ng b???c trong m???y n??m ng???n ng???i ???? ???? c?????p ??i sinh m???ng c???a kho???ng t??? 5 ?????n 7 tri???u ng?????i.
Ti???n l??? kh???ng khi???p c???a Li??n X?? ???? kh??ng ng??n c???n ???????c c??c nh?? c??ch m???ng c???ng s???n kh??c. Mao Tr???ch ????ng, m???t ng?????i c???ng r???n nh?? Stalin, ???? v????n l??n v??? tr?? cao nh???t c???a phong tr??o c???ng s???n Trung Hoa v?? v??o n??m 1949, ??ng v?? c??c ?????ng ch?? c???a ??ng tr??? th??nh ng?????i chi???n th???ng trong cu???c n???i chi???n ??? Trung Qu???c. Mao ???? th???y c??i gi?? nh??n m???ng kh???ng l??? trong cu???c th??? nghi???m c???a Li??n X?? nh?? l?? y???u t??? n???i t???i c???a th??nh c??ng!
Ch??nh s??ch ?????i Nh???y V???t c???a Mao, m???t chi???n d???ch b???o l???c di???n ra t??? 1958 t???i 1962, l?? n??? l???c t???p th??? h??a kho???ng 700 tri???u n??ng d??n Trung Qu???c v?? m??? r???ng c??ng nghi???p v??? n??ng th??n. ???Ba n??m lao ?????ng c???n c?? v?? ch???u ?????ng [????? c??] ng??n n??m th???nh v?????ng???, l?? m???t trong nh???ng c??u kh???u hi???u n???i b???t th???i ????.
C??c b??o c??o sai l???ch v??? nh???ng v??? thu ho???ch th???ng l???i v?? n??ng d??n sung s?????ng vui v??? tr??n ng???p c??c khu nh?? ??? ???????c cung c???p ?????y ????? c???a gi???i tinh hoa c???ng s???n c???m quy???n ??? B???c Kinh. Nh??ng trong th???c t???, ch????ng tr??nh c???a Mao ???? d???n t???i m???t trong nh???ng n???n ????i kh???ng khi???p nh???t trong l???ch s???, l??m ch???t ????i kho???ng t??? 16 ?????n 32 tri???u ng?????i. Sau th???m h???a, m?? nh???ng ng?????i s???ng s??t n??i t???i nh?? l?? ???l??n gi?? c???ng s???n???, Mao d???p t???t h???t nh???ng l???i k??u g???i ng???ng t???p th??? h??a n??ng nghi???p. Nh?? ??ng t???ng tuy??n b???: ???n??ng d??n mu???n t??? do nh??ng ch??ng ta mu???n ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i???.
Nh???ng m???t m??t kh???ng khi???p n??y v???n kh??ng ng??n ch???n ???????c s??? l???p l???i t??nh t??n b???o c???ng s???n nh??n danh x??a b??? ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n. Sau khi chinh ph???c ???????c Campuchia v??o n??m 1975, Pol Pot v?? phe Khmer ????? c???a ??ng ta ???? ??u???i h??ng tri???u ng?????i ra kh???i c??c th??nh ph???, ?????y h??? v??? n??ng th??n l??m vi???ctrong c??c c??ng x?? v?? c??c d??? ??n c?????ng b???c lao ?????ng. H??? t??m c??ch bi???n Campuchia th??nh m???t x?? h???i thu???n n??ng kh??ng c?? giai c???p.
Khmer ????? b??i b??? ?????ng ti???n, c???m ????nh b???t c?? ????? kinh doanh, h??nh quy???t c??c tu s?? Ph???t gi??o, H???i gi??o; c??c c???ng ?????ng thi???u s??? g???c Vi???t v?? g???c Hoa c???a ?????t n?????c b??? coi l?? ???k??? x??m nh???p???. Ch??? ????? c???a Pol Pot c??ng t???p trung tr??? em ????? ng??n ng???a vi???c ch??ng b??? l??y nhi???m ?? th???c h??? t??? cha m??? ???t?? b???n??? c???a ch??ng.
???????c bi???t ???? c?? kho???ng 2 tri???u ng?????i Campuchia, t????ng ??????ng m???t ph???n t?? d??n s??? v??o th???i ???y, ???? ch???t v?? ????i r??t, b???nh t???t, b??? h??nh quy???t h??ng lo???t trong b???n n??m ??c m???ng d?????i ??ch cai tr??? c???a Pol Pot. ??? m???t s??? khu v???c, ao chu??m n??o ????o l??n c??ng th???y s??? ng?????i.
Ph??n t??ch v??? giai c???p c???a Marx b??c b??? t??nh ch??nh danh c???a m???i phong tr??o ch??nh tr??? ?????i l???p, kh??ng ch??? t??? c??c ph???n t??? ???t?? s???n??? m?? t??? ngay b??n trong c??c phong tr??o c???ng s???n ??? b???i v?? nh???ng ng?????i ?????i l???p ph???c v??? ???m???t c??ch kh??ch quan??? cho l???i ??ch c???a tr???t t??? t?? b???n qu???c t???. C??i l??-gic v??? c??ch m???ng kh??ng ng???ng ngh??? ch???ng ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n s??? ch??? t???i m???t l??nh t??? duy nh???t tr??n ?????nh m???t h??? th???ng ?????c ?????ng.
T??? Nga t???i Trung Qu???c, t??? B???c H??n t???i Cuba, c??c nh?? ?????c t??i c???ng s???n ?????u chia s??? nh???ng ?????c ??i???m chung ch??? y???u. T???t c??? ?????u ??t nhi???u tu??n theo khu??n m???u c???a Lenin: m???t s??? pha tr???n h??? t?? t?????ng ?????u tranh v???i nh???ng th??? ??o???n v?? nguy??n t???c. V?? t???t c??? ?????u c?? s???c m???nh ?? ch?? tuy???t v???i ??? ??i???u ki???n ti??n quy???t ????? th??? ?????c nh???ng g?? ch??? c?? s??? ????? m??u kh??ng t??nh n???i m???i c?? th??? mang l???i.
Tuy nhi??n, trong th??? k??? v???a qua ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n kh??ng ph???i l?? t??c nh??n duy nh???t th???c hi???n c??c v??? t??n s??t. S??? ????n ??p c???a ch??? ngh??a qu???c x?? (Nazi), nh???ng cu???c chi???n tranh thanh l???c s???c t???c c??ng ???? gi???t h???i kho???ng 40 tri???u ng?????i. V?? trong th???i Chi???n tranh L???nh, phong tr??o ch???ng c???ng s???n ???? k??ch ho???t nh???ng c??n b??ng ph??t b???o ?????ng b???t ng??? v?? d??? d???i ??? Indonesia, ch??u M??? Latinh v?? nhi???u n??i kh??c.
Nh??ng b???ng ch???ng v??? n???i kinh ho??ng c???ng s???n n???i l??n li??n t???c trong nhi???u th???p ni??n ???? g??y s???c n???ng cho nh???ng ng?????i c??nh t??? v?? theo t?? t?????ng t??? do ??? ph????ng T??y, nh???ng ng?????i c??ng chia s??? nhi???u m???c ti??u c??ng b???ng x?? h???i c???a c??c nh?? c??ch m???ng. Nhi???u ng?????i ph???n ?????i Li??n X?? ???? l??m m??o m?? ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i, v?? quy nh???ng t???i ??c c???a ch??? ????? X??-vi???t cho t??nh tr???ng l???c h???u c???a n?????c Nga, cho t??nh kh?? c???a Lenin v?? Stalin. D?? sao, Marx kh??ng bao gi??? ???ng h??? vi???c t??n s??t h??ng lo???t ho???c c??c tr???i lao ?????ng ki???u Gulag. Kh??ng t??m ????u th???y ??ng bi???n lu???n r???ng c??ng an ch??m, tr???c xu???t ng?????i tr??n xe ch??? s??c v???t v?? ch???t ????i h??ng lo???t l?? nh???ng bi???n ph??p n??n d??ng ????? thi???t l???p c??c trang tr???i t???p th???.
Nh??ng n???u ch??ng ta ph???i h???c c?? m???t b??i h???c t??? m???t th??? k??? c???ng s???n th?? ???? ch??nh l??: ????? th???c thi c??c l?? t?????ng c???a Marx th?? c???n ph???i ph???n b???i ch??ng. ????i h???i c???a Marx ???b??i b??? quy???n t?? h???u??? l?? ti???ng k??n xung tr???n k??u g???i h??nh ?????ng ??? nh??ng c??ng l?? con ???????ng ki??n ?????nh d???n t???i s??? h??nh th??nh nh?? n?????c ????n ??p, kh??ng b??? ki???m so??t.
M???t s??? nh?? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a b???t ?????u nh???n ra r???ng, kh??ng th??? c?? t??? do n???u kh??ng c?? th??? tr?????ng v?? s??? h???u t?? nh??n. Khi h??? b???t ?????u gi???i h??a v???i s??? t???n t???i c???a ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n, hy v???ng s??? ??i???u ti???t thay v??x??a b??? n??, h??? b??? c??o bu???c l?? nh???ng k??? ph???n b???i. Theo th???i gian, ng??y c??ng c?? nhi???u nh?? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a ch???p nh???n ki???u nh?? n?????c ph??c l???i, ho???c kinh t??? th??? tr?????ng c?? s??? ph??n ph???i. Nh??ng ti???ng c??i k??u g???i v?????t qua ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n v???n c??n vang v???ng trong m???t s??? ng?????i c??nh t???.
Nh???ng th??nh tr?? c??? th??? quan tr???ng c???a th??? k??? c???ng s???n v???n c??n t???n t???i, d?? kh??ng theo ki???u Marxist ch??nh th???ng, ??? Nga v?? Trung Qu???c. C??? hai qu???c gia n??y v???n ti???p t???c ho??i nghi nh???ng g?? c?? l??? l?? quan tr???ng nh???t c???a th??? tr?????ng t??? do v?? s??? h???u t?? nh??n: kh??? n??ng ??em l???i cho ng?????i d??n th?????ng s??? ?????c l???p trong suy ngh?? v?? h??nh ?????ng, cho h??? quy???n theo ??u???i nh???ng l???i ??ch c???a ch??nh h??? m?? h??? th???y ph?? h???p, trong ?????i s???ng ri??ng t??, x?? h???i d??n s??? v?? kh??ng gian ch??nh tr???.
Nh??ng ch???ng ch??? ngh??a t?? b???n c??n ???????c s??? d???ng nh?? m???t ch????ng tr??nh thay th??? tr???t t??? th??? gi???i b???ng m???t tr???t t??? m???i, trong ???? nh???ng m???c ti??u d??n t???c ch??? ngh??a t??? l??u b??? ???? n??n s??? ???????c hi???n th???c h??a. ?????i v???i Stalin v?? Mao, ng?????i th???a k??? nh???ng n???n v??n minh c??? ?????y t??? h??o, ch??u ??u v?? Hoa K??? ?????i di???n cho s???c c??m d??? v?? m???i ??e d???a c???a m???t ph????ng T??y si??u vi???t. Nh???ng ng?????i c???ng s???n t??? ?????t ra cho m??nh nhi???m v??? ph???i ??u???i k???p v?? v?????t qua c??c ?????i th??? t?? b???n ch??? ngh??a v?? gi??nh cho ?????t n?????c m??nh v??? th??? trung t??m tr??n s??n kh???u qu???c t???. Cu???c ?????u tranh c??ch m???ng cho ph??p n?????c Nga th???a m??n c??i ?? th???c k??o d??i nhi???u th??? k??? v??? s??? m???nh ?????c bi???t c???a m??nh tr??n th??? gi???i, trong khi n?? cho Trung Qu???c c?? h???i ????? tuy??n x??ng m???t l???n n???a l?? V????ng qu???c Trung t??m.
S??? ch???ng ?????i ph????ng T??y c???a Vladimir Putin, c??ng v???i s??? pha tr???n ?????c th?? c???a ??ng trong ???? ni???m ho??i v???ng v??? th???i ?????i X??-vi???t h??a v???i s??? ph???c h???i Ch??nh th???ng gi??o Nga, ???????c x??y d???ng tr??n ti???n l??? c???a Stalin. V??? ph???n m??nh, t???t nhi??n Trung Qu???c v???n l?? c?????ng qu???c c???ng s???n cu???i c??ng, ngay c??? khi B???c Kinh qu???ng b?? v?? c??? g???ng ki???m so??t m???t n???n kinh t??? ph???n l???n l?? th??? tr?????ng. Gi??? ????y, d?????i quy???n ??ng T???p C???n B??nh, ?????t n?????c n??y v???a ??i theo h??? t?? t?????ng c???ng s???n v???a khai th??c v??n h??a truy???n th???ng Trung Hoa trong n??? l???c n??ng cao v??? th??? qu???c gia nh?? l?? m???t s??? thay th??? ph????ng T??y.
Th??? k??? m??u c???a ch??? ngh??a c???ng s???n ???? ??i t???i l??c k???t th??c, v?? ch??ng ta c?? th??? b??y t??? ni???m vui v??? s??? l???i t??n c???a n??. Nh??ng nh???ng kh??a c???nh ????ng lo ng???i trong di s???n c???a n?? th?? v???n c??n dai d???ng!
       V?? cu???i th???p 80, ?????u th???p k??? 90 s??? tan r??, tan t??nh c???a c???ng ?????ng x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a hoang t?????ng, nh??n lo???i m???i hi???u ???????c c??i nh??n th???u th??? ????xt??iepxki qua nh??n v???t tr?????ng l??o Z??xima ?????y l??ng nh??n ??i, hi???n minh. C??i nh??n thi??n t??i c???a ????xt??iepxki hay c??i nh??n thi??n t??i c???a cha Z??xima v?????t qua t???m th??? k??? m?? kh??ng m???t nh??n v???t ??????ng th???i n??o hi???u n???i. D?? cho ???? l?? cha, Ph?? Gi??o ch??? Phr??l??,  cha Ralph?? ng?????i bao qu??t tr?? th???c ??????ng th???i. Ngay c??? Abert  Camus (gi???i Nobel v??n h???c 1957 - ng?????i Ph??p) sau g???n m???t th??? k??? l???i ti??n ??o??n c???a ????xt??iepxki m???i n??i ???????c: "S??? m??u thu???n v??? ?????i. V??? l???i d?? sao ??i n???a ch??nh ?? ngh??a c???a th???c t???i, v?? x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a ???? tr??i ngh???ch nhau r???i. V?? th???t th???, m???t hi???n  th???c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a l??m sao c?? th??? th???c hi???n ???????c khi th???c t???i kh??ng ho??n to??n c?? t??nh ch???t x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a (12) v?? Camus m???i n??i ti???p ???????c: "T??? x????ng m??u m??? h??i c???a nh??n lo???i ng?????i s??? th???y n???y sinh  ra m???t th??? v??n ch????ng v?? ngh??a, nh???ng b??o ch?? ngoan ngo??n, nh???ng b??i t?????ng thu???t ngh??o n??n nh??  ???nh ch???p v?? nh???ng t??c ph???m b??? ch??? huy, trong ???? l??ng h???n th?? thay cho t??n ng?????ng." V???i l??ng tin b???t di???t  v??o ?? ni???m ch??n tu c???a m??nh, cha Z??xima v?????t l??n tr??n hi???n th???c c???a th???i m???t th???i m??nh s???ng, m???t th???i c???a c??i x?? h???i r???i ren, m???t x?? h???i ????? v??? t??? c???i ngu???n c???a m???t gia ????nh. Ti??u bi???u l?? gia ????nh Nga - "Gia ??inh anh em nh?? Karammaz???p".  M???t gia ????nh m?? ??? ???? con ng?????i kh??ng c?? l??ng tin, nh???ng k??? b??ng b??? t??n ng?????ng t??? ng?????i cha Pavlovits  ?????n ng?????i con Ivan Fiodorovits ?????u m???t ni???m tin, ?????u b??ng b??? l???i ?????ng Christ. M???t gia ????nh nh?? m???t c???ng ?????ng nh??n lo???i thu nh??? tan n??t b???i v?? v?? lu??n, v?? x??u x?? nhau. M???t gia ????nh ??ang t??m l??m m???i c??i ??c tr??n ?????i n???u c?? th??? l??m ???????c t??? vi???c ch???i r???a cho ?????n vi???c gi???t cha v?? gi???t ?????ng lo???i.
  Cha Z??xima c?? c?? s??? tin t?????ng v??o vi???c th???c hi???n c??i thi???n c???a m??nh, l??ng nh??n ??i c???a m??nh tr??n ch??n l?? ?????c tin, trong  s??? th??nh thi???n c???a nghi???p ch??n tu, trong quan ni???m x??y d???ng m???t ch??nh th??? c?? tr???t t??? t??? tr??n x???ng. V???i ?????c tin mang trong m??nh nh?? Th??nh Kinh, cha Z??xima x??y d???ng l??ng nh??n ??i ????ng ?????n khi cha c?? quan ni???m ????ng ?????n ??? m???t x?? h???i m?? quan h??? ch??? v?? t??? l?? quan h??? anh em. ????y l?? c??i ??i???u hi???n th???c h??n, c?? ?? ngh??a th???c t??? h??n, ch??? kh??ng ph???i l?? ??i???u h???o huy???n, ??i???u m?? ?????c c???a nh???ng  ng?????i nh??n ?????o chung chnung nh?? nh???ng ng?????i theo ch???a ngh??a M??c kh??ng t?????ng:
"Ta ngh?? ng??y mai h???t ????i ngh??o
H???t t??, h???t t???i, h???t gieo neo
Trong ngo??i b???n b??? anh em c???
??i ?????p v?????n xu??n nh???ng s???m chi???u"
  (Xu??n Th???y - Th?? ca c??ch m???ng Vi???t Nam)
  C??i x?? h???i ?????p nh?? pha l?? ???y, l??m chung ??n chung, c??i x?? h???i ???y n?? n???m ngo??i c??i tr???n th??? v?? n?? c??ng ch???ng n???m ??? ????u trong v?? tr??? n??y. Con ng?????i v???i th???c t??? c???a m??nh, c??? nh??n v??o th???c t??? c???a m??nh tr??n c??i x?? h???i chu???ng g?? c???a m??nh m?? th???c thi l??ng nh??n ??i. L??ng nh??n ??i ???y c?? th???c h??n. Nh???ng k??? y??u nh??n lo???i chung chung h??a ra ch???ng bao gi?? y??u ai c???. X??y d???ng ???????c c??i quan h??? ch??? t??? t???t th?? s??? c?? l??ng y??u th????ng th??n ??i. C??i ???? th???c ??? c??i ?????i. ?????ng n??n ph??? ng?????i "ph??? ng?????i ch???ng b??? khi ng?????i ph???  ta (13). ?????ng n??n th?? ta ph??? ng?????i, ch??? nh???t quy???t kh??ng ????? ng?????i ph??? ta (14). Cha Z?? xi ma khi nh??n th???c tr???ng x?? h???i Nga, d??n ch??ng b???i ho???i v?? r?????u, h??? t??n ??c v???i gia ????nh, tr??? con ??? c??c x?????ng m??y c??m c??i v?? b???o l???c v?? ???? tr???y l???c... H??y l??m sao ?????ng c?? t??nh tr???ng ???y. H??y ?????ng l??n truy???n ?????o l??, l??ng nh??n ??i. Ch??a Tr???i s??? c???u n?????c Nga. B???i v?? n?????c Nga v??? ?????i l?? ??? s??? quy thu???n c???a m??nh. Cha Z??xima n??i: "Ph???i t??n tr???ng t??i t???. ?????i x??? v???i h??? nh?? c??ng ?????ng lo???i v???i m??nh". Cha Z??xima c??ng hi???u r???ng n???u toan t??nh t??? ch???c m???t h???i kh?????c t??? ?????ng Chrit, t???c l?? l??ng nh??n ??i, th?? s??? l??m cho th??? gian n??y ng???p m??u, b???i v?? m??u s??? g???i m??u, m??u s??? tr??? m??u, k??? vung ki???m s??? ch???t v?? ki???m. N???u kh??ng c?? l??i h???a c???a ?????ng Chrit th?? h??? s??? ti??u di???t nhau cho ?????n ng?????i cu???i c??ng tr??n tr??i ?????t n??y v?? ng?????i cu???i c??ng s??? t??? gi???t m??nh. ??? ph????ng ????ng c??ng v???y. N ???u l???y o??n b??o o??n, o??n o??n ch???t ch???ng; l???y ??n b??o o??n, o??n s??? ti??u tan" (15). Cha Z??xima l??m ??i???u t??? thi???n v?? t??nh y??u nh???ng ng?????i hi???n l??nh v?? quy thu???n.
  Cha Z??xima c??ng ???? t???ng k??u g???i khi y??u th????ng con ng?????i d?? l?? trong quan  h??? ch??? t???, nh??ng kh??ng n??n s??? t???i l???i, ph???i y??u con ng?????i trong t???i l???i c???a h???, ???? ch??nh l?? t??nh y??u c???c ?????nh. ???? l?? t??nh y??u c???c ?????nh tr??n th??? gian. ???? l?? t??nh y??u c?? th???c ????? ti???p x??c v???i m???t th??? gi???i kh??c. Cha Z?? xi ma ngh?? r???ng c?? t??nh y??u ???y th?? con ng?????i m???i c?? t??nh y??u th???  gian v???i m???t t??nh y??u bao tr??m l??n t???t c???. Cha Z??xima khuy??n h??y y??u lo??i v???t, ?????ng ch???c  gi???n ch??ng, ?????ng h??nh h??? ch??ng, ?????ng l??n m???t v???i ch??ng, ch??ng kh??ng c?? t???i l???i, ch??? c?? con ng?????i m???i c?? t???i l???i. H??y y??u lo??i v???t ????? gi???m b???t t???i l???i c???a m??nh. Cha Z??xima k??u g???i h??y y??u tr??? em.
   Tr??? em kh??ng c?? t???i l???i , tr??? em l?? thi??n th???n, tr??? em l??m cho t??m h???n ng?????i l???n th??m trong s??ng, th??m thanh s???ch. ??au ?????n thay, n???u ai ???? trong ch??ng ta x??c ph???m tr??? em. T???m l??ng nh??n ??i n??y c???a cha Z??xima th???m nhu???n l??ng nh??n ??i c???a Ch??a th?????ng!... Ng?????i ta ??em tr??? em ?????n c??ng Ch??a  ????? ng??i r??? ch??ng. M??n ????? b??n r???y la h???. Jesus th???y v???y n???i. gi???n m?? ph??n c??ng h??? r???ng: "H??y ????? tr??? con ?????n c??ng ta, ?????ng c???m ch??ng n??, v?? n?????c ?????c Ch??a Tr???i thu???c v??? ch??ng n??. Qu??? th???t, ta n??i c??ng c??c ng????i, h??? ai ch???ng nh???n n?????c ?????c Ch??a Tr???i nh?? m???t con tr???, th?? h???n ch???ng ???????c v??o ????".  Ng??i b??n ???m ch??ng n?? ?????t l??n tay m?? ch??c ph?????c cho n??. (16)  
 ????? c?? l??ng y??u tr??? con, cha Z??xima c??ng ph???i l??n l??c trong b??? kh???
Cha ???? t??? b???ch. Ch??nh cha Anfim ???? truy???n ?????t cho cha y??u con tr???. Nh???ng ng??y ??i h??nh h????ng ng?????i cha Anfim tr???m l???ng d??? th????ng ???? ban ph??t b??nh k???o cho tr???. C??? ch??? ???y t??c ?????ng s??u s???c ?????n Z??xima , m???i c?? l??ng y??u th????ng tr??? em  Sau n??y cha Z?? xi ma m???i c?? l??ng y??u th????ng tr??? em th???m thi???t g???n v???i Ch??a nh?? v???y.
  Cha Z??xima y??u th????ng v?? c?? lu???n thuy???t v??? s??? y??u th????ng. Nh???ng lu???n thuy???t y??u th????ng c???a l??ng nh??n ??i b???t ngu???n t??? cu???c s???ng, t??? cu???c ?????i c???a cha tr???i qua c?? s??? th???c t???. Kh??ng c?? m???t c?? s??? l??ng y??u th????ng n??o c???a cha Z??xima l?? g?????ng ??p, l?? ??i n??i theo gi??o l?? c???a k??? rao gi???ng n??o. T??? cu???c ?????i cha v?? cu???c ?????i c???a nhi???u ng?????i m?? cha bi???t v?? c???a Ch??a, ????? cha hun ?????c n??n l??ng nh??n ??i c???a m??nh. L??ng nh??n ??i c???a cha ???????c nu??i d?????ng t??? c???i ngu???n gia ????nh. Cha l??c n??o c??o cha Z??xima nh??? t???i ng?????i anh y???u m???nh c???a m??nh.. Ch??nh n???i ho??i ni???m ???y t??ng th??m l??ng nh??n ??i cho cha Z??xima. Ng?????i anh c???a cha t??? thu??? nh??? l??c n??o c??ng xin chim ch??c, tr??? em tha th???. Cha bi???t r???ng l??m nh?? v???y l??ng ng?????i nh??? nh??m h??n, t??nh y??u s??? bao tr??m h??n, l??ng v??? tha ???????c nh??n l??n.
   C?? l??ng nh??n ??i hi???n minh, cha Z??xima ???? k??u g???i con ng?????i v?????t l??n t???i l???i. Ho??n c???nh x???u, s???c m???nh t???i l???i kh??ng th??? l???n ??t khi con ng?????i c?? gan th???c thi ?????o t???t l??nh c???a m??nh. Cha k??u g???i ch??? c?? c??ch c???u r???i h??y can ?????m coi m??nh l?? ng?????i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m v??? t???t c??? c??c t???i l???i c???a m???i ng?????i th??nh t??m, b???n s??? ??i ?????n g???n n?????c Ch??a h??n. Cha Z??xima c??ng nh???c nh???, n???u tr??t s??? l?????i nh??c v?? t???i l???i l??n ng?????i kh??c th?? nhi???m ph???i th??i hung h??n c???a qu??? Sa t??ng, con ng?????i l???i ??i v??? ph??a c??i ??c. ?????a ng???c t???t nhi??n kh??ng th??? tr??nh kh???i. Cha Z??xima c??ng nh???c nh??? th??m cho ai, k??? c??? quan t??a khi ch??nh m??nh c??ng ??ang l?? k??? ph???m t???i. H??y tha th??? nh?? Ch??a. M???t l???n Ph?? r?? h???i Ch??a: "Anh em ph???m l???i th?? b??y l???n tha th??? ???????c kh??ng?". Ch??a m???i tr??? l???i: "N???u anh em ph???m l???i ta kh??ng nh???ng b???y l???n tha th??? m?? b??y m?????i l???n tha th???". ?? Ch??a c??ng nh?? ?? c??? nh??n ph????ng ????ng: "D??? thi??n nh??n" (?????i v???i ng?????i th?? th????ng y??u h???t th???y, hay "??i???m ?????m vi th????ng" (??i???m ?????m l?? h??n)) (17). Conng?????i l??m vi???c l??nh s??? ???????c c???u r???i. Cha Zoxima nh???c nh??? ??i???u ???y. B???i v?? cha hi???u c??i ngh??a l?? c???a ?????i. Ng?????i c??ng ch??nh qua ?????i th?? ??nh s??ng c??n l???i.
  Cha Z??xima th???ng thi???t k??u g???i: "H??y l?? ng?????i hi???n minh v?? lu??n lu??n cao qu??. Ph???i bi???t ch???ng m???c, h??y th????ng y??u, h??y h???c bi???t ??i???u ????, h??y l??nh m??nh ??i v?? c???u nguy???n. H??y y??u m???n ?????t v?? s???p m??nh xu???ng h??n ?????t. H??y h??n ?????t, l???i h??y y??u th????ng kh??ng ng???ng (Cha Z??xima lu??n lu??n k??u g???i nh?? th???). H??y y??u, h??y y??u kh??ng bi???t ch??n, y??u t???t c??? m???i ng?????i, y??u t???t c??? m???i v???t, h??y t??m ki???m s??? h??n hoan v?? cu???ng lo???n ???y. H??y l??m cho m???t ?????t th???m n?????c m???t vui s?????ng c???a c??c b???n v?? y??u nh???ng gi???t l??? ???y c???a b???n. ?????ng h??? th???n v??? s??? cu???ng lo???n ???y, h??y y??u qu?? n?? v?? ???? l?? ??n s???ng c???a Ch??a ban cho, m???t ??n s???ng c???c k??? l???n lao m?? kh??ng m???y ng?????i h?????ng ???????c, ch??? c?? nh???ng ng?????i bi???t y??u th????ng c?? t???m l??ng nh??n ??i hi???n minh m???i c?? th??? c?? ??n s???ng ???y".
  Cha Z??xima th??? hi???n l??ng nh??n ??i hi???n minh, l??ng nh??n ??i c?? con m???t suy x??t l?? nh?? v???y. L??ng nh??n ??i ???y kh??ng bao gi??? m?? qu??ng, l??ng nh??n ??i ???y ??em l???i t??nh th????ng thi???t th???c c???u r???i lo??i ng?????i gi???a c??i ??c ??ang ngtr??? tr??nc??i d????ng th???. L??ng nh??n ??i hi???n minh c???a cha Z??xima ?????i l???p l???i t???t c???, c??i ??c v?? ch??nh th??? c???m quy???n th???ng tr???  ??????ng th???i v?? h???u th???. Nh???ng k??? c???m quy???n khi ??i ng?????c l???i quy???n l???i c???a nh??n lo???i bao gi??? c??ng th??ch l??m c??i ??c. M???c d???u h??? che gi???u ng???y trang d?????i nhi???u h??nh th???c l????ng thi???n gi??? v???. Nh??ng c??i ??c v???n l??? ra. H??n Phi T??? c?? n??i: "K??? c???m quy???n kh??ng c???n l????ng thi???n". (18)  Mao Tr???ch  ????ng c??ng n??i: "L??m c??ch m???ng kh??ng c???n ph???i l???ch s???, ch???nh chu. C??ch m???ng t???t nhi??n c?? k??? b???t h???nh v?? c?? k??? kh??ng b???t h???nh. N?? kh??ng ph???i l?? bu???i di???n thuy???t c?? v??n v???". (19). H??n Phi T??? c??ng l???i n??i: " L??m ch??nh tr??? c??ng nh?? k??? g???i ?????u, c?? ph???i b??? s???i t??c n??o c??ng ph???i l??m" (20)
    Nh???ng k??? ??c nh???t ?????nh ph???i xu???ng ?????a ng???c. ??i???u ???? ???? ???????c ch???ng minh trong h??ng ng??n n??m c???a nh??n lo???i v??  trong ki???t t??c "Anh em nh?? Karammaz??ps. Nh???ng k??? l??m ??i???u ??c ?????u b??? c??i linh thi??ng tr???ng ph???t. M???t Ivan Fi??????r??vits, k??? thi???t k??? ti???n tr??nh gi???t cha, k??? ??ang t??m l??m ??i???u ??c phi lu??n, ?????u ??c b???t t???nh. Xmer??iak??p t??? m??nh treo c??? k???t li???u ?????i m??nh. R???i Fi??d??r Pavl??vits  b??i nh??? c??c b???c ch??n tu, ??am m?? nh???c d???c, tranh gi??nh t??nh y??u v???i con c??i, ph??? b??ng Ch??a, kh??ng l??m ??i???u thi???n b??? ch??nh ?????a con hoang c???a m??nh l?? Xmer??iak???p  gi???t ch???t. M???t KateriaIvan??vna t???i ph??t cu???i c??ng, tr?????c m???t con ng?????i b??? ??n oan th??? m?? v???n l??n ti???ng vu oan gi??ng h???a ????? ph???i tan n??t gia ????nh v?? m???t c??? t??nh y??u .
  Kh??c v???i tri???t l?? k??? ??c, cha Z??xima nghi???m r???ng ngo??i " t??i t?? duy l?? t??i t???n t???i" (21), c??n m???t m???nh ????? n???a m?? cha Z??xima bi???t l??" t??i t???n t???i b???i v?? t??i y??u". T??nh th?????ng c?? s??? m???nh v??nh h???ng nh?? v???y.
  N???u kh??ng c?? t??nh y??u v?? t??nh th????ng, kh??ng c?? ?????c tin, kh??ng c?? l??ng nh??n ??i hi???n minh nh???ng k??? ???? ch??? ??? trong ?????a ng???c kh??? ??au. V?? h??? kh??ng y??u ???????c n???a. Nh???ng k??? ??c ki??u ng???o ???y s??? t??? h??t m??u m??nh trong sa m???c c?? ????n, nh???ng k??? ???y ?????i ?????i kh??ng ?????n ???????c v???i Ch??a Tr???i h???ng s???ng. H??? ?????i ?????i ch??y rong ng???n l???a ????? k??? c???a h???, h??? ?????n v???i c??i ch???t h?? v??.

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Ti???u thuy???t gia v??? ?????i ????xt??iepxki c??ng nh?? nhi???u ti???u thuy???t gia v??  ?????i kh??c c???a Nga v?? c???a th??? g???i ?????u b???ng t??i n??ng ngh??? thu???t c???a minh t???o n??n nh???ng nh??n v???t s???ng ?????ng, c?? cu???c s???ng kh??c th?????ng m?? nhi???u khi ng?????i x??y d???ng, s??ng t???o ra n?? c??ng kh??ng ng??? m??nh ?????t m???t th??nh t??ch k??? v??? ?????n th???.
 Ngh??? thu???t x??y d???ng c??c nh??n v???t c???a ????xt??iepxki ?????u nh?? v???y. C??c nh??n v???t c???a ??ng ?????u ?????t c??? chi???u cao l???n chi???u s??u, chi???u r???ng l???n chi???u d??i. Nh??n v???t v?? t??c gi??? h??a l??m m???t. Hai ng?????i nh?? h??nh v???i b??ng. Ta l?? ng?????i nh?? l?? m???t, ta v???i ng?????i nh?? m???t ma hai (22). Ba khtin ???? ch??? r?? t??nh ??a di???n, ??a thanh, ??a chi???u c???a c??c nh??n v???t ????x t??iepxki . Nh??n v???t c???a ????xt??iepxki c?? t??nh ?????c l???p, t??? ch???, t??? ?????ng ??? b??n trong, khi ???? th??nh c??ng n?? h???u nh?? s???ng theo b???n n??ng c???a n?? m?? r???t ??t ch???u s??? chi ph???i c???a t??c gi???... Ti???ng n??i, l???i ph??t ng??n c???a nh??n v???t c?? gi?? tr??? nh?? l???i ph??t ng??n, ti???ng n??i c???a t??c gi???. C??c nh??n v???t c???a ????xt??iepxki bao gi??? c??ng hi???n h???u nh?? ch??nh b???n th??n m??nh, v???i tr?? n??o, l????ng t??m c???a m??nh  m?? kh??ng m???t ai c?? th??? chi ph???i ???????c. V?? v???y, t??m t?? t??nh c???m c???a nh??n v???t hi???n l??n m???t c??ch ?????y ????? nh?? cu???c s???ng ?????i th?????ng nhi???u d???ng, nhi???u h??nh.
  Nh??n v???t cha Z??xima, ????xt??ixki d??nh c??? t??m huy???t, tr???i nghi???m c???a ?????i m??nh, l???y ?????i m??nh l??m nguy??n m???u, nh?? v??n ????? c??ng s???c ,t??m huy???t c???a m??nh v??o nh??n v???t n??y. V?? n?? th??nh c??ng r???c r???. Nh??n v???t cha Z??xima hi???n l??n nh?? l?? ?????i bi???u cho c??i thi???n, cho l??ng nh??n ??i, l??  ??nh s??ng c??ng ch??nh x??a tan c??i ??c ??ang ng??? tr??? tr??n th??? gian. ??i???u n??y ch??nh ????xt??iepxki c??ng kh??ng ng??? t???i l?? n?? c?? k???t qu??? nh?? v???y.
     Nh??ng sau m???t th??? k???, ch??ng ta th???y r???ng nh???ng ??i???u lo l???ng c???a ????xt??iepxki kh??ng x???y ra. Ng?????c l???i nh??n v???t cha Z??xima b???t t???. N?? s???ng th???t h??n t???t c??? nh???ng b???c minh tri???t, nh??n ??i n??o s???ng th???t tr??n c??i ?????i n??y.
    Ta th???y r???ng Vichto Huyg?? x??y d???ng c??ng r???t th??nh c??ng nh??n v???t cha Ph?? Gi??o ch??? Phr??l??. Nh?? v??n ???? th??nh c??ng x??y d???ng n??n m???t ng?????i coi linh h???n c???a ch??ng  sinh, nh??ng ???? tr??? th??nh n???n nh??n c???a ch??nh minh. ???? d??? cho gi??o l?? b??? b??? cong b???i b???n n??ng t??? nhi??n c???a con ng?????i. B???i v?? trong ?????c mu???n c???a ?????i th???c, trong cha Phr??l?? v???n tr???i d???y th??n x??c b??? ???n ???c lu??n lu??n b???ng tr???i d???y. S??? gi???ng x?? gi???a t??m linh, gi???a thi???n v?? ??c, gi???a th?????ng gi???i v?? tr???n th???, gi???a gi??? nh??n gi??? ngh??a v?? ch??n th???c bao tr??m l??n ng?????i th???y tu v?? bi???n ng?????i th???y tu th??nh qu??? d???!
  Cha ph??  trong " Nh???ng con chim ???n m??nh ch??? ch???t" c??ng v???y. N??i chung s??? th??nh c???a hai ti???u thuy???t gia n??y c??ng t???m c??? th??? gi???i. Nh??ng c?? ??i???u, m?? tip ph???n di???n ???y kh??ng m???i v?? c??ng c?? nhi???u ti???u thuy???t gia kh??c x??y d???ng v?? c??ng th??nh c??ng. ????xt??iepxki x??y d???ng m???t con ng?????i ch??n tu ?????c ?????o v??? cu???i ?????i ?????t ???????c to??n b??ch m?? h???p l??, h???p t??nh, h?????ng cho nh??n lo???i c?? ni???m tin v??o c??i thi???n. ??i???u ???? c??ng c?? gi?? tr???,  ?? ngh??a ngh??? thu???t nh??n l??n g???p hai. Qu??? th???t nh?? v???y, nh???ng ?? ki???n c???a Z??xima, nh???ng lu???n thuy???t nh??n ??i c???a cha, nh???ng vi???c l??m c???a cha l?? t???m g????ng cho h???u th??? noi theo s???ng v?? l??m ???????c nh?? th???. N???u con ng?????i s???ng v?? l??m ???????c m???t ph???n nh??? nh?? cha Z??xima mong mu???n th?? th??? gi???i n??y s??? b???t ??i bao nhi??u l?? m??u ????? v?? ngh??a. N???u con ng?????i l??m ??i???u thi???n v?? ?????ng c??  "th???ng ni b???t m???" (th???ng tr???n ????u c?? t???t) th?? h??ng ngh??n n??m qua nh??n lo???i s??? kh??ng c?? c???nh n??i x????ng s??ng m??u 23).
   Cu???i c??ng ??i???u m?? cha Z??xima ch??? ra l?? l??m th???c t???nh nh??n lo???i ?????ng ????? c??i ??c ho??nh h??nh. C??i ??c ho??nh h??nh kh??ng nh??n danh ???????c ai, kh??ng t???o ra m???t gi?? tr??? h???u ??ch cho nh??n lo???i. Ch??? c?? cu???i c??ng n?? ????a nh??n lo???i ?????n con ???????ng ti??u di???t l???n nhau. Sau m???t th??? k???, ??i???u ti??n ??o??n thi??n t??i c??? c??i ??c ch??? ng???, nh??n lo???i l??m sao hi???u ???????c c??i ??ca cha Z??xima c??ng l?? c???a ???? xt??iepxki ???? th??nh s??? th???c l??m cho nh??n lo???i b???ng t???nh.
  Nh??n v???t cha Z??xima l?? m???t ??i???n h??nh. T??c ph???m "Anh em nh?? Karammaz???p l?? m???t ki???t t??c. N?? l??m b??? m???t nh??n lo???i th??m kh??? k??nh, th??m ????ng y??u. ????ng nh?? Abert Camuas ???? n??i : " B?? quy???t c???a m???t ki???t t??c l?? l??m cho b??? m???t nh??n lo???i th??m ????ng y??u, kh??? k??nh". (24)

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   ?????t (**) l?? m???t trong nh???ng thi??n t??i hi???m hoi, thi??n t??i c???a c??i thi???n, c???a l??ng nh??n ??i. Qua nh??n v???t cha Z??xima, ta th???y ????xt??ixki l?? m???t nh?? nh??n ??i thi??n t??i, m???t ti???ng chu??ng th???c t???nh v?? c???nh b??o cho nh??n lo???i . Nh??ng nh??n lo???i b??? c??i ??c ch??? ng???, nh??n lo???i l??m sao h???u ???????c nh???ng ti??n ??o??n c???a ????xt??iepxki. Ch??? c?? th???i gian m???i l??m cho nh??n lo???i b???ng t???nh kh???i c??i s??? u m??, m?? mu???i c???a m??nh. Bao nhi??u l?? m??u ????? ra b???i nh???ng k??? ??c, b???i nh???ng b???o ch??a l???y con ng?????i ra l??m v???t th?? nghi???m cho nh???ng m??u m??, nh???ng tr?? ch??i, nh???ng ??am m??, nh???ng d???c v???ng c?? nh??n c???a m??nh.
  ????xt??iep xki kh??ng ch??? l?? ngh??? s?? l???n nh???t ??? th??? k??? XIX m?? c??n l???n nh???t m??i m??i sau n??y!
  Nh??ng ta c??ng kh??ng n??n qu??n r???ng, trong th??? gi???i quan s??ng t??c c???a ????xt??iepxki c??ng ch???a ?????ng nhi???u m??u thu???n s??u s???c, nh???ng m??u thu???n n??y th?????ng b???c l??? trong s??ng t??c c???a nh?? v??n. ???? c??ng l?? h???n ch??? t???t y???u v??? l???ch s??? m?? ????xt??iepxki s???ng trong th???i ?????i c???a m??nh.
  Nh???ng ng?????i Vi???t Nam ch??ng ta, tuy ???????c ti???p x??c, ???????c ?????c ????xt??iepxki mu???n m??ng, nh??ng ch??ng ta c??ng ????? y??u m???n, k??nh tr???ng ??ng v???i m???t s??? kh??m ph???c b???i ph???n, m???t s??? ng?????ng v???ng t??i n??ng v?? song c???a m???t thi??n t??i c?? c??i nh??n ngh??? thu???t th???u th???.
  Ch??ng ta h???c t???p ??? ??ng r???t nhi???u trong c??ch s???ng, c??ch vi???t, th??i ????? tr?????c cu???c s???ng, tr?????c c??i ??c; h???c t???p ??? l??ng nh??n ??i hi???m c?? ????? l??m cho cu???c ?????i c?? ?? ngh??a h??n. Con ng?????i s???ng x??ch l???i g???n v???i nhau h??n. V?? m???t ng??y n??o ????, khi c??i thi???n ng??? tr??? th??? g???i, ?????y l??i c??i ??c ra m???t kho???ng xa th?? l??c ???y tr??n h??nh tinh n??y s??? b???t nh???ng m???c c???m, b???t nh???ng cu???c th??c lo???n, nh???ng c???nh ????? m??u, con ng?????i th???c s??? c?? ?????c tin, s???ng v???i ?????c tin!
                                          H?? N???i, ng??y 5 - 6 - 1992
                                                         ?? - H  
CH?? TH??CH:
1 -  ?? ki???n c???a Bakhtin - Nh?? ph?? b??nh l???i l???c Nga
2 - ?? trong Lu???n ng??? - Kh???ng t???
3 - Kinh Ph???t
4 - ?????o ?????c kinh
5 - Tr??ch Kinh Th??nh (C???u ?????c v?? T??n ?????c)
6 - Ca dao & T???c ng??? Vi???t Nam  - 2 t???p
7 - Y thu???t - H???i th?????ng L??n ??ng , L?? h???u Tr??c.
8 - Y thu???t, H???i th?????ng L??n ??ng - L?? H???u Tr??c.
9 - V????ng Duy thi t???p
10 - ?? Kinh Th??nh.
11 - L???i Mao Ch??? t???ch - B??n v??? m??u thu???n.
12 - S??? m???nh v??n ngh??? - Camus
13 - L???i T??o Th??o - Tam Qu???c di???n ngh??a.
14 - L???i T??o Th??o - Tam Qu???c di???n ngh??a
15 - Kinh Ph???t
16 - Kinh Th??nh
17 - ?????o ?????c kinh
18 - H??n Phi T???
19 - H??n Phi T???
20 - Tr??ch l???i Mao Tr???ch ????ng - Di??n An kh???i ngh??a.
21 - L???i nh??n v???t k??ch Si???c pia
22 - Th?? T???n ???? - T???n ???? tuy???n t???p
23 - ?? ?????o ?????c kinh.
24 - Sw m???nh v??n ngh??? - Camus
S??CH THAM KH???O:
A - Ti???ng vi???t:
1 - G?? kh??? - S??i G??n 1971
2 - Th???ng ng???c - NXB V??n h???c th???p k??? 70 th??? k??? tr?????c.
3 - ????m tr???ng -     nt -
4 - T???i ??c v?? Tr???ng ph???t  - nt -
5 - ?????o ?????c kinh
6 - Nam hoa kinh
7 - T???c ng??? c?? ca dao Vi???t Nam - Tuy???n t???p H??? Ch?? Minh
9 - Th?? ca C??ch m???ng Vi???t Nam
10 - S??? m???nh v??n ngh??? - Abret Camus
11 - Th?? ???????ng 2 t???p - Nh?? xu???t b???n V??n hoa 1961
12 - Kh???ng t???
13 - Nho Gi??o
14 - Kinh Th??nh
15 - Th?? v??n ch???ng Ph??p
16 - Ti???ng chim h??t trong b???i m???n gai
17 - Nh?? th?? ?????c B?? Paris
18 - Th?? T???n ????
19 - Ph???t h???c
20 - T???ng th??
21 - ?????o H???i
22 - Nh?? v??n Vi???t Nam hi???n ?????i (ba t???p)
23 - Tam Qu???c di???n ngh??a
24 - Tri???t h???c M??c l??nin
25 - Ph?? b??nh c???a Bakhin
26 - ????m tr???ng
27 - L?? lu???n v??n h???c Vi???t Nam
28 - L?? H???u Tr??c - H???i Th?????ng L??n ??ng - Cu???c ?????i v?? s??? nghi???p y h???c.
29 - H??n Phi t???
30 - Kinh V??nh Nghi??m
31 - B??n v??? m??u thu???n.

Ti???ng Trung:
 
  1. - Tuy???n t???p Mao Tr???ch ????ng
  2. - Tr??ch l???i Mao Ch??? t???ch
  3. - Tam Qu???c di???n ngh??a
  4. - Ti???u s??? Mao Tr???ch ????ng
  5. - Binh ph??p T??n t???
  6. - Th?? t??? Mao Ch??? t???ch
  7. - Nh??n d??n nh???t b??o (tr??ch) th???p k??? 60 th??? k?? tr?????c.
  8. - Th??ng b??o khoa h???c
  9. - Nam T?? c?? ph???i n?????c x?? h???i ch??? ngh??a kh??ng?



 

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