20/08/1940: Trotsky b??? ??m s??t ??? Mexico

Thứ ba - 20/08/2019 05:47
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1940, nh?? c??ch m???ng l??u vong ng?????i Nga, Leon Trotsky, ???? b??? th????ng n???ng sau khi m???t s??t th??? t???n c??ng ??ng b???ng r??u ph?? b??ng t???i khu nh?? b??n ngo??i Th??nh ph??? Mexico. S??t th??? t??n l?? Ram??n Mercader, l?? m???t ng?????i c???ng s???n T??y Ban Nha v?? c?? l??? c??ng l?? ?????c v??? c???a l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? Joseph Stalin. Trotsky ch???t v?? v???t th????ng v??o ng??y h??m sau.
20/08/1940: Trotsky b??? ??m s??t ??? Mexico

20/08/1940: Trotsky b??? ??m s??t ??? Mexico

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Ngu???n: Trotsky assassinated in MexicoHistory.com

Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng

V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1940, nh?? c??ch m???ng l??u vong ng?????i Nga, Leon Trotsky, ???? b??? th????ng n???ng sau khi m???t s??t th??? t???n c??ng ??ng b???ng r??u ph?? b??ng t???i khu nh?? b??n ngo??i Th??nh ph??? Mexico. S??t th??? t??n l?? Ram??n Mercader, l?? m???t ng?????i c???ng s???n T??y Ban Nha v?? c?? l??? c??ng l?? ?????c v??? c???a l??nh ?????o Li??n X?? Joseph Stalin. Trotsky ch???t v?? v???t th????ng v??o ng??y h??m sau.

Sinh n??m 1879 ??? Ukraine, v???i cha m??? l?? ng?????i Nga g???c Do Th??i, khi c??n l?? m???t thi???u ni??n, Trotsky ???? s???m ???ng h??? ch??? ngh??a Marx, v?? sau n??y quy???t ?????nh r???i kh???i ?????i h???c Odessa ????? tham gia t??? ch???c ng???m Li??n ??o??n C??ng nh??n mi???n Nam n?????c Nga (South Russian Workers??? Union). N??m 1898, ??ng b??? b???t v?? c??c ho???t ?????ng c??ch m???ng v?? b??? giam trong t??. N??m 1900, ??ng b??? ????y ?????n Siberia.

N??m 1902, ??ng tr???n sang Anh b???ng h??? chi???u gi??? d?????i t??n Leon Trotsky (t??n ban ?????u c???a ??ng l?? Lev Davidovich Bronshtein). ??? London, ??ng h???p t??c v???i nh?? c??ch m???ng Bolshevik, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, nh??ng sau ???? l???i ?????ng v??? ph??a phe Menshevik ???ng h??? c??ch ti???p c???n d??n ch??? ?????i v???i ch??? ngh??a x?? h???i. Khi C??ch m???ng Nga b??ng n??? n??m 1905, Trotsky tr??? v??? Nga v?? m???t l???n n???a b??? ????y ?????n Siberia khi c??ch m???ng s???p ?????. N??m 1907, ??ng l???i tr???n tho??t.

Su???t th???p ni??n ti???p theo, ??ng li??n ti???p b??? tr???c xu???t kh???i h??ng lo???t qu???c gia v?? ??i theo ch??? ngh??a c???p ti???n, l??u l???c kh???p Th???y S??, Ph??p, T??y Ban Nha v?? M??? tr?????c khi tr??? v??? Nga trong C??ch m???ng n??m 1917. Trotsky ????ng vai tr?? l??nh ?????o gi??p Bolshevik chi???m quy???n ki???m so??t ?????t n?????c, chi???m ???????c h???u h???t Petrograd tr?????c khi Lenin tr??? l???i v??o th??ng 11. ???????c b??? nhi???m l??m ???y vi??n ?????i ngo???i c???a Lenin, ??ng ???? ????m ph??n v???i ng?????i ?????c ????? ch???m d???t s??? tham gia c???a Nga v??o Th??? chi???n I. N??m 1918, ??ng tr??? th??nh ???y vi??n chi???n tranh v?? gi??p th??nh l???p H???ng Qu??n, th??nh c??ng trong vi???c ????nh b???i phe ?????i l???p ch???ng c???ng trong N???i chi???n Nga. ?????u th???p ni??n 1920, Trotsky d?????ng nh?? ???? tr??? th??nh ng?????i k??? v??? Lenin, nh??ng ??ng ???? thua trong ???tr?? ch??i v????ng quy???n??? sau khi Lenin ng?? b???nh n??m 1922.

N??m 1924, Lenin qua ?????i v?? Joseph Stalin n???i l??n v???i t?? c??ch l?? l??nh ?????o Li??n X??. Ph???n ?????i c??c ch??nh s??ch c???a Stalin, Trotsky k??u g???i m???t cu???c c??ch m???ng theo xu h?????ng c???a th??? gi???i, m?? ch???c ch???n s??? d???n ?????n vi???c d??? b??? nh?? n?????c X?? Vi???t ??ang ng??y c??ng quan li??u. ??ng c??ng ch??? tr??ch ch??? ????? m???i v?? ???? ????n ??p d??n ch??? trong ?????ng C???ng s???n v?? v?? kh??ng x??y d???ng k??? ho???ch kinh t??? ?????y ?????. ????p l???i, Stalin v?? nh???ng ng?????i ???ng h??? m??nh ???? ph??t ?????ng cu???c ph???n c??ng tuy??n truy???n ch???ng l???i Trotsky. N??m 1925, ??ng b??? sa th???i kh???i ???y ban chi???n tranh. M???t n??m sau, ??ng b??? khai tr??? kh???i B??? Ch??nh tr??? v?? n??m 1927 b??? khai tr??? ra kh???i ?????ng C???ng s???n. Th??ng 01/1928, Trotsky b??? Stalin tr???c xu???t v??? v??ng Alma-Ata ??? Trung ?? xa x??i. ??ng s???ng l??u vong ??? ???? su???t m???t n??m tr?????c khi b??? Stalin tr???c xu???t kh???i Li??n X?? m??i m??i.

Trotsky ???????c ch??nh ph??? Th??? Nh?? K??? ti???p nh???n v?? cho ?????nh c?? tr??n ?????o Prinkipo, n??i ??ng c??? g???ng ho??n th??nh cu???n t??? truy???n v?? l???ch s??? C??ch m???ng Nga. Sau b???n n??m ??? Th??? Nh?? K???, Trotsky chuy???n ?????n Ph??p, sau ???? l?? Na Uy, v?? t???i n??m 1936 ???????c c???p t??? n???n ??? Mexico. ?????n ?????nh c?? c??ng gia ????nh ??? v??ng ngo???i ?? c???a Th??nh ph??? Mexico, ??ng b??? x??t x??? v???ng m???t v?? k???t t???i ph???n qu???c trong cu???c thanh tr???ng k??? th?? ch??nh tr??? c???a Stalin. ??ng s???ng s??t sau m???t cu???c t???n c??ng b???ng s??ng m??y ???????c th???c hi???n b???i c??c ?????c v??? c???a Stalin, nh??ng v??o ng??y 20/08/1940, ??ng tr??? th??nh con m???i c???a Ram??n Mercader, m???t ng?????i c???ng s???n T??y Ban Nha v???n ???? gi??nh ???????c ni???m tin c???a gia ????nh Trotsky. Ch??nh ph??? Li??n X?? ph??? nh???n tr??ch nhi???m v?? Mercader ???? b??? ch??nh quy???n Mexico k???t ??n 20 n??m t??.
 

16/08/1917: Tr???n Langemarck b???t ?????u

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Ngu???n: Battle of LangemarckHistory.com
Bi??n d???ch: Nguy???n Th??? Kim Ph???ng
V??o ng??y n??y n??m 1917, qu??n ?????ng Minh ???? b???t ?????u ?????t t???n c??ng m???i trong m???t chi???n d???ch ???????c ph??t ?????ng t??? cu???i th??ng 7 t???i Flanders, B???. Trong tr???n ????nh ???????c bi???t ?????n l?? Tr???n Ypres Th??? Ba, hay ????n gi???n h??n l?? Tr???n Passchendaele, theo t??n ng??i l??ng n??i di???n ra giao tranh d??? d???i nh???t, qu??n ?????i Anh ???? chi???m ???????c l??ng Langemarck t??? tay ng?????i ?????c.
Tr???n ????nh ?????y tham v???ng, ???????c l??n k??? ho???ch t??? m???, di???n ra d?????i s??? d???n d???t c???a Ch??? huy tr?????ng ng?????i Anh, Sir Douglas Haig, b???t ?????u v??o ng??y 31/07 v???i cu???c t???n c??ng c???a Anh v?? Ph??p v??o c??c v??? tr?? c???a qu??n ?????c g???n l??ng Passchendaele, Flanders ??? chi???n tr?????ng Ypres Salient. Sau ?????t t???n c??ng ?????u ti??n ?????t ???????c ??t th??nh c??ng h??n d??? ??o??n, m??a l???n v?? b??n l???y ???? c???n ???????ng b??? binh v?? ph??o binh c???a ?????ng minh, ng??n kh??ng cho h??? t???n c??ng m??i cho ?????n tu???n th??? hai c???a th??ng 8.
Ng??y 16/08, t???i Langemarck, ph??a t??y Passchendaele, ng?????i Anh ???? gi??nh ???????c chi???n th???ng sau b???n ng??y chi???n ?????u kh???c li???t. Tuy nhi??n, ????y ch??? l?? m???t th???ng l???i nh???, so v???i s??? l?????ng th????ng vong r???t l???n m?? h??? ph???i ch???u.
D?? m???t cu???c ph???n c??ng ???? gi??p ng?????i ?????c thu h???i ph???n l???n ?????t ??ai ??? Langemarck, l???c l?????ng c???a Anh v???n gi??? th??? th?????ng phong t???i khu v???c nh??? vi???c s??? d???ng xe t??ng v?? s??? h??? tr??? t??? cu???c t???n c??ng ????nh l???c h?????ng c???a ng?????i Ph??p t???i Verdun, n??i m?? h??n 5.000 l??nh ?????c b??? b???t l??m t?? binh. Cu???i th??ng Ch??n, Anh ???? c?? th??? gi??nh quy???n ki???m so??t v??ng s?????n n??i ph??a ????ng Ypres, v?? Haig ???? y??u c???u c??c ch??? huy c???a m??nh ti???p t???c c??c cu???c t???n c??ng h?????ng t???i s?????n n??i Passchendaele. V???i ?????t t???n c??ng k??o d??i ?????n t???n th??ng 10, qu??n ?????ng Minh ???? g???n nh?? ki???t s???c, trong khi ng?????i ?????c l???i c???ng c??? v??? tr?? c???a m??nh nh??? l???c l?????ng d??? b??? chuy???n ?????n t??? M???t tr???n ph??a ????ng.
Cu???i c??ng, sau khi qu??n Canada v?? Anh chi???m ???????c Passchendaele v??o ng??y 06/11/1917, Haig ra l???nh d???ng t???n c??ng v?? tuy??n b??? h??? ???? chi???n th???ng. Con s??? th????ng vong c???a Anh t???ng c???ng kho???ng 310.000 ng?????i, trong khi con s??? c???a ?????c ch??? l?? 260.000. Ng?????i Anh c??ng th???t b???i trong vi???c t???o ra b???t k??? ?????t ph?? ????ng k??? n??o tr??n M???t tr???n ph??a T??y, v?? Tr???n Ypres Th??? Ba tr??? th??nh m???t trong nh???ng cu???c t???n c??ng t???n k??m v?? g??y tranh c??i nh???t c???a Th??? chi???n I.

06/06/1944: D-Day ??? Qu??n ?????ng minh ????? b??? v??o Normandie

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Ngu???n: ???D-Day,??? History.com (truy c???p ng??y 05/6/2015).

Bi??n d???ch & Hi???u ????nh: Nguy???n Huy Ho??ng

M???c d?? t??? ???D-Day??? th?????ng ???????c d??ng nh?? m???t bi???t ng??? qu??n s??? ????? ch??? ng??y m???t chi???n d???ch hay s??? ki???n di???n ra, ?????i v???i nhi???u ng?????i, n?? c??ng ?????ng ngh??a v???i ng??y m??ng 6 th??ng 6 n??m 1944, ng??y qu??n ?????i ?????ng Minh v?????t qua eo bi???n Manche v?? ????? b??? l??n b??i bi???n Normandie, Ph??p, b???t ?????u gi???i ph??ng T??y ??u kh???i s??? ki???m so??t c???a ?????c Qu???c x?? trong Th??? chi???n II. Trong v??ng ba th??ng, mi???n B???c c???a n?????c Ph??p ???? ???????c gi???i ph??ng v?? l???c l?????ng ?????ng Minh chu???n b??? ti???n v??o ?????c, n??i h??? nh???p c??ng ??o??n qu??n c???a Li??n X?? ?????n t??? ph??a ????ng.

V???i vi???c qu??n ?????i c???a Hitler ki???m so??t h???u nh?? to??n b??? ch??u ??u l???c ?????a, c??c n?????c ?????ng Minh hi???u r???ng vi???c ????? b??? th??nh c??ng l??n ch??u l???c n??y l?? tr???ng t??m ????? gi??nh chi???n th???ng. Hitler c??ng hi???u r?? ??i???u ????, v?? ???? d??? ki???n m???t cu???c t???n c??ng v??o ph??a T??y B???c ch??u ??u v??o m??a xu??n n??m 1944. Hitler hi v???ng ?????y l??i qu??n ?????ng Minh kh???i b??? bi???n v???i m???t cu???c ph???n c??ng m???nh m??? gi??p tr?? ho??n nh???ng n??? l???c t???n c??ng c???a qu??n ?????i ?????ng Minh trong t????ng lai, cho Hitler d??nh th???i gian t???p trung l???c l?????ng ????? ????nh b???i Li??n X?? ??? ph??a ????ng. Hitler tin r???ng m???t khi ??i???u ???? ???????c ho??n th??nh th?? chi???n th???ng cu???i c??ng s??? thu???c v??? tay m??nh.

V??o s??ng ng??y m??ng 5 th??ng 6 n??m 1944, ?????i t?????ng Hoa K??? Dwight D. Eisenhower, ch??? huy t???i cao c???a qu??n ?????i ?????ng Minh ??? ch??u ??u, th??ng qua Chi???n d???ch Overlord, chi???n d???ch ????? b??? qu??n s??? l???n nh???t trong l???ch s???. Theo l???nh c???a ??ng, 6.000 t??u ????? b???, t??u chi???n, v?? c??c lo???i t??u kh??c, ch??? theo 176.000 binh l??nh b???t ?????u r???i kh???i n?????c Anh ????? t???i Ph??p. ????m ????, 822 m??y bay ch??? l??nh d?? xu???t ph??t h?????ng t???i c??c khu th??? qu??n ??? Normandie. H??n 13.000 m??y bay kh??c c??ng ???????c huy ?????ng ????? b???o v??? tr??n kh??ng v?? h??? tr??? cho cu???c ????? b???.

?????n r???ng s??ng ng??y m??ng 6 th??ng 6, h??n 18.000 l??nh d?? ???? h??? c??nh xu???ng m???t ?????t; cu???c ????? b??? l??n ?????t li???n b???t ?????u v??o l??c 6 gi??? 30 s??ng. Anh v?? Canada ???? v?????t qua c??c l???c l?????ng ph??ng th??? m???ng manh ????? chi???m c??c b??i bi???n Gold, Juno, v?? Sword; M??? chi???m b??i bi???n Utah. Tuy nhi??n, nhi???m v??? kh?? kh??n h??n nhi???u ??? b??i bi???n Omaha, n??i 2.000 l??nh ?????ng Minh thi???t m???ng. ?????n cu???i ng??y, 155.000 l??nh ?????ng Minh ??? bao g???m M???, Anh, v?? Canada ??? ???? ????nh chi???m th??nh c??ng b??i bi???n Normandie.

V??? ph???n m??nh, qu??n ?????i ?????c ???? b??? r???i lo???n h??ng ng?? v?? thi???u v???ng s??? c?? m???t c???a ch??? huy n???i ti???ng l?? Nguy??n so??i Erwin Rommel, khi ???? ??ang ??i ngh??? ph??p. Ban ?????u, do tin r???ng cu???c ????? b??? l?? m???i nh??? ???????c thi???t k??? ????? ????nh l???c h?????ng ng?????i ?????c kh???i m???t cu???c t???n c??ng t??? ph??a B???c s??ng Seine n??n Hitler ???? t??? ch???i ??i???u ?????ng qu??n ?????i g???n ???? ????? tham gia ph???n c??ng, qu??n ti???p vi???n ???????c g???i t???i t??? nh???ng v??? tr?? xa h??n n??n ???? g??y ra s??? ch???m tr???. Hitler c??ng l?????ng l??? trong vi???c k??u g???i c??c s?? ??o??n thi???t gi??p tham gia ph??ng th???. Ngo??i ra, qu??n ?????i ?????c c??ng b??? l??p v??? tr?????c l???c l?????ng kh??ng qu??n h??? tr??? hi???u qu??? c???a qu??n ?????i ?????ng Minh, v???n ???? ki???m so??t c??c c??y c???u tr???ng y???u bu???c ng?????i ?????c ph???i ??i ???????ng v??ng, c??ng nh?? s??? h??? tr??? hi???u qu??? c???a h???i qu??n, gi??p b???o v??? qu??n ?????i ?????ng Minh ti???n c??ng trong cu???c ????? b???.

D?? kh??ng ho??n to??n di???n ra ????ng nh?? k??? ho???ch, nh?? Th???ng ch??? Anh Bernard Montgomery ???? tuy??n b??? sau n??y, D-Day v???n l?? m???t th??nh c??ng quy???t ?????nh ?????i v???i qu??n ?????i ?????ng Minh. ?????n cu???i th??ng 6 n??m 1944, qu??n ?????ng Minh ???? t???p h???p ???????c 850.000 binh l??nh v?? 150.000 xe qu??n s??? ??? Normandie v?? ???? s???n s??ng ti???p t???c h??nh qu??n tr??n kh???p ch??u ??u.

Ch??? ngh??a anh h??ng v?? l??ng d??ng c???m c???a qu??n ?????i c??c n?????c ?????ng Minh trong ng??y D-Day l?? ngu???n c???m h???ng cho r???t nhi???u b??? phim, trong ???? n???i ti???ng nh???t l?? The Longest Day(1962) v?? Saving Private Ryan (1998). N?? c??ng ???????c th??? hi???n trong mini-series Band of Brothers (2001) c???a k??nh truy???n h??nh HBO.



 

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