29/08/1533: Pizarro x??? t??? Ho??ng ????? Inca cu???i c??ng

Thứ năm - 29/08/2019 06:13
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1533, Atahuallpa, Ho??ng ????? th??? 13 v?? cu???i c??ng c???a ng?????i Inca, ???? ch???t v?? b??? si???t c??? b???i l??nh chinh ph???t T??y Ban Nha d?????i quy???n Francisco Pizarro. V??? h??nh quy???t Atahuallpa, v??? ho??ng ????? tr??? v?? t??? do cu???i c??ng, ???? ????nh d???u s??? k???t th??c c???a 300 n??m n???n v??n minh Inca.
29/08/1533: Pizarro x??? t??? Ho??ng ????? Inca cu???i c??ng

29/08/1533: Pizarro x??? t??? Ho??ng ????? Inca cu???i c??ng

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Ngu???n: Pizarro Executes Last Inca EmperorHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1533, Atahuallpa, Ho??ng ????? th??? 13 v?? cu???i c??ng c???a ng?????i Inca, ???? ch???t v?? b??? si???t c??? b???i l??nh chinh ph???t T??y Ban Nha d?????i quy???n Francisco Pizarro. V??? h??nh quy???t Atahuallpa, v??? ho??ng ????? tr??? v?? t??? do cu???i c??ng, ???? ????nh d???u s??? k???t th??c c???a 300 n??m n???n v??n minh Inca.

N???m tr??n d??y Andes c???a Peru, ng?????i Inca ???? x??y d???ng m???t ????? ch??? r???c r??? v???i d??n s??? kho???ng 12 tri???u ng?????i. M???c d?? kh??ng c?? h??? th???ng ch??? vi???t, h??? v???n c?? m???t ch??nh ph??? ph???c t???p, nhi???u c??ng tr??nh c??ng c???ng s??ng gi?? v?? m???t h??? th???ng n??ng nghi???p tuy???t v???i. N??m n??m tr?????c khi qu??n T??y Ban Nha ?????n v??ng ?????t n??y, cu???c chi???n gi??nh quy???n th???a k??? t??n kh???c ???? khi???n ????? ch??? suy s???p. N??m 1532, qu??n c???a Atahuallpa ???? ????nh b???i l???c l?????ng c???a ng?????i anh c??ng cha kh??c m??? Huascar trong tr???n chi???n g???n Cuzco. Atahuallpa ??ang c???ng c??? quy???n cai tr??? c???a m??nh th?? Pizarro v?? 180 binh s?? c???a ??ng xu???t hi???n.

Francisco Pizarro l?? con trai c???a m???t ng?????i T??y Ban Nha v?? t???ng l?? ng?????i ch??n l???n khi c??n tr???. ??ng sau ???? tr??? th??nh m???t ng?????i l??nh v?? n??m 1502 ???? t???i Hispaniola c??ng v??? th???ng ?????c ng?????i T??y Ban Nha m???i c???a thu???c ?????a ??? T??n Th??? gi???i n??y. Pizarro ph???c v??? d?????i quy???n nh?? chinh ph???c ng?????i T??y Ban Nha Alonso de Ojeda trong chuy???n th??m hi???m t???i Colombia n??m 1510 v?? c??ng n???m trong ??o??n t??y t??ng c???a Vasco Nunez de Balboa khi ??ng n??y ph??t hi???n ra Th??i B??nh D????ng v??o n??m 1513. Nghe bi???t v??? nh???ng truy???n thuy???t v??? s??? gi??u c?? c???a m???t n???n v??n minh b???n ?????a ??? Nam M???, Pizarro ???? th??nh l???p m???t li??n minh v???i nh?? chinh ph???c Diego de Almagro n??m 1524 v?? ??i thuy???n t??? Panama xu???ng b??? bi???n ph??a t??y Nam M???. Chuy???n th??m hi???m ?????u ti??n ch??? g??up h??? th??m nh???p v??o Ecuador ng??y nay, nh??ng chuy???n ??i th??? hai ???? ti???n xa h??n, ?????n t???n Peru ng??y nay. ??? ????, h??? ???????c ch???ng ki???n t???n m???t nh???ng c??u chuy???n v??? ????? ch??? Inca v?? thu ???????c nhi???u c??? v???t c???a ng?????i Inca. Ng?????i T??y Ban Nha ???? ?????t t??n cho v??ng ?????t m???i l?? Peru, c?? l??? theo t??n c???a s??ng Vire.

Tr??? v??? Panama, Pizarro ???? l??n k??? ho???ch cho m???t cu???c th??m hi???m chinh ph???c, nh??ng th???ng ?????c ???? t??? ch???i ???ng h??? vi???c n??y. N??m 1528, Pizarro l??n ???????ng t???i ch??nh qu???c T??y Ban Nha c???y nh??? s??? h??? tr??? c???a Ho??ng ????? Charles V. Khi ???y, Hernan Cortes v???a m???i mang l???i cho ho??ng ????? s??? gi??u c?? nh??? chinh ph???t ????? ch??? Aztec v?? Charles ???? ???ng h??? k??? ho???ch c???a Pizarro. ??ng c??ng h???a r???ng Pizarro, ch??? kh??ng ph???i Almagro, s??? nh???n ???????c ph???n l???n chi???n l???i ph???m c???a ??o??n th??m hi???m. N??m 1530, Pizarro tr??? l???i Panama.

N??m 1531, ??ng ??i thuy???n t???i Peru, c???p b???n Tumbes, sau ???? l??nh ?????o ?????i qu??n c???a m??nh l??n d??y n??i Andes v?? v??o ng??y 15/11/1532 th?? t???i ???????c th??? tr???n Cajamarca c???a Inca, n??i Atahuallpa ??ang ngh??? ng??i t???n h?????ng su???i n?????c n??ng v?? chu???n b??? cho cu???c di???u h??nh x??ng v????ng ??? Cuzco, th??? ???? v????ng qu???c c???a anh m??nh. Pizarro ???? m???i Atahuallpa tham d??? m???t b???a ti???c ????? vinh danh ??ng, v?? ho??ng ????? ???? ch???p nh???n. V???a gi??nh chi???n th???ng m???t trong nh???ng tr???n chi???n l???n nh???t trong l???ch s??? Inca v?? v???i ?????i qu??n 30.000 ng?????i trong tay, Atahuallpa ngh?? r???ng m??nh ch???ng c?? g?? ph???i s??? k??? l??? m???t v???i b??? r??u tr???ng v?? 180 l??nh c???a h???n. Tuy nhi??n, Pizarro ???? l??n k??? ho???ch ph???c k??ch, cho ph??o binh ch???t ch???n t???i qu???ng tr?????ng Cajamarca.

Ng??y 16/11, Atahuallpa ?????n ??i???m h???n v???i ??o??n h??? t???ng ch??? v??i ng??n ng?????i, t???t c??? d?????ng nh?? ?????u kh??ng c?? v?? trang. Pizarro ???? ph??i m???t linh m???c ?????n d??? d??? Ho??ng ????? Inca ch???p nh???n s??? th???ng tr??? c???a Thi??n ch??a gi??o v?? Ho??ng ????? Charles V, nh??ng Atahuallpa t??? ch???i, n??m quy???n Kinh th??nh m?? ng?????i ta ????a cho ??ng xu???ng ?????t v???i v??? m???t ?????y khinh mi???t. Pizarro ngay l???p t???c ra l???nh t???n c??ng. B??? bao v??y trong cu???c t???n c??ng c???a ph??o binh, s??ng ???ng v?? k??? binh ????ng s??? c???a T??y Ban Nha (?????u l?? nh???ng th??? xa l??? v???i ng?????i Inca), h??ng ng??n ng?????i Inca ???? b??? t??n s??t c??n ho??ng ????? th?? b??? b???t.

Atahuallpa ????? ngh??? trao ?????i m???t c??n ph??ng ?????y kho b??u l??m ti???n chu???c th??n, v?? Pizarro ch???p nh???n. Cu???i c??ng, kho???ng 24 t???n v??ng v?? b???c ???? ???????c mang ?????n cho ng?????i T??y Ban Nha t??? kh???p ????? ch??? Inca. D?? Atahuallpa ???? tr??? kho???n ti???n chu???c ?????t nh???t trong l???ch s??? th??? gi???i, Pizarro ???? ph???n b???i khi ????a ??ng ra t??a x??t x??? ??m m??u l???t ????? ng?????i T??y Ban Nha, v?? ???? gi???t anh trai Huascar , v?? v?? m???t s??? t???i danh kh??c. M???t t??a ??n T??y Ban Nha ???? k???t t???i Atahuallpa v?? tuy??n t??? h??nh ??ng. Ng??y 29/08/1533, ho??ng ????? b??? tr??i v??o c???c v?? ????a ra l???a ch???n ho???c b??? thi??u s???ng, ho???c b??? si???t c??? n???u ??ng chuy???n sang C?? ?????c gi??o. V???i hy v???ng b???o qu???n c?? th??? c???a m??nh cho vi???c ?????p x??c, Atahuallpa ???? ch???p nh???n b??? si???t c??? v?? m???t chi???c v??ng s???t ???? ???????c th???t ch???t quanh c??? cho ?????n khi ??ng ch???t h???n.

Khi qu??n ti???p vi???n c???a T??y Ban Nha ?????n Cajamarca v??o ?????u n??m ????, Pizarro sau ???? ???? h??nh qu??n ?????n Cuzco, v?? th??? ???? Inca ???? s???p ????? nhanh ch??ng v??o th??ng 11/1533. Anh trai c???a Huascar, Manco Capac, ???????c ????a l??n l??m ho??ng ????? b?? nh??n, v?? th??nh Quito ???? ph???i khu???t ph???c. Pizarro t??? x??ng l??m th???ng ?????c T??y Ban Nha c???a l??nh th??? Inca v?? ????? ngh??? Diego Almagro chinh ph???c Chile nh???m xoa d???u ??ng n??y sau khi Pizarro ?????c chi???m s??? gi??u c?? c???a n???n v??n minh Inca. N??m 1535, Pizarro l???p th??nh Lima tr??n b??? bi???n ????? t???o ??i???u ki???n li??n l???c v???i Panama. M???t n??m sau ????, Manco Capac tho??t kh???i s??? gi??m s??t c???a T??y Ban Nha, kh??i m??o cho m???t m???t cu???c n???i d???y kh??ng th??nh c??ng, v???n nhanh ch??ng b??? nghi???n n??t. S??? ki???n c??ng ????nh d???u h???i k???t cho m???i kh??ng c??? c???a ng?????i Inca ?????i v???i s??? cai tr??? c???a T??y Ban Nha.

Diego Almagro tr??? v??? t??? Chile, cay ?????ng v?? s??? ngh??o ????i c???a n?????c n??y, li???n y??u c???u chia s??? chi???n l???i ph???m c???a ????? ch??? Inca tr?????c ????y. N???i chi???n nhanh ch??ng n??? ra sau v??? tranh ch???p, v?? Almagro ???? chi???m ???????c Cuzco v??o n??m 1538. Pizarro ???? g???i anh trai c??ng cha kh??c m??? c???a m??nh, Hernando, ?????n ????i l???i th??nh ph???. Almagro ???? b??? ????nh b???i v?? gi???t ch???t. Ng??y 26/06/1541, c??c ?????ng minh c???a Diego el Monzo ??? con trai Almagro ??? ???? th??m nh???p v??o cung ??i???n c???a Pizarro ??? Lima v?? ??m s??t nh?? chinh ph???c khi ??ng ??ang ??n t???i. Diego el Monzo t??? x??ng l?? th???ng ?????c Peru, nh??ng m???t vi??n ch???c ho??ng gia T??y Ban Nha ???? t??? ch???i c??ng nh???n ??ng, v?? n??m 1542 Diego b??? b???t v?? b??? x??? t???. Xung ?????t v?? m??u m?? gi???a nh???ng ng?????i chinh ph???c ?????t Peru v???n t???n t???i cho ?????n khi T???ng tr???n Andres Hurtado de Mendoza l???p l???i tr???t t??? v??o cu???i nh???ng n??m 1550.
 

Ai ch???u thi???t h???i n???ng n??? nh???t do bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u?

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Ngu???n: Bill Gates, ???Who Will Suffer Most from Climate Change????, Project Syndicate, 01/9/2015.

Bi??n d???ch: D????ng Tr?????ng Ph??c | Hi???u ????nh: L?? H???ng Hi???p

C??ch ????y v??i n??m, Melinda v?? t??i c?? ?????n th??m m???t nh??m n??ng d??n tr???ng l??a ??? Bihar (???n ?????), m???t trong nh???ng v??ng d??? g???p l?? l???t nh???t c??? n?????c. T???t c??? h??? ?????u r???t ngh??o v?? ph??? thu???c v??o l??a g???o ??? th??? m?? h??? s???n xu???t ????? nu??i s???ng v?? chu c???p cho gia ????nh. Khi nh???ng tr???n m??a k??m gi?? m??a ?????n m???i n??m, nh???ng con s??ng s??? ?????y n?????c, ??e d???a l??m ng???p l???t nh???ng n??ng tr???i v?? h???y ho???i m??a m??ng.  Tuy nhi??n, h??? s???n s??ng ????nh c?????c m???i th??? cho x??c su???t r???ng trang tr???i c???a h??? s??? kh??ng b??? ???nh h?????ng. ???? l?? m???t canh b???c m?? h??? th?????ng thua cu???c. M??a m??ng th???t b??t, h??? s??? ch???y v??o th??nh ph??? t??m ki???m nh???ng c??ng vi???c l???t v???t ????? nu??i gia ????nh. Tuy nhi??n, ch??? trong kho???ng m???t n??m, h??? tr??? n??n ngh??o h??n l??c h??? m???i r???i kh???i l??ng qu?? v?? s???n s??ng quay l???i ngh??? n??ng.

Chuy???n th??m c???a ch??ng t??i l?? l???i nh???c nh??? m???nh m??? r???ng ?????i v???i nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n ngh??o nh???t th??? gi???i th?? cu???c s???ng c?? nhi???u r???i ro m?? kh??ng c?? m???ng l?????i ?????m b???o an sinh n??ng ?????. H??? kh??ng th??? ti???p c???n gi???ng m???i, ph??n b??n, h??? th???ng th???y l???i v?? nh???ng c??ng ngh??? c?? ??ch kh??c nh?? n??ng d??n ??? c??c n?????c gi??u, v?? h??? c??ng kh??ng c?? b???o hi???m n??ng nghi???p ????? b???o v??? h??? ch???ng l???i m??a m??ng th???t b??t. Ch??? c???n m???t ch??t kh??ng may, nh?? h???n h??n, l?? l???t ho???c b???nh t???t ??? l?? ????? ????? h??? r??i v??o v??ng l???n qu???n c???a ????i ngh??o.

Ng??y nay, bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u ???? t??ng th??m nh???ng r???i ro m???i cho cu???c s???ng c???a h???. Gia t??ng nhi???t ????? trong nh???ng th???p ni??n t???i s??? d???n ?????n s??? gi??n ??o???n nghi??m tr???ng trong s???n xu???t n??ng nghi???p, ?????c bi???t l?? ??? nh???ng v??ng nhi???t ?????i. C??y tr???ng c??ng s??? kh??ng th??? t??ng tr?????ng v?? c?? qu?? ??t ho???c qu?? nhi???u m??a. S??u b???nh c??ng s??? ph??t tri???n trong ??i???u ki???n kh?? h???u n??ng ???m v?? ph?? ho???i c??y tr???ng.

N??ng d??n ??? nh???ng n?????c gi??u c??ng s??? tr???i qua nh???ng s??? thay ?????i nh?? th??? nh??ng h??? c?? nh???ng c??ng c??? v?? s??? gi??p ????? ????? qu???n l?? c??c r???i ro. Nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n ngh??o nh???t th??? gi???i lao ?????ng h???ng ng??y v?? h???u h???t ?????u tr???ng tay. ???? l?? l?? do v?? sao trong s??? nh???ng ng?????i ch???u thi???t h???i t??? bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u, h??? l???i l?? nh???ng ng?????i b??? t???n h???i n???ng n??? nh???t.

Nh???ng n??ng d??n ngh??o s??? c???m nh???n ???????c c??c h???u qu??? c???a s??? bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u n??y v??o th???i ??i???m m?? th??? gi???i ??ang r???t c???n h??? ????? nu??i s???ng d??n s??? ng??y c??ng t??ng. V??o n??m 2050, nhu c???u l????ng th???c th??? gi???i ???????c d??? ki???n t??ng th??m 60%. Thu ho???ch gi???m d???n s??? l??m c??ng th???ng h??? th???ng l????ng th???c to??n c???u, gia t??ng n???n ????i v?? l??m x??i m??n nh???ng ti???n b??? l???n m?? th??? gi???i ???? ?????t ???????c trong vi???c ch???ng l???i ????i ngh??o h??n n???a th??? k??? qua.

T??i l???c quan tin r???ng ch??ng ta c?? th??? tr??nh ???????c nh???ng t??c ?????ng t???i t??? nh???t c???a bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u v?? nu??i s???ng th??? gi???i n???u ch??ng ta h??nh ?????ng ngay t??? b??y gi???. C?? m???t nhu c???u c???p thi???t ?????i v???i c??c ch??nh ph??? l?? c???n ?????u t?? v??o c??c c???i ti???n n??ng l?????ng s???ch m???i ????? l??m gi???m ????ng k??? l?????ng kh?? th???i nh?? k??nh v?? ng??n ch???n nhi???t ????? gia t??ng. ?????ng th???i, ch??ng ta c??ng c???n th???a nh???n r???ng ???? qu?? mu???n ????? c?? th??? ch???m d???t nh???ng t??c ?????ng c???a vi???c nhi???t ????? gia t??ng. Ngay c??? khi th??? gi???i t??m th???y m???t ngu???n n??ng l?????ng s???ch gi?? r??? trong th???i gian t???i th?? c??ng s??? m???t nhi???u th???i gian m???i c?? th??? thay ?????i ???????c th??i quen s??? d???ng nhi??n li???u h??a th???ch v?? h?????ng t???i t????ng lai s??? d???ng n??ng l?????ng kh??ng ph??t th???i kh?? c??c-bon. ???? l?? l?? do t???i sao th??? gi???i c???n ?????u t?? v??o nh???ng h??? tr??? nh???m gi??p ????? nh???ng ng?????i ngh??o nh???t th??ch ???ng v???i bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u.

Nhi???u c??ng c??? m?? h??? c???n kh?? l?? c?? b???n ??? nh???ng th??? m?? h??? s??? d???ng ????? tr???ng nhi???u l????ng th???c h??n v?? c?? nhi???u thu nh???p h??n: ti???p c???n v???i t??i ch??nh, gi???ng c??y tr???ng, ph??n b??n, ????o t???o t???t h??n v?? th??? tr?????ng n??i c?? th??? b??n nh???ng th??? m?? h??? s???n xu???t ra.

Nh???ng c??ng c??? kh??c kh?? m???i v?? ???????c thi???t k??? ????? ????p ???ng c??c nhu c???u c???a bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u. Qu??? Gates v?? c??c ?????i t??c ???? l??m vi???c c??ng nhau ????? ph??t tri???n nhi???u gi???ng c??y tr???ng th???m ch?? c?? th??? sinh tr?????ng trong th???i k??? h???n h??n ho???c l?? l???t. C??c n??ng d??n tr???ng l??a m?? t??i g???p ??? Bihar l?? m???t v?? d???, h??? ??ang tr???ng gi???ng l??a ch???u l?? c?? t??n l?? ???scuba???, c?? th??? s???ng s??t d?????i n?????c kho???ng hai tu???n l???. H??? ???? s???n s??ng n???u s??? thay ?????i m???u h??nh th???i ti???t g??y ra nhi???u l?? l???t h??n cho khu v???c. Nhi???u gi???ng c??y tr???ng kh??c ??ang ???????c ph??t tri???n ????? c?? th??? ch???ng ch???u ???????c h???n h??n, n??ng, l???nh v?? ?? nhi???m m??i tr?????ng ?????t nh?? nhi???m m???n cao.

T???t c??? nh???ng n??? l???c n??y c?? s???c m???nh l??m thay ?????i cu???c s???ng. S??? kh??ng kh?? h??nh dung ra vi???c s???n l?????ng v?? thu nh???p c???a nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n t??ng g???p ????i ho???c g???p ba n???u h??? ???????c ti???p c???n v???i nh???ng ti???n b??? m?? n??ng d??n ??? n?????c gi??u lu??n coi l?? b??nh th?????ng. S??? th???nh v?????ng m???i n??y cho ph??p h??? c???i thi???n b???a ??n, ?????u t?? v??o n??ng tr???i v?? cho con ?????n tr?????ng. N?? c??ng l??m cho cu???c s???ng h??? tr??? n??n ??t r???i ro h??n v?? t???o c???m gi??c an to??n ngay c??? khi nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n n??y c?? m???t v??? m??a th???t b??t.

C??ng s??? c?? nh???ng m???i ??e d???a kh??c t??? bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u m?? ch??ng ta kh??ng l?????ng tr?????c ???????c. ????? chu???n b???, th??? gi???i c???n ?????y nhanh ti???n ????? nghi??n c???u c??c gi???ng c??y tr???ng v?? h??? tr??? cho nh???ng h??? n??ng d??n s???n xu???t nh???. M???t trong nh???ng s??ng ki???n th?? v??? nh???t ????? gi??p n??ng d??n l?? c??ng ngh??? v??? tinh. ??? ch??u Phi, c??c nh?? nghi??n c???u ??ang s??? d???ng h??nh ???nh v??? tinh ????? t???o ra nh???ng b???n ????? ?????t chi ti???t, l?? th??? c?? th??? th??ng tin cho ng?????i n??ng d??n bi???t nh???ng gi???ng lo??i n??o s??? ph??t tri???n t???t tr??n v??ng ?????t c???a h???.

Tuy nhi??n, gi???ng m???i ho???c c??ng ngh??? m???i kh??ng th??? thay ?????i cu???c s???ng gia ????nh ng?????i n??ng d??n cho t???i khi n?? n???m trong tay h???. M???t s??? t??? ch???c, bao g???m c??? nh???ng nh??m phi l???i nhu???n ???????c g???i l?? Qu??? One Acre, ??ang t??m c??ch ?????m b???o r???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n s??? nh???n ???????c l???i ??ch t??? nh???ng gi???i ph??p n??y. Qu??? One Acre l??m vi???c g???n b?? v???i h??n 200.000 n??ng d??n ch??u Phi, gi??p h??? ti???p c???n t??i ch??nh, c??ng c??? v?? ????o t???o. T???i n??m 2020, t??? ch???c n??y h?????ng ?????n m???c ti??u l?? gi??p ????? m???t tri???u n??ng d??n.

Trong B???c th?? Th?????ng ni??n n??m nay, Melinda v?? t??i ???? ????nh c?????c r???ng ch??u Phi c?? th??? t??? nu??i s???ng h??? trong 15 n??m t???i, b???t ch???p nh???ng r???i ro c???a bi???n ?????i kh?? h???u m?? t??i ???? tr??nh b??y.

V??ng, ng?????i n??ng d??n ngh??o c?? kh?? kh??n. Cu???c ?????i c???a h??? l?? nh???ng c??u ????? v???i nhi???u m???nh gh??p ph???i gi???i ????p, t??? gieo tr???ng ????ng lo???i v?? s??? d???ng ????ng ph??n b??n cho ?????n ???????c ????o t???o v?? c?? n??i ????? b??n c??c n??ng s???n. N???u m???t m???ng b??? l???ch th?? cu???c s???ng c???a h??? c?? th??? tan v???.

T??i bi???t th??? gi???i ???? l??m nhi???u ??i???u ????? gi??p ?????t nh???ng m???nh gh??p ???? v??o ????ng ch???, ????? ?????i ph?? v???i nh???ng th??ch th???c m?? h??? ph???i ?????i m???t trong ng??y h??m nay v?? c??? ng??y mai. Quan tr???ng nh???t, t??i bi???t nh???ng ng?????i n??ng d??n c??ng ???? l??m nh???ng ??i???u t????ng t???.

Bill Gates, ng?????i s??ng l???p v?? c??? v???n c??ng ngh??? c???a T???p ??o??n Microsoft, l?? ?????ng Ch??? t???ch c???a Qu??? Bill & Melinda Gates.
 

Linh h???n Ukraine c???a ch??u ??u

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sakharov

T??c gi???: Joschka Fischer | Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

Th??ng M?????i m???t n??y l?? k??? ni???m tr??n m???t n??m cu???c n???i d???y Euromaidan ??? Kiev. Ph???n l???n d??n s??? Ukraine ??? v?? c??? th??? l?? gi???i tr??? ??? ???? ph???n ?????i T???ng th???ng Ukraine l??c ???? l?? Viktor Yanukovych, khi ??ng n??y t??? ch???i k?? th???a thu???n gia nh???p Li??n minh ch??u ??u (v???n ???? ???????c ho??n t???t sau nhi???u n??m ????m ph??n), nh???m gia nh???p m???t li??n minh thu??? quan v???i Nga. ??i???u n??y c??ng t????ng t??? nh?? vi???c Ukraine chuy???n h?????ng v??? ph??a ????ng, v?? vi???c tham gia Li??n minh ??-??u c???a T???ng th???ng Nga Vladimir Putin s??? lo???i b??? m???i kh??? n??ng gia nh???p EU.

Khi xem x??t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng ??ang di???n ra t???i Ukraine, th?? ??i???u quan tr???ng c???n ghi nh??? ch??nh l?? ??i???m kh???i ?????u n??y ??? m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng ???ng h??? Li??n minh ch??u ??u ?????u ti??n trong th??? k??? 21, ???????c g??y ra do s??? ph???n ?????i ???nh h?????ng c???a Nga c??ng nh?? t??nh tr???ng tham nh??ng v?? y???u k??m t???i Ukraine th???i h???u X??-vi???t.

Nhi???u vi???c ???? x???y ra k??? t??? khi Nga ph??t ?????ng m???t cu???c chi???n tranh kh??ng tuy??n b???, ?????u ti??n l?? chi???m ????ng v?? sau ???? l?? s??p nh???p Crimea. ??? mi???n ????ng Ukraine, ??i???n Kremlin ti???p t???c cu???c chi???n ??? v??ng Donbas ??? m?? v??? m???t qu??n s??? th?? ch??nh quy???n Kiev d?????ng nh?? kh??ng th??? th???ng ???????c trong cu???c chi???n n??y.

M???c ti??u c???a Nga kh??ng ph???i l?? chi???m ????ng Ukraine b???ng qu??n s???, m?? l?? ????? g??y b???t ???n v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? kinh t??? ??? m???t chi???n l?????c c?? th??? bao g???m vi???c ly khai trong th???c t??? c???a nhi???u v??ng quan tr???ng t???i mi???n ????ng Ukraine. H??n n???a, Putin s??? s??? d???ng m???i c??ng c??? s???n c?? ??? t???t nhi??n bao g???m c??? vi???c cung c???p n??ng l?????ng ??? nh???m g??y ??p l???c v?? ??p bu???c Ukraine trong m??a ????ng n??y.

Ng?????i ch??u ??u n??n chu???n b??? s???n cho nh???ng g?? s???p x???y ra. Putin tin r???ng th???i gian ??ang ?????ng v??? ph??a m??nh; ??ng ta ngh?? r???ng m??nh v???n s??? t???i nhi???m khi t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i ?????ng c???p ph????ng T??y c???a ??ng ??? nh?? Obama, Cameron, Hollande v?? Merkel ??? ???? r???i kh???i ch??nh tr?????ng t??? l??u.

V??? qu??n s???, Ukraine ????, ??ang v?? s??? kh??ng bao gi??? c?? c?? h???i ch???ng l???i qu??n ?????i Nga. Nh??ng s??? ph???n c???a ?????t n?????c s??? ???????c quy???t ?????nh kh??ng ch??? tr??n chi???n tr?????ng, m?? c??n tr??n kh??a c???nh kinh t???, lu???t ph??p, h??nh ch??nh v?? ch??nh tr???. C??u h???i quy???t ?????nh l??: Li???u Ukraine, d?????i ??p l???c kh???ng l??? t??? cu???c x??m l?????c qu??n s??? c???a m???t n?????c l??ng gi???ng l???n h??n v?? m???nh h??n r???t nhi???u, c?? th??? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c h??a nh???p v??o ch??u ??u hay kh??ng? M???t c??ch th???ng th???n: ho???c l?? h??? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c b???t ch?????c s??? chuy???n h?????ng v??? ph??a ch??u ??u c???a Ba Lan, ho???c l?? h??? s??? l???i m???t l???n n???a r??i v??o t???m ???nh h?????ng l??u d??i c???a Nga.

?????i v???i ch??u ??u, s??? ph???n c???a Ukraine l?? m???t c??u h???i chi???n l?????c quan tr???ng, b???i v?? n???n ?????c l???p c???a n?????c n??y ch??nh l?? n???n t???ng cho tr???t t??? ch??u ??u sau Chi???n tranh L???nh v?? khu??n kh??? h??a b??nh c???a n??. Vi???c Nga d??ng s???c m???nh qu??n s??? bu???c Ukraine khu???t ph???c s??? ph?? v??? tr???t t??? ???? v?? nh???ng nguy??n t???c c?? b???n c???a n??, g???m: kh??ng s??? d???ng v?? l???c, kh??ng x??m ph???m bi??n gi???i, v?? quy???n t??? quy???t c???a ng?????i d??n, h??n l?? ph???m vi ???nh h?????ng.

??i???u n??y s??? d???n ?????n nh???ng h???u qu??? to l???n ?????i v???i an ninh kh??ng ch??? ??? ????ng ??u, m?? c??n tr??n to??n ch??u l???c. M???t n?????c Nga theo ch??? ngh??a ph???c th?? s??? l???i m???t l???n n???a ??? v?????t ra ngo??i Kaliningrad v?? c??c n?????c Baltic ??? c?? chung ???????ng bi??n gi???i d??i v???i EU, v?? s??? theo ??u???i m???t vai tr?? kh??c bi???t, quy???t ??o??n h??n ????ng k??? trong s??? t??i thi???t l???p m???t c?????ng qu???c t???i ch??u ??u. ?????i v???i ch??u ??u, ??i???u n??y s??? l?? m???t thay ?????i c?? b???n theo chi???u h?????ng x???u. H???p t??c s??? b??? thay th??? b???ng ?????i ?????u, s??? tin t?????ng b??? thay b???ng m???t l??ng tin, v?? ki???m so??t v?? kh?? b??? thay b???ng t??i v?? trang.

N???u EU v?? c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n (ngo???i tr??? Ba Lan v?? c??c n?????c Baltic) c?? g?? sai l???m, th?? ???? kh??ng ph???i l?? v?? h??? ???? th????ng l?????ng m???t th???a thu???n th????ng m???i t??? do v???i Ukraine, m?? b???i v?? h??? ???? ph???t l??? t???m quan tr???ng c???a Ukraine ?????i v???i tr???t t??? ch??u ??u sau Chi???n tranh L???nh, ph???n ??nh b???ng vi???c kh??ng h??? tr??? ?????y ????? cho qu?? tr??nh hi???n ?????i h??a c???a n?????c n??y.

C??c ch??nh tr??? gia ph????ng T??y ????ng l??? n??n nh???n ra r???ng C??ch m???ng Cam c???a Ukraine n??m 2004, x???y ra do Yanukovych c??? g???ng c?????p tr???ng k???t qu??? b???u c??? t???ng th???ng n??m ????, v???a l?? m???t c???nh b??o v???a l?? m???t c?? h???i, b???i v?? ch??nh nh???ng m???c ti??u v?? nguy??n t???c m?? h??? ??ang ?????u tranh hi???n nay l??c ???? c??ng ???? b??? ??e do???. Cu???i c??ng, C??ch m???ng Cam th???t b???i, v?? ban l??nh ?????o m???i (c???a Ukraine) kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng v?? ?????ng l???c ????? th???c hi???n c??c c???i c??ch s??u r???ng v??? kinh t??? c??ng nh?? c??c v???n ????? trong n?????c kh??c, m???t ph???n do thi???u s??? quan t??m c???a ph????ng T??y.

M??a ????ng ??ang ?????n g???n, C??ch m???ng Euromaidan ???? m???t l???n n???a ?????t ra v???n ????? n??y, v?? th??ch th???c hi???n t???i c??ng t????ng t??? nh?? m???t th???p ni??n tr?????c. Li???u ph????ng T??y c?? cung c???p s??? gi??p ????? h??o ph??ng v?? m???nh m??? ????? Ukraine tr??? n??n gi???ng ch??u ??u h??n ngay t??? b??n trong, c??ng nh?? x??a b??? tham nh??ng v?? n???n cai tr??? ?????u s??? v??? kinh t??? v?? x?? h???i h???u X??-vi???t t???i n?????c n??y hay kh??ng?

Ukraine v???n l?? m???t n?????c c?? ti???m n??ng gi??u m???nh, v?? ng??y nay h??? c??n g???n g??i h??n v???i ch??u ??u ??? v?? ng?????c l???i [ch??u ??u c??ng g???n g??i h??n v???i h???] ??? h??n b???t c??? th???i ??i???m n??o trong qu?? kh???. N???u Ukraine th??nh c??ng trong vi???c ph?? v??? xi???ng x??ch h???u X??-vi???t, s??? kh??ng c??n g?? ng??n c???n t?? c??ch th??nh vi??n Li??n minh Ch??u ??u c???a n?????c n??y. H??n n???a, ph????ng T??y d?????ng nh?? cu???i c??ng c??ng hi???u ???????c nh???ng g?? ??ang b??? ??e d???a ??? Ukraine, c??? th??? l?? t????ng lai c???a tr???t t??? ch??u ??u v?? khu??n kh??? h??a b??nh c???a n??.

C??ch m???ng Euromaidan c?? th??nh c??ng hay kh??ng s??? ph??? thu???c quan tr???ng v??o ng?????i d??n Ukraine v?? kh??? n??ng h??? t??? gi???i ph??ng b???n th??n kh???i c??c c?? c???u, l???c l?????ng c???a qu?? kh???; v?? v??o s??? h??? tr???, s??? h??o ph??ng, v?? s??? v???ng v??ng c???a ph????ng T??y. Trong v??? k???ch Faust c???a Goethe, qu??? Mephistopheles ???? m?? t??? b???n th??n l?? ???M???t ph???n c???a th??? s???c m???nh ???? s???n sinh ra ??i???u t???t, nh??ng v???n ??ang lu??n c?? m??u ????? x???u xa.??? R???t cu???c, ??i???u t????ng t??? c?? th??? ???????c g??n cho tr?????ng h???p c???a Putin.

Joschka Fischer l?? B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao v?? Ph?? Th??? t?????ng ?????c giai ??o???n 1998 ??? 2005, m???t nhi???m k??? ???????c ????nh d???u b???ng s??? h??? tr??? m???nh m??? c???a ?????c trong vi???c can thi???p c???a NATO t???i Kosovo n??m 1999, theo sau ???? l?? vi???c ph???n ?????i chi???n tranh t???i Iraq. Fischer b???t ?????u gia nh???p ch??nh tr?????ng sau khi tham gia c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh ch???ng ch??nh quy???n trong th???p ni??n 1960 v?? 1970, v?? gi??? vai tr?? quan tr???ng trong vi???c th??nh l???p ?????ng Xanh c???a ?????c, n??i ??ng ???? l??nh ?????o trong g???n hai th???p k???.

B???n g???c ti???ng Anh: Project Syndicate
 

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sakharov

T??c gi???: Joschka Fischer | Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

Th??ng M?????i m???t n??y l?? k??? ni???m tr??n m???t n??m cu???c n???i d???y Euromaidan ??? Kiev. Ph???n l???n d??n s??? Ukraine ??? v?? c??? th??? l?? gi???i tr??? ??? ???? ph???n ?????i T???ng th???ng Ukraine l??c ???? l?? Viktor Yanukovych, khi ??ng n??y t??? ch???i k?? th???a thu???n gia nh???p Li??n minh ch??u ??u (v???n ???? ???????c ho??n t???t sau nhi???u n??m ????m ph??n), nh???m gia nh???p m???t li??n minh thu??? quan v???i Nga. ??i???u n??y c??ng t????ng t??? nh?? vi???c Ukraine chuy???n h?????ng v??? ph??a ????ng, v?? vi???c tham gia Li??n minh ??-??u c???a T???ng th???ng Nga Vladimir Putin s??? lo???i b??? m???i kh??? n??ng gia nh???p EU.

Khi xem x??t cu???c kh???ng ho???ng ??ang di???n ra t???i Ukraine, th?? ??i???u quan tr???ng c???n ghi nh??? ch??nh l?? ??i???m kh???i ?????u n??y ??? m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng ???ng h??? Li??n minh ch??u ??u ?????u ti??n trong th??? k??? 21, ???????c g??y ra do s??? ph???n ?????i ???nh h?????ng c???a Nga c??ng nh?? t??nh tr???ng tham nh??ng v?? y???u k??m t???i Ukraine th???i h???u X??-vi???t.

Nhi???u vi???c ???? x???y ra k??? t??? khi Nga ph??t ?????ng m???t cu???c chi???n tranh kh??ng tuy??n b???, ?????u ti??n l?? chi???m ????ng v?? sau ???? l?? s??p nh???p Crimea. ??? mi???n ????ng Ukraine, ??i???n Kremlin ti???p t???c cu???c chi???n ??? v??ng Donbas ??? m?? v??? m???t qu??n s??? th?? ch??nh quy???n Kiev d?????ng nh?? kh??ng th??? th???ng ???????c trong cu???c chi???n n??y.

M???c ti??u c???a Nga kh??ng ph???i l?? chi???m ????ng Ukraine b???ng qu??n s???, m?? l?? ????? g??y b???t ???n v??? ch??nh tr??? v?? kinh t??? ??? m???t chi???n l?????c c?? th??? bao g???m vi???c ly khai trong th???c t??? c???a nhi???u v??ng quan tr???ng t???i mi???n ????ng Ukraine. H??n n???a, Putin s??? s??? d???ng m???i c??ng c??? s???n c?? ??? t???t nhi??n bao g???m c??? vi???c cung c???p n??ng l?????ng ??? nh???m g??y ??p l???c v?? ??p bu???c Ukraine trong m??a ????ng n??y.

Ng?????i ch??u ??u n??n chu???n b??? s???n cho nh???ng g?? s???p x???y ra. Putin tin r???ng th???i gian ??ang ?????ng v??? ph??a m??nh; ??ng ta ngh?? r???ng m??nh v???n s??? t???i nhi???m khi t???t c??? nh???ng ng?????i ?????ng c???p ph????ng T??y c???a ??ng ??? nh?? Obama, Cameron, Hollande v?? Merkel ??? ???? r???i kh???i ch??nh tr?????ng t??? l??u.

V??? qu??n s???, Ukraine ????, ??ang v?? s??? kh??ng bao gi??? c?? c?? h???i ch???ng l???i qu??n ?????i Nga. Nh??ng s??? ph???n c???a ?????t n?????c s??? ???????c quy???t ?????nh kh??ng ch??? tr??n chi???n tr?????ng, m?? c??n tr??n kh??a c???nh kinh t???, lu???t ph??p, h??nh ch??nh v?? ch??nh tr???. C??u h???i quy???t ?????nh l??: Li???u Ukraine, d?????i ??p l???c kh???ng l??? t??? cu???c x??m l?????c qu??n s??? c???a m???t n?????c l??ng gi???ng l???n h??n v?? m???nh h??n r???t nhi???u, c?? th??? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c h??a nh???p v??o ch??u ??u hay kh??ng? M???t c??ch th???ng th???n: ho???c l?? h??? th??nh c??ng trong vi???c b???t ch?????c s??? chuy???n h?????ng v??? ph??a ch??u ??u c???a Ba Lan, ho???c l?? h??? s??? l???i m???t l???n n???a r??i v??o t???m ???nh h?????ng l??u d??i c???a Nga.

?????i v???i ch??u ??u, s??? ph???n c???a Ukraine l?? m???t c??u h???i chi???n l?????c quan tr???ng, b???i v?? n???n ?????c l???p c???a n?????c n??y ch??nh l?? n???n t???ng cho tr???t t??? ch??u ??u sau Chi???n tranh L???nh v?? khu??n kh??? h??a b??nh c???a n??. Vi???c Nga d??ng s???c m???nh qu??n s??? bu???c Ukraine khu???t ph???c s??? ph?? v??? tr???t t??? ???? v?? nh???ng nguy??n t???c c?? b???n c???a n??, g???m: kh??ng s??? d???ng v?? l???c, kh??ng x??m ph???m bi??n gi???i, v?? quy???n t??? quy???t c???a ng?????i d??n, h??n l?? ph???m vi ???nh h?????ng.

??i???u n??y s??? d???n ?????n nh???ng h???u qu??? to l???n ?????i v???i an ninh kh??ng ch??? ??? ????ng ??u, m?? c??n tr??n to??n ch??u l???c. M???t n?????c Nga theo ch??? ngh??a ph???c th?? s??? l???i m???t l???n n???a ??? v?????t ra ngo??i Kaliningrad v?? c??c n?????c Baltic ??? c?? chung ???????ng bi??n gi???i d??i v???i EU, v?? s??? theo ??u???i m???t vai tr?? kh??c bi???t, quy???t ??o??n h??n ????ng k??? trong s??? t??i thi???t l???p m???t c?????ng qu???c t???i ch??u ??u. ?????i v???i ch??u ??u, ??i???u n??y s??? l?? m???t thay ?????i c?? b???n theo chi???u h?????ng x???u. H???p t??c s??? b??? thay th??? b???ng ?????i ?????u, s??? tin t?????ng b??? thay b???ng m???t l??ng tin, v?? ki???m so??t v?? kh?? b??? thay b???ng t??i v?? trang.

N???u EU v?? c??c n?????c th??nh vi??n (ngo???i tr??? Ba Lan v?? c??c n?????c Baltic) c?? g?? sai l???m, th?? ???? kh??ng ph???i l?? v?? h??? ???? th????ng l?????ng m???t th???a thu???n th????ng m???i t??? do v???i Ukraine, m?? b???i v?? h??? ???? ph???t l??? t???m quan tr???ng c???a Ukraine ?????i v???i tr???t t??? ch??u ??u sau Chi???n tranh L???nh, ph???n ??nh b???ng vi???c kh??ng h??? tr??? ?????y ????? cho qu?? tr??nh hi???n ?????i h??a c???a n?????c n??y.

C??c ch??nh tr??? gia ph????ng T??y ????ng l??? n??n nh???n ra r???ng C??ch m???ng Cam c???a Ukraine n??m 2004, x???y ra do Yanukovych c??? g???ng c?????p tr???ng k???t qu??? b???u c??? t???ng th???ng n??m ????, v???a l?? m???t c???nh b??o v???a l?? m???t c?? h???i, b???i v?? ch??nh nh???ng m???c ti??u v?? nguy??n t???c m?? h??? ??ang ?????u tranh hi???n nay l??c ???? c??ng ???? b??? ??e do???. Cu???i c??ng, C??ch m???ng Cam th???t b???i, v?? ban l??nh ?????o m???i (c???a Ukraine) kh??ng c?? kh??? n??ng v?? ?????ng l???c ????? th???c hi???n c??c c???i c??ch s??u r???ng v??? kinh t??? c??ng nh?? c??c v???n ????? trong n?????c kh??c, m???t ph???n do thi???u s??? quan t??m c???a ph????ng T??y.

M??a ????ng ??ang ?????n g???n, C??ch m???ng Euromaidan ???? m???t l???n n???a ?????t ra v???n ????? n??y, v?? th??ch th???c hi???n t???i c??ng t????ng t??? nh?? m???t th???p ni??n tr?????c. Li???u ph????ng T??y c?? cung c???p s??? gi??p ????? h??o ph??ng v?? m???nh m??? ????? Ukraine tr??? n??n gi???ng ch??u ??u h??n ngay t??? b??n trong, c??ng nh?? x??a b??? tham nh??ng v?? n???n cai tr??? ?????u s??? v??? kinh t??? v?? x?? h???i h???u X??-vi???t t???i n?????c n??y hay kh??ng?

Ukraine v???n l?? m???t n?????c c?? ti???m n??ng gi??u m???nh, v?? ng??y nay h??? c??n g???n g??i h??n v???i ch??u ??u ??? v?? ng?????c l???i [ch??u ??u c??ng g???n g??i h??n v???i h???] ??? h??n b???t c??? th???i ??i???m n??o trong qu?? kh???. N???u Ukraine th??nh c??ng trong vi???c ph?? v??? xi???ng x??ch h???u X??-vi???t, s??? kh??ng c??n g?? ng??n c???n t?? c??ch th??nh vi??n Li??n minh Ch??u ??u c???a n?????c n??y. H??n n???a, ph????ng T??y d?????ng nh?? cu???i c??ng c??ng hi???u ???????c nh???ng g?? ??ang b??? ??e d???a ??? Ukraine, c??? th??? l?? t????ng lai c???a tr???t t??? ch??u ??u v?? khu??n kh??? h??a b??nh c???a n??.

C??ch m???ng Euromaidan c?? th??nh c??ng hay kh??ng s??? ph??? thu???c quan tr???ng v??o ng?????i d??n Ukraine v?? kh??? n??ng h??? t??? gi???i ph??ng b???n th??n kh???i c??c c?? c???u, l???c l?????ng c???a qu?? kh???; v?? v??o s??? h??? tr???, s??? h??o ph??ng, v?? s??? v???ng v??ng c???a ph????ng T??y. Trong v??? k???ch Faust c???a Goethe, qu??? Mephistopheles ???? m?? t??? b???n th??n l?? ???M???t ph???n c???a th??? s???c m???nh ???? s???n sinh ra ??i???u t???t, nh??ng v???n ??ang lu??n c?? m??u ????? x???u xa.??? R???t cu???c, ??i???u t????ng t??? c?? th??? ???????c g??n cho tr?????ng h???p c???a Putin.

Joschka Fischer l?? B??? tr?????ng Ngo???i giao v?? Ph?? Th??? t?????ng ?????c giai ??o???n 1998 ??? 2005, m???t nhi???m k??? ???????c ????nh d???u b???ng s??? h??? tr??? m???nh m??? c???a ?????c trong vi???c can thi???p c???a NATO t???i Kosovo n??m 1999, theo sau ???? l?? vi???c ph???n ?????i chi???n tranh t???i Iraq. Fischer b???t ?????u gia nh???p ch??nh tr?????ng sau khi tham gia c??c cu???c bi???u t??nh ch???ng ch??nh quy???n trong th???p ni??n 1960 v?? 1970, v?? gi??? vai tr?? quan tr???ng trong vi???c th??nh l???p ?????ng Xanh c???a ?????c, n??i ??ng ???? l??nh ?????o trong g???n hai th???p k???.

B???n g???c ti???ng Anh: Project Syndicate

 

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