Cu???c ?????i gian tru??n c???a Svetlana Allilueva, con g??i Stalin

Thứ năm - 03/10/2019 05:12
Ng??y 18/04/2008, cu???n phim t??i li???u ???Svetlana n??i v??? Svetlana??? (Svetlana About Svetlana) b???t ?????u ???????c chi???u t???i Li??n hoan Phim Wisconsin ??? th??nh ph??? Madison th??? ph??? bang Wisconsin (M???).
Cu???c ?????i gian tru??n c???a Svetlana Allilueva, con g??i Stalin

Cu???c ?????i gian tru??n c???a Svetlana Allilueva, con g??i Stalin

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T??c gi???: Nguy???n H???i Ho??nh

Ng??y 18/04/2008, cu???n phim t??i li???u ???Svetlana n??i v??? Svetlana??? (Svetlana About Svetlana) b???t ?????u ???????c chi???u t???i Li??n hoan Phim Wisconsin ??? th??nh ph??? Madison th??? ph??? bang Wisconsin (M???).

Svetlana l?? t??n g???i b?? Svetlana Allilueva, con g??i duy nh???t c???a Joseph Stalin, nh?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? su???t 29 n??m t??? n??m 1924 cho t???i n??m 1953 khi ??ng qua ?????i.

Svetlana c?? m???t cu???c ?????i tr??i n???i r???t ph???c t???p. Con ng?????i n??y t??nh t??nh k??? c???c, c??u b???n, th???t th?????ng, ???c?? ch??t ??i??n??? ??? nh?? con trai b?? nh???n x??t m???. B?? mai danh ???n t??ch t???i m???t th??? tr???n nh??? ??? bang Wisconsin mi???n B???c n?????c M??? su???t hai ch???c n??m.

L??m phim v??? Svetlana Allilueva

???Svetlana n??i v??? Svetlana??? l?? t??c ph???m c???a ?????o di???n ki??m nh?? l??m phim tr??? tu???i Lana Parshina. C?? g??i ng?????i M??? g???c Nga n??y ph???i m???t r???t nhi???u c??ng phu m???i thuy???t ph???c ???????c Svetlana Allilueva cho c?? ph???ng v???n, v?? m???y ch???c n??m li???n Svetlana kh??ng kh??ng kh??ng ti???p b???t c??? ai. Tr?????c ????, m???t ?????o di???n truy???n h??nh ng?????i ?????c t???ng mu???n l??m phim v??? Svetlana nh??ng th???t b???i v?? b?? nh???t ?????nh kh??ng ti???p kh??ch.

Lana Parshina th??nh c??ng l?? nh??? ki??n tr?? nh???n n???i. Cu???i c??ng c?? ???????c Svetlana ?????ng ?? ti???p. S??? d?? con g??i Stalin thay ?????i ?? ki???n l?? v?? m???y l?? do: c?? Lana Parshina v?? b?? Svetlana (???? ?????i t??n l?? Lana Peters) c?? c??ng t??n ?????u l?? Lana; Lana Parshina sinh n??m 1978 l?? n??m Svetlana ???????c ch??nh th???c ?????nh c?? t???i M???; Lana c??ng nh?? Svetlana, hai ng?????i ?????u t??? Nga sang M??? ?????nh c??; ho??n c???nh gia ????nh hai ng?????i gi???ng nhau khi c??n d?????i ch??? ????? X?? Vi???t, ??ng n???i Lana c??ng b??? t?? nhi???u n??m.

N??m l??n 10 tu???i, Lana Parshina ???????c ?????c cu???n s??ch ti???ng Anh ???20 b???c th?? g???i b???n??? (Twenty Letters to a Friend) c???a Svetlana Allilueva, con g??i Stalin. C?? b?? v?? c??ng x??c ?????ng c???m th???y ????y ch??nh l?? 20 b???c th?? g???i cho m??nh. V?? th??? Lana quy???t ch?? t??m g???p t??c gi??? cu???n s??ch ???y. Su???t 20 n??m tr???i c?? t??m m?? kh??ng th???y Svetlana. C?? ???? thu?? m???t th??m t??? t?? ????? d?? la ?????a ch??? c???a b??, nh??ng v?? ??ch. May sao sau c??ng c?? l???n ra ?????a ch??? ch??nh x??c c???a Svetlana ??? Madison.

Lana k???: ???Svetlana Allilueva s???ng b???ng ti???n c???a nh???ng ng?????i mu???n ph???ng v???n b??. T??i bi???t b?? v???n nh???y c???m v?? th???n tr???ng, d?? d???t. ??i???u quan tr???ng v???i t??i l?? cu???n phim ph???i di???n t??? c???nh b?? ???? t??? ch???i ph???ng v???n nh?? th??? n??o ??? ????y l?? t??nh c??ch c???a b??.???

L???n ph???ng v???n ?????u ti??n Svetlana t??? ra kh??ng th??n thi???n nh??ng Lana l???i th???y th??ch nh?? th???. R???i h??? ??i ??n b??nh hamburger v?? u???ng r?????u vang. ???B???ng nhi??n Svetlana bu???n b?? nh??n d??ng s??ng v?? n??i b?? lu??n ?????c ao ???????c b??i thuy???n. Th??? l?? t??i m???i b?? ???y ??i thuy???n tr??n s??ng. Sau khi ch??o thuy???n, b?? t??? ra m???t m???i nh??ng r???t vui???, Lana k???.

???H??m sau b?? m???i t??i mang theo camera ??i u???ng c?? ph??. Ch??ng t??i tr?? chuy???n hai ti???ng ?????ng h??? v?? t??i quay ???????c m???t ??o???n phim c???nh ???????, Lana n??i ti???p. ????????i v???i t??i, ??i???u quan tr???ng l?? ???????c nghe th???y kh??n gi??? c?????i khi xem phim c???a m??nh. T??i mu???n th??? hi???n m???t t??m h???n thu???n tu??. Tr??n th???c t??? Svetlana ch???ng li??n quan g?? t???i n???n ch??nh tr??? c???a cha b??. Stalin c?? l???n n??i: Con c??i kh??ng ph???i ch???u tr??ch nhi???m v??? b??? m??nh.???

D???n d???n Svetlana Allilueva th???y th??ch t??nh t??nh t????i tr??? h???n nhi??n c???a c?? g??i tr??ng t??n v???i m??nh v?? b?? b???t ?????u th??? l??? t??m s??? s??u k??n c???a m??nh.

N??m ???y Svetlana Allilueva ???? 82 tu???i (sinh n??m 1926). B?? n??i b?? ??ang s???ng kho??? m???nh, vui v??? t???i m???t vi???n d?????ng l??o. ??? ?????y to??n l?? ng?????i gi??, h??? r???t t???t v???i b??, tuy c?? l??? h??? ?????u bi???t b?? l?? con g??i c???a Stalin, nh?? l??nh ?????o ?????t n?????c t???ng ?????i ?????ch v???i n?????c M??? trong nhi???u n??m.

Cu???c ?????i gian nan c???a con g??i l??nh t??? t???i cao

L?? con c???a l??nh t??? t???i cao Li??n X?? nh??ng Svetlana Allilueva kh??ng c?? ???????c m???t cu???c s???ng b??nh th?????ng, h???nh ph??c. H???i nh??? b?? ???????c b??? y??u chi???u nh??ng khi l???n l??n hai b??? con b???t ?????u m??u thu???n gay g???t sau khi c?? b?? bi???t ???????c b?? m???t v??? c??i ch???t c???a m??? m??nh. Th?? ra m??? c???a Svetlana ch???t kh??ng ph???i v?? m???c b???nh hi???m ngh??o nh?? b??? v?? m???i ng?????i n??i. B?? Nadezhda Sergeyevna Alliluyeva (?????????????? ?????????????????? ??????????????????; 1901???1932, ng?????i Nga), v??? th??? hai c???a Stalin, ???? d??ng s??ng l???c t??? b???n v??o ?????u m??nh sau khi ????? l???i hai b???c th?? cho ch???ng. B?? ???????c an t??ng trong ngh??a trang danh nh??n Novodevichy ??? Moskva. Stalin kh??ng d??? l??? tang v???. L?? m???t ng?????i y??u t??? do, th??ch s???ng ?????c l???p, b?? Nadezhda Alliluyeva kh??ng ch???u n???i c???nh s???ng chung v???i ??ng. N??m ???y Svetlana m???i 6 tu???i.

Stalin v?? Svetlana Allilueva khi c?? c??n nh???.

Khi Svetlana l???n l??n, c?? c??ng c???m th???y cu???c ?????i m??nh c?? l???m r??ng bu???c, m???t t??? do tho???i m??i, t???t c??? ch??? v?? m??nh c?? ??ng b??? v?? ?????i. Ri??ng chuy???n y??u ??????ng v?? h??n nh??n c???a c?? ???? nhi???u l???n l??m Stalin b???c m??nh.

N??m 16 tu???i, Svetlana ph???i l??ng m???t ng?????i ????n ??ng 40 tu???i ???? c?? v???. ???? l?? Aleksei Kapler, nh?? l??m phim ki??m nh?? v??n ng?????i Nga g???c Do Th??i. Khi bi???t chuy???n, Stalin ???? b??? t?? anh ch??ng n??y 5 n??m, sau ???? l???i ????a ??i c???i t???o lao ?????ng 5 n??m n???a. Vi???c n??y c??ng l??m c?? con g??i h???n ??ng b??? t??n nh???n.

N??m 1944, khi m???i 18 tu???i, Svetlana b???t ng??? tuy??n b??? l???y ch???ng l?? Grigory Morozov, m???t b???n c??ng h???c ?????i h???c T???ng h???p Moskva v???i m??nh, c??ng l?? ng?????i g???c Do Th??i. Stalin b???t ?????c d?? ph???i cho con g??i l??m l??? c?????i. C?? sinh ???????c m???t con trai t??n l?? Joseph Alliluev. Nh??ng chung s???ng m???i ???????c 3 n??m, hai ng?????i ???? chia tay.

N??m 23 tu???i, Stalin thu x???p cho con g??i l???y Yuri Zdanov, con trai ??ng Andrei Zdanov,[1] m???t nh??n v???t c???p cao c???a ?????ng C???ng s???n Li??n X??, c??nh tay ph???i c???a Stalin. Cu???c h??n nh??n kh??ng t??? nguy???n n??y ??em l???i m???t c?? con g??i l?? Ekaterina Allilueva. V??i n??m sau hai ng?????i l???i chia tay v?? s??? b???t ?????ng t??n gi??o.

N??m 1963, Svetlana l??m quen v???i Brajesh Singh m???t ?????ng vi??n ?????ng C???ng s???n ???n ????? t???i Li??n X?? l??m c??ng t??c phi??n d???ch t???i m???t nh?? xu???t b???n. Hai ng?????i y??u nhau tha thi???t, s???ng nh?? v??? ch???ng nh??ng ch??nh quy???n Li??n X?? kh??ng cho ph??p Svetlana l???y ch???ng ng?????i n?????c ngo??i. N??m 1966, Singh ch???t v?? b???nh ung th?? ph???i. N??m sau l???y l?? do mang tro h??i c???t Singh v??? ???n ????? qu?? anh ????? r???c xu???ng s??ng H???ng, Svetlana Allilueva xin ???????c ph??p sang th??m ???n ?????.

Ng??y 06/03/1967, m???t h??m tr?????c ng??y tr??? v??? Li??n X??, Svetlana 41 tu???i ?????n S??? qu??n M??? t???i Delhi xin t??? n???n ch??nh tr???.

????? tr??nh r???c r???i cho m???i quan h??? ??ang t???t ?????p gi???a ???n ????? v???i Li??n X??, ng?????i ta b??? tr?? cho b?? Svetlana tr?????c ti??n ?????n Rome (Italy) r???i t???i ????y b?? xin ???????c visa du l???ch 6 tu???n sang Thu??? S??, m???t n?????c trung l???p. Sau ???? b?? sang M???. Th??ng 4/1967 Svetlana Allilueva ?????n New York b???t ?????u cu???c s???ng l??u vong, b??? m???c hai con ??? l???i Li??n X??.

T???i ????y b?? t??? ch???c h???p b??o t??? c??o ng?????i cha ???? qu?? c??? c???a m??nh v?? ch??? ????? X?? Vi???t. V??? vi???c n??y t???ng g??y x??n xao d?? lu???n to??n th??? gi???i. C??ng n??m ???? b?? xu???t b???n cu???n s??ch ?????u ti??n ???Hai m????i b???c th?? g???i b???n???. Trong th???i gian l??u vong ??u M???, Svetlana xu???t b???n c??? th???y 4 cu???n s??ch v?? 2 t???p h???i k??. Ti???n nhu???n b??t vi???t s??ch gi??p b?? c?? cu???c s???ng d?? d???t. Ri??ng cu???n ???Hai m????i b???c th?? g???i b???n??? mang v??? cho b?? 2,5 tri???u ???? la.

Th???p ni??n 1970, Svetlana Allilueva nhi???u l???n nh???n ???????c l???i m???i t??? b?? Olgivanna Lloyd Wright, v??? go?? c???a ki???n tr??c s?? M??? n???i ti???ng Frank Lloyd Wright,[2] m???t ph??? n??? g???c Nga c?? con g??i c??ng t??n l?? Svetlana m???i ch???t v?? tai n???n giao th??ng. B?? n??y m?? t??n, tin r???ng Svetlana Allilueva l?? truy???n nh??n tinh th???n c???a con g??i m??nh n??n n???ng n???c m???i Allilueva ?????n Arizona th??m m??nh. Svetlana nh???n l???i ?????n th??m v?? sau ???? c??n ch???p nh???n l???i khuy??n l???y William Wesley Peters ??? ??ng con r??? go?? v??? c???a b?? Olgivanna. Sau v??i tu???n, Svetlana ?????ng ?? c?????i ng?????i ????n ??ng ???y l??m ch???ng v?? ?????i t??n l?? Lana Peters.

H??? c?? v???i nhau m???t con g??i xinh ?????p l?? Olga. ???????c ??t l??u do s???c ??p c???a b?? Olgivanna, hai v??? ch???ng l???i chia tay nhau. Nghe n??i s??? d?? b?? n??y m???i ????u nh???t quy???t khuy??n Svetlana l???y con r??? go?? v??? c???a m??nh v?? tin r???ng Svetlana c?? m???y tri???u ???? la do Stalin ????? l???i cho, nh??ng sau khi h??? c?????i nhau ??t l??u b?? m???i v??? l??? l?? Svetlana ho??n to??n tay tr???ng v?? Stalin kh??ng h??? ????? l???i b???t c??? t??i s???n n??o cho c??c con ??ng.

N??m 1982, hai m??? con Svetlana v?? Olga ?????n n?????c Anh s???ng m???t th???i gian. N??m 1984, h??? tr??? v??? t??? qu???c Li??n X??, l??c n??y ??ang th???c thi ch??nh s??ch c???i t???. H??? ???????c nh???n qu???c t???ch Li??n X?? v?? ???????c c???p m???t c??n h??? ??? Tbilisi, th??? ph??? Gruzia, qu?? h????ng Stalin. Hai n??m sau h??? l???i sang M???. Cho ?????n n??m 2008, khi Lana Parshina ?????n g???p Svetlana, b?? ??ang s???ng trong vi???n d?????ng l??o c???a th??? tr???n nh??? Richland Center ??? qu???n Richland thu???c bang Wisconsin. B?? n??i r???t th??ch ??? ????y.

C???n th??ng c???m v???i qu?? kh???

Lana Parshina mu???n phim c???a m??nh khi chi???u t???i Ukraine thu???c Li??n X?? c?? s??? ?????t ???????c hi???u qu??? l??m cho kh??n gi??? hi???n nay hi???u v?? c?? th??i ????? ??n ho?? v???i qu?? kh???. ???T??i s??? th??ng c???m n???u h??? kh??ng ?????n xem phim v?? gh??t Stalin. T??i quan t??m ?????n vi???c t???i n?????c Nga ???? x???y ra nh???ng chuy???n g??, g???n ????y Stalin c?? tr??? th??nh nh??n v???t h??ng ?????u tr??n ch????ng tr??nh truy???n h??nh ???Danh nh??n n?????c Nga??? hay kh??ng???? ??? Lana h???i. C?? c?? h??? h??ng ??? Kiev v?? t???ng ?????n Ukraine khi m???i l??n 5 tu???i.

Hi???n nay Lana ??ang tham gia l??m m???t s??? phim ti???ng Nga v?? ti???ng Anh. ???Svetlana n??i v??? Svetlana??? l?? phim ?????u ti??n Lana l??m ?????o di???n, nh??ng tr?????c ?????y c?? ???? c?? kinh nghi???m c???a m???t nh?? s???n xu???t phim. Lana n??i sau n??y c?? s??? l??m nhi???u phim t??i li???u.

?????i???u t??i quan t??m l?? l???t t??? ???????c b???n ch???t c???a nh???ng ng?????i c?? nhi???u quy???n l???c, c??ng nh?? nh???ng ng?????i th??n c???a h??? v?? th???m ch?? ?????t n?????c d?????i quy???n cai tr??? c???a h???. T??i r???t h??o h???ng v???i c??c nh??n v???t ti??u c???c, g??y tranh c??i. C?? l??? t??i s??? l??m phim v??? Fidel Castro v?? ng?????i em ??ng.???

C??c con c???a b?? Svetlana Allilueva ?????u kh??ng t??n th??nh chi???u b??? phim ???Svetlana n??i v??? Svetlana???, h??? cho r???ng nh?? v???y l?? can thi???p v??o ?????i t?? c???a m??? v?? ??ng ngo???i.

?????o di???n phim Lana Parshina cho bi???t, sau cu???c ph???ng v???n n??m 2008, b?? Svetlana Allilueva ???? r???i Vi???n D?????ng l??o b??? ??i ????u kh??ng ai bi???t. R?? r??ng b?? kh??ng c??n mu???n ????? ai qu???y r???y cu???c s???ng kh??ng vui v???n ???? c?? qu?? nhi???u gian tru??n c???a m??nh. Cu???i c??ng Svetlana Allilueva ??i h???t cu???c ?????i gian tru??n c???a m??nh v??o ng??y 22/11/2011.

??????????????????-

[1] ?????????????? ???????????????????????????? ??????????????, 1896 ??? 1948), B?? th?? Th??nh ???y Leningrad t??? 1934, ???y vi??n B??? Ch??nh tr??? t??? 1939, ng?????i l??nh ?????o cu???c chi???n ?????u ch???ng ph??t x??t ?????c ??? m???t tr???n Leningrad,  nh??n v???t s??? 2 trong ??CSLX, ???????c cho l?? ng?????i s??? k??? nhi???m Stalin nh??ng kh??ng may ???? qua ?????i tr?????c Stalin.

[2] Frank Lloyd Wright, 1867-1959, nh?? thi???t k??? ki???n tr??c, nh?? v??n v?? nh?? gi??o d???c h???c, t???ng thi???t k??? h??n 1000 c???u tr??c v?? 532 c??ng tr??nh ki???n tr??c, ng?????i ???????c Vi???n Ki???n tr??c s?? M??? th???a nh???n l?? ki???n tr??c s?? v?? ?????i nh???t m???i th???i ?????i c???a n?????c M???.
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